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{{Infobox settlement
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|name = Tulsa, Oklahoma
|settlement_type = City
|nickname = Oil Capital of the World, Tulsey Town, T-Town, The 918
|motto = "A New Kind Of Energy"
|website = []
|image_skyline = Tulsa Skyline.jpg
|imagesize = 260px
|image_caption = Downtown Tulsa's skyline in May 2008.
|image_flag = Flag of Tulsa, Oklahoma.svg
|image_seal = TulsaOklahomaSeal.svg
|image_map = OKMap-doton-Tulsa.PNG
|mapsize = 250px
|map_caption = Location in the [[U.S. state]] of [[Oklahoma]]
|image_map1 =
|mapsize1 =
|map_caption1 =
|coordinates_region = US-OK
|subdivision_type = [[List of sovereign states|Country]]
|subdivision_type1 = [[U.S. state|State]]
|subdivision_type2 = [[List of counties in Oklahoma|Counties]]
|subdivision_name = {{nowrap|{{flag|United States of America}}}}
|subdivision_name1 = {{nowrap|{{flag|Oklahoma}}}}
|subdivision_name2 = [[Osage County, Oklahoma|Osage]], [[Rogers County, Oklahoma|Rogers]], [[Tulsa County, Oklahoma|Tulsa]], [[Wagoner County, Oklahoma|Wagoner]]
|government_type = [[mayor-council government|Mayor-Council]]
|leader_title = Mayor
|leader_name = [[Dewey F. Bartlett, Jr.]] ([[United States Republican Party|R]])
|established_title =
|established_date = 1830
|area_magnitude = 1 E8
|area_total_km2 = 483.8
|area_total_sq_mi = 196.8
|area_land_km2 = 483.1
|area_land_sq_mi = 192.7
|area_water_km2 = 10.9
|area_water_sq_mi = 4.2
|area_water_percent =
|area_urban_km2 =
|area_urban_sq_mi =
|area_metro_km2 =
|area_metro_sq_mi =
|population_as_of = 2011
|population_total = 396,466 ([[List of United States cities by population|45th]])
|population_metro = 946,962 (US: [[List of United States metropolitan statistical areas|54th]])
|population_csa = 998,438 (US: [[List of United States combined statistical areas|45th]])
|population_density_sq_mi = 1,991.9
|population_density_km2 = 823.6
|population_blank1_title = [[Demonym]]
|population_blank1 = Tulsan
|timezone = [[North American Central Time Zone|CST]]
|utc_offset = −6
|timezone_DST = [[North American Central Time Zone|CDT]]
|utc_offset_DST = −5
|postal_code_type =
|postal_code =
|area_code = [[area codes 539 and 918|539/918]]
|latd = 36 |latm = 07 |lats = 53 |latNS = N
|longd = 95 |longm = 56 |longs = 14 |longEW = W|coordinates_display=8
|elevation_m = 194
|elevation_ft = 722
|blank_name = [[Federal Information Processing Standard|FIPS code]]
|blank_info = 40-75000
|blank1_name = [[Geographic Names Information System|GNIS]] feature ID
|blank1_info = 1100962{{GR|3|dateform=mdy}}
|footnotes =
'''Tulsa''' ({{IPAc-en|icon|ˈ|t|ʌ|l|s|ə}}) is the second-largest city in the [[U.S. state]] of [[Oklahoma]] and [[List of United States cities by population|45th-largest]] city in the United States. With a population of 391,906 as of the 2010 census,<ref name=Subcounty>{{cite web | url = | title = Subcounty population estimates: Oklahoma 2000–2006| format = [[comma-separated values|CSV]] | publisher = [[United States Census Bureau]], Population Division | date = 2007-06-28 | accessdate = 2008-05-06}} {{Dead link|date=March 2012|bot=H3llBot}}</ref> it is the principal municipality of the [[Tulsa Metropolitan Area]], a region with 946,962 (2011) residents in the [[United States metropolitan area|MSA]] and 998,438 (2011) in the [[Combined statistical area|CSA]].<ref name="metropop08">{{cite news | date=2008-03-27 | | title= Stillwater's growth tops in Oklahoma| first = Rhett | last = Morgan| publisher= Tulsa World | accessdate=2008-03-29}}</ref> Tulsa's CSA is projected to reach one million in late 2012.<ref name="Metro growth nearing 7 digits">{{cite news | date=2007-04-05 | url= | title= Metro Area growth nearing 7 digits| first = Leigh | last = Bell| publisher= Tulsa World | accessdate=2007-04-13}}</ref> The city serves as the [[county seat]] of [[Tulsa County, Oklahoma|Tulsa County]], the most densely populated county in Oklahoma,<ref>{{cite web | url=|title= Tulsa County | publisher= Oklahoma Historical Society | accessdate=2010-07-31}}</ref> and extends into [[Osage County, Oklahoma|Osage]], [[Rogers County, Oklahoma|Rogers]], and [[Wagoner County, Oklahoma|Wagoner]] counties.<ref name=Subcounty />
Tulsa was first settled between 1828 and 1836 by the Lochapoka Band of [[Creek people|Creek]] Native American tribe. In 1921, it was the site of the infamous [[Tulsa Race Riot]], one of the largest and most destructive acts of racial violence in the history of the United States.<ref name="Tulsa Race Riot">{{cite web | url=| title=The Tulsa Race Riot| first=Scott | last=Ellsworth| publisher=Tulsa Reparations | accessdate=2007-04-20}}</ref> For most of the 20th century, the city held the nickname "[[Oil Capital of the World]]" and played a major role as one of the most important hubs for the American [[oil industry]].<ref name="Tulsa History">{{cite news | first = Susan | last = Everly-Douze | date =August 27, 1989 | url= | title= What's Doing in Tulsa?|work=New York Times | accessdate=2007-04-14}}</ref> Tulsa, along with several other cities, claims to be the birthplace of [[U.S. Route 66]] and is also known for its [[Western Swing]] music.<ref name="Cain's Ballroom">{{cite news | date=2007-03-25 | url=| title=Cain's Ballroom – A Music Icon: Venue is a landmark for Western swing, punk fans | first=Matt | last=Elliott | publisher=[[Tulsa World]] | accessdate=2007-04-20}}</ref>
Once heavily dependent on the [[Petroleum industry|oil industry]], economic downturn and subsequent diversification efforts created an economic base in the energy, finance, aviation, telecommunications and technology sectors.<ref name="Work in Tulsa">{{cite web | url= | title= Business Opportunities| publisher= Tulsa Metro Chamber of Commerce | accessdate=2006-04-14|archiveurl=|archivedate=2006-09-01}}</ref> The [[Tulsa Port of Catoosa]], at the head of the [[McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System]], is the most inland river port in the U.S. with access to international waterways.<ref name="Tulsa Port of Catoosa 2">{{cite news | date=2006-05-03 | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate= 2007-09-28| title= Inland ocean port marks '35s'| publisher= CHNI News Service| accessdate=2007-07-25}}</ref><ref name="Tulsa Port of Catoosa">{{cite web | url= | title= Port of Catoosa Profile| publisher= [[Tulsa Port of Catoosa]]| accessdate=2006-04-22}}</ref> Two institutions of higher education within the city have sports teams at the [[NCAA]] [[Division I (NCAA)|Division&nbsp;I]] level, [[Oral Roberts University]] and the [[University of Tulsa]].
'''Take me to the [,_Oklahoma {{pagename}}] article on Wikipedia'''.
Located in [[Tornado Alley]], the city frequently experiences [[severe weather]]. It is situated on the [[Arkansas River]] at the foothills of the [[Ozark Mountains]] in northeast Oklahoma, a region of the state known as "[[Green Country]]". Considered the cultural and arts center of Oklahoma,<ref>{{cite news | first=Tarun | last=Kapoor | title=Business Viewpoint: Private sector plays big downtown role | date=2007-04-19 | publisher=[[Tulsa World]] | url= | accessdate = 2007-05-05}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | year=2006 | url= | title=Tulsa, Oklahoma: Recreation | publisher=City Data | accessdate=2007-05-06}}</ref> Tulsa houses two world-renowned art museums, full-time professional opera and ballet companies, and one of the nation's largest concentrations of [[art deco]] architecture.<ref name="Quality of Life">{{cite web | year=2006 | url= | title= Quality of Life – Fun and Play | publisher=Oklahoma Department of Commerce | accessdate=2006-07-15}}</ref> The city has been called one of America's most livable large cities by Partners for Livable Communities,<ref name="Most Livable">{{cite web | year= 2006 | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate= 2006-07-03 | title= Tulsa, Oklahoma | work=Most Livable| publisher=About Partners | accessdate=2006-07-15}}</ref> [[Forbes]],<ref name="Forbes: Most Livable Cities">{{cite news | url= | title= Most Livable Cities: Tulsa, Oklahoma | work=Forbes: Most Livable Cities|work=Forbes | accessdate=2009-04-01 | date=2009-04-01}}</ref> and Relocate America.<ref name="Relocate America's: Most Livable Cities">{{cite web | year= 2009 | url= | title=Relocate America's: Tulsa, Oklahoma | work=Relocate America's: Most Livable Cities| publisher=Relocate America's | accessdate=2009-04-01}}</ref> [[FDi magazine|FDi Magazine]] in 2009 ranked the city no. 8 in the U.S. for cities of the future.<ref></ref> In 2012, Tulsa was ranked in [[BusinessWeek|BusinessWeek's]] top 50 best cities in America.<ref></ref> People from Tulsa are called "Tulsans."
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{{Main|History of Tulsa, Oklahoma}}
[[File:Meadowgold.jpg|thumb|left|upright|The Meadow Gold sign has greeted Route 66 travelers in Tulsa for decades.]] What was ultimately to become Tulsa was originally part of [[Indian Territory]] and was first settled by the Lochapoka and Creek tribes in 1836.<ref name="Tulsa Area History">{{cite web | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate= 2007-01-08| title= Tulsa Area History |publisher= Tulsa County Library| accessdate=2007-04-25}}</ref> They established a home under a large oak tree at the present day intersection of Cheyenne Avenue and 18th Street, and named their new settlement "Tallasi", meaning "old town" in the Creek language, which later became "Tulsa".<ref name="Tulsa Area History"/> On January 18, 1898, Tulsa was officially incorporated and elected its first mayor, Edward Calkins.<ref name="Tulsa County History">{{cite web | first=Jeff | last=Smith | date= 2005-09-15 | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate= 2007-10-19| title= Tulsa County History |publisher= Roots Web| accessdate=2007-04-27}}</ref>
When Tulsa was a small town near the banks of the Arkansas River in 1901, Tulsa's first oil well, named Sue Bland No. 1,<ref name="Tulsa County History"/> was established that year. By 1905, the discovery of the large Glenn Pool (located approximately 15 miles south of downtown Tulsa and site of the present day town of [[Glenpool, Oklahoma|Glenpool]]) prompted a rush of entrepreneurs to the area's growing number of oil fields; Tulsa's population swelled to over 140,000 between 1901 and 1930.<ref name="Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990">{{cite web | month=June | year=1998 | url= | title= Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990| first=Campbell | last=Gibson| accessdate=2007-04-29}}</ref> By 1909, seven years after the discovery of oil in the area, Tulsa's population had sprouted to 18,000. Known as the "Oil Capital of the World" for most of the 20th century, the city's success in the energy industry prompted construction booms in the popular [[Art Deco]] style of the time.<ref name="Tulsa History" /> Profits from the oil industry continued through the [[Great Depression]], helping the city's economy fare better than most in the United States during the 1930s.<ref name="Art Deco in Tulsa">{{cite web | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate=2006-12-02| title= What's Doing in Tulsa?| first=Rex | last=Ball | coauthors=Jennifer Young| publisher= Tulsa City-County Library | accessdate=2007-04-25}}</ref>
[[File:Cains Ballroom Tulsa.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Cain's Ballroom came to be known as the "Carnegie Hall of Western Swing"<ref name="Cain's Ballroom" /> in the early 20th century.]]
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In the early 20th century, Tulsa was home to the "[[Greenwood, Tulsa, Oklahoma#"The Black Wall Street"|Black Wall Street]]", one of the most prosperous African American communities in the United States at the time.<ref name="Tulsa Race Riot" /> Located in the [[Greenwood, Tulsa, Oklahoma|Greenwood]] neighborhood, it was the site of the [[Tulsa Race Riot]], one of the nation's worst acts of racial violence and civil disorder.<ref name="Tulsa Race Riot" /> Sixteen hours of rioting on May 31 and June 1, 1921, was only ended when National Guardsmen were brought in by the Governor. An official report later claimed that 23 black and 16 white citizens were killed, but other estimates suggest as many as 300, mostly black people, died.<ref name="Tulsa Race Riot" /> Over 800 people were admitted to local hospitals with injuries, and an estimated 10,000 people were left homeless as 35 city blocks composed of 1,256 residences were destroyed by fire. Property damage was estimated at {{Nowrap|$1.8 million}}.<ref name="Tulsa Race Riot" /> Efforts to obtain reparations for survivors of the violence have been unsuccessful.<ref>{{cite news |url= |title=As Survivors Dwindle, Tulsa Confronts Past |last=Sulzberger |first=A.G. |work=The New York Times |date=June 20, 2011 |accessdate=June 20, 2011}}</ref>
* #1 Create a article of our own for this page.
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In 1925, Tulsa businessman [[Cyrus Avery]], known as the "Father of Route 66,"<ref>{{cite web | url= | title=The Father of Route 66 | publisher=[[University of Virginia]] | accessdate=2007-04-20}}</ref> began his campaign to create a road linking Chicago to California by establishing the [[U.S. Highway 66 Association]] in Tulsa, earning the city the nickname the "Birthplace of Route 66".<ref>{{Cite web| title = Birthplace of Route 66: Tulsa, OK| url =| date = Jun 22, 2009| accessdate = Jul 28, 2010 }}</ref> Once completed, U.S. Route 66 took an important role in Tulsa's development as the city served as a popular rest stop for travelers, who were greeted by Route 66 icons such as the Meadow Gold Sign and the [[Blue Whale of Catoosa]]. During this period, [[Bob Wills]] and his group [[The Texas Playboys]] began their long performing stint at a small ballroom in downtown Tulsa. In 1935, [[Cain's Ballroom]] became the base for the group,<ref name="Cain's Ballroom" /> which is largely credited for creating Western Swing music. The venue continued to attract famous musicians through its history, and is still in operation today.<ref name="Cain's Ballroom" /> For the remainder of the mid-20th century, a master plan called for the construction of parks, churches, museums, rose gardens, improved infrastructure, and increased national advertising.<ref name="Tulsa History" /> The [[Spavinaw Dam]], built during this era to accommodate the city's water needs, was considered one of the largest public works projects of the era.<ref>{{cite web | url=| title=Tulsa's History | publisher= Tulsa Web | accessdate=2007-05-07}}</ref> In the 1950s, Time magazine dubbed Tulsa "America's Most Beautiful City."<ref name="Tulsa History" />
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* #1 Creating our own page for this article may add a superfluous amount of pages.
A national recession greatly affected the city's economy in 1982, as areas of Texas and Oklahoma heavily dependent on oil witnessed [[1980s oil glut|a freefall in gas prices]] and a mass exodus of oil industries.<ref name="Oil Bust">{{cite web | date=2006-01-23 | url=| title= Oil and Gas Briefing| format=PDF | publisher= Oklahoma Department of Commerce | accessdate=2007-04-27}}</ref> Tulsa, heavily dependent on the oil industry, was one of the hardest hit cities by the fall of oil prices.<ref name="Oil Bust" /> By 1992, the state's economy had fully recovered,<ref name="Oil Bust" /> but leaders would attempt to expand into sectors unrelated to oil and energy.
* #2 Some of these article links may be on hundreds of pages that would need direct links.
In 2003, the "[[Vision 2025]]" program was approved by voters with the purpose of enhancing and revitalizing Tulsa's infrastructure and tourism industry. The keystone project of the initiative, the [[BOK Center]], was designed to be a home for the city's minor league hockey and arena football teams, as well as a venue for major concerts and conventions. The multi-purpose arena, designed by famed architect [[Cesar Pelli]], broke ground in 2005<ref>{{cite web | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate= 2007-05-09| title= BOK Center| publisher= Tulsa Convention and Visitors Bureau | accessdate=2007-04-20}}</ref> and was opened on August 30, 2008.<ref>[ "Opening of BOK Center draws thousands downtown,"] ''[[Tulsa World]]'', August 30, 2008.</ref>
{{Wide image|Tulsa Panorama 1909 edit1.jpg|1000px|A 1909 panoramic view of Tulsa}}
[[File:Tulsa skyline.JPG|thumb|left|250px|The Tulsa skyline as viewed from [[Turkey Mountain (Oklahoma)|Turkey Mountain]]]]
Tulsa is located in the northeastern corner of Oklahoma, {{convert|99|mi|km}} northeast of [[Oklahoma City]]; situated between the edge of the [[Great Plains]] and the foot of [[the Ozarks]] in a generally forested region of rolling hills. The city touches the eastern extent of the [[Cross Timbers]], an [[ecoregion]] of forest and [[prairie]] transitioning from the drier plains of the west to the wetter forests of the east.<ref>{{cite web | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate=2006-09-08 | publisher=[[University of Arkansas]]| title=The Ancient Cross Timbers| accessdate=2007-05-03}}</ref> With a wetter climate than points westward, Tulsa serves as a gateway to "Green Country", a popular and official designation for northeast Oklahoma that stems from the region's green vegetation and relatively large number of hills and lakes compared to central and western areas of Oklahoma,<ref>{{cite news | first=Leah | last=Clapman | title=Key Races: Oklahoma Senate | date=2004-09-24 | publisher=PBS | url = | accessdate = 2007-04-30 }}</ref> which lie largely in the drier Great Plains region of the Central United States. Located near the western edge of the [[U.S. Interior Highlands]], northeastern Oklahoma is the most topographically diverse part of the state, containing seven of Oklahoma's 11 eco-regions<ref>{{cite web | url= | publisher=Oklahoma Department of Tourism | title=Oklahoma, The All-Terrain Vacation | accessdate=2007-04-20 }}</ref> and more than half of its state parks.<ref>{{cite web | url= | publisher=Oklahoma Department of Tourism | title=Northeast Oklahoma's Green Country | accessdate=2007-04-30}}</ref> The region encompasses 30 lakes or reservoirs<ref>{{cite web | url=| publisher=Green Country Marketing Association | title=Northeast Oklahoma Lakes | accessdate=2007-04-30 }}</ref> and borders the neighboring states of [[Kansas]], [[Missouri]], and [[Arkansas]]. The [[geographic coordinate system|geographic coordinates]] of the city of Tulsa are {{Coord|36|7|53|N|95|56|14|W|type:city}} (36.131294, −95.937332),{{GR|1|dateform=mdy}} with an elevation of {{convert|700|ft}} above sea level.
[[File:Tulsa satellite poster edit1.jpg|thumb|right|upright|As seen from space, most of Tulsa lies east of the Arkansas River.]]
The city is split by the prominent Arkansas River, which flows in a wide, sandy-bottomed channel. Its flow through the Tulsa area is controlled by upstream [[Keystone Lake|flood control reservoirs]], but its width and depth can vary widely throughout the year, such as during periods of high rainfall or severe drought. However, a low-water dam maintains a full channel at all times in the area adjacent to downtown Tulsa. This portion of the river is known as Zink Lake.<ref>{{cite news | first=Gretchen | last=Collins | title=River Parks Proves Practical Need for Visionary Ideas | publisher=Urban Tulsa Weekly | url = | accessdate = 2007-04-30 |archiveurl = |archivedate = September 28, 2007|deadurl=yes}}</ref> Heavily wooded and with abundant parks and water areas, the city holds several prominent hills with names such as "Shadow Mountain" and "Turkey Mountain", which create varied terrain, especially in its southern portions. While its central and northern sections are generally flat to gently undulating, the Osage Hills extension into the northwestern part of the city further varies the landscape. Holmes Peak, north of the city, is the tallest point in the [[Tulsa metro area|Tulsa Metro area]] at 1360&nbsp;ft (415&nbsp;m)<ref></ref> According to the [[United States Census Bureau]], the city has a total area of {{convert|186.8|sqmi|km2}}, of which {{convert|182.6|sqmi}} of it is land and {{convert|4.2|sqmi}} of it (2.24%) is water.
Tulsa is situated near the heart of Tornado Alley and has a [[temperate]] climate of the [[Humid subtropical climate|subtropical]] variety with a yearly average temperature of {{convert|60.8|F}} and an average precipitation of {{convert|42.4|in|mm|sigfig=3}}<ref name="Weatherbase" /> As is typical of temperate zones, weather patterns vary by season with occasional extremes in temperature and rainfall.<ref name="The Climate of Tulsa County"/> The highest temperature recorded in Tulsa was {{convert|115|F}} on August 10, 1936.<ref>Tulsa World. "Tulsa's temperatures, water usage continue to soar".</ref>
[[File:Lightning over Tulsa cropped.jpg|thumb|left|Lightning over downtown Tulsa is common in the spring months.]]
Primarily in the spring and early summer months, the city is subjected to severe [[thunderstorms]] containing large [[hail]], damaging winds, and, occasionally, [[tornadoes]],<ref name="The Climate of Tulsa County">{{cite web
| url=
| format = PDF
| title= Climate of Tulsa County
| publisher= Oklahoma Climatological Survey
| page= 1
| accessdate=2006-04-26}}</ref> providing the area with a disproportionate share of its annual rainfall.<ref name="Weatherbase">{{cite web
| url=
|title=Historical Weather for Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States of America
| publisher=Weatherbase
| year=2007
| accessdate=2007-04-26 }}</ref> Severe weather is not limited to this season, however. For instance, on December 5, 1975, and on December 24, 1982, Tulsa experienced tornadoes.<ref name="The Climate of Tulsa County"/> Due to its potential for major flooding events, the city has developed one of the most extensive flood control systems in the nation.<ref name="Flooding History" /> A comprehensive flood management plan was developed in 1984 following a severe flood caused by a stalled [[Surface weather analysis|weather front]] that dropped {{convert|15|in|mm}} of rain overnight, killing 14, injuring 288, and destroying 7,000 buildings totaling {{Nowrap|$180 million}} in damage.<ref name="Flooding History">{{cite web
| url=
| title=Flooding History
| publisher= City of Tulsa
| year=2005
| accessdate=2007-05-08 }}</ref> In the early 1990s<ref name="Flooding History" /> and again in 2000,<ref>{{cite news
| title=FEMA Honors Tulsa, Oklahoma As Nation's Leading Floodplain Management Community
| date=2000-09-13
| publisher=[[Federal Emergency Management Agency]]
| url=
| accessdate = 2007-04-28 }}</ref> the [[Federal Emergency Management Agency]] honored Tulsa as leading the nation in flood plain management.
Triple digit temperatures (>=38 °C) are observed on average 11 days per annum, sometimes exceeding {{convert|105|F|0}} from July to early September,<ref name="Autumn Climatology for Eastern Oklahoma and Northwest Arkansas">
{{cite web
| url=
| title= Autumn Climatology for Eastern Oklahoma and Northwest Arkansas
| publisher= National Weather Service
| accessdate=2006-04-30
}}</ref> usually accompanied by high humidity brought in by southerly winds.<ref name="The Climate of Tulsa County"/> Lack of air circulation due to heat and humidity during the summer months leads to higher concentrations of [[ozone]], prompting the city to release "Ozone Alerts", encouraging all parties to do their part in complying with the [[Clean Air Act (United States)|Clean Air Act]] and [[United States Environmental Protection Agency]] standards.<ref>{{cite web
| url=
| archiveurl=
| archivedate=2006-05-28
| title=Ozone Alert! Program Data and Monitoring
| publisher=Tulsa Ozone Alert
| accessdate=2006-04-30}}</ref> The autumn season is usually short, consisting of pleasant, sunny days followed by cool nights.<ref name="Autumn Climatology for Eastern Oklahoma and Northwest Arkansas"/> Winter temperatures, while generally mild, occasionally experience extremes below {{convert|0|F|0}} while annual snowfall averages about {{convert|9.1|in|cm|0}}.
<div class="center">{{Weather box
|collapsed = Y
|location = Tulsa, Oklahoma ([[Tulsa International Airport|Tulsa Int'l]]), 1981–2010 normals
|single line = Y
|Jan record high F = 82
|Feb record high F = 90
|Mar record high F = 99
|Apr record high F = 102
|May record high F = 100
|Jun record high F = 108
|Jul record high F = 113
|Aug record high F = 115
|Sep record high F = 109
|Oct record high F = 98
|Nov record high F = 89
|Dec record high F = 80
|year record high F = 115
|Jan high F = 48.0
|Feb high F = 53.2
|Mar high F = 62.4
|Apr high F = 71.8
|May high F = 79.4
|Jun high F = 87.5
|Jul high F = 93.1
|Aug high F = 93.1
|Sep high F = 83.9
|Oct high F = 73.0
|Nov high F = 60.9
|Dec high F = 49.3
|Jan low F = 28.0
|Feb low F = 31.8
|Mar low F = 40.6
|Apr low F = 49.7
|May low F = 59.6
|Jun low F = 68.2
|Jul low F = 73.1
|Aug low F = 71.8
|Sep low F = 62.6
|Oct low F = 51.0
|Nov low F = 40.1
|Dec low F = 30.1
|Jan record low F = −16
|Feb record low F = −15
|Mar record low F = −3
|Apr record low F = 22
|May record low F = 32
|Jun record low F = 49
|Jul record low F = 51
|Aug record low F = 48
|Sep record low F = 35
|Oct record low F = 15
|Nov record low F = 10
|Dec record low F = −8
|year record low F = −16
|precipitation colour = green
|Jan precipitation inch = 1.64
|Feb precipitation inch = 1.85
|Mar precipitation inch = 3.29
|Apr precipitation inch = 3.79
|May precipitation inch = 5.86
|Jun precipitation inch = 4.72
|Jul precipitation inch = 3.36
|Aug precipitation inch = 2.90
|Sep precipitation inch = 4.26
|Oct precipitation inch = 3.93
|Nov precipitation inch = 2.81
|Dec precipitation inch = 2.49
|year precipitation inch = 40.88
|Jan snow inch = 2.8
|Feb snow inch = 2.5
|Mar snow inch = 2.1
|Apr snow inch = 0
|May snow inch = 0
|Jun snow inch = 0
|Jul snow inch = 0
|Aug snow inch = 0
|Sep snow inch = 0
|Oct snow inch = 0
|Nov snow inch = 0.7
|Dec snow inch = 2.2
|year snow inch = 10.4
|unit precipitation days = 0.01 in
|unit snow days = 0.1 in
|Jan precipitation days = 6.0
|Feb precipitation days = 6.6
|Mar precipitation days = 8.7
|Apr precipitation days = 8.5
|May precipitation days = 10.5
|Jun precipitation days = 9.8
|Jul precipitation days = 6.4
|Aug precipitation days = 6.6
|Sep precipitation days = 8.0
|Oct precipitation days = 7.9
|Nov precipitation days = 6.8
|Dec precipitation days = 7.0
|Jan snow days = 2.0
|Feb snow days = 1.4
|Mar snow days = 0.6
|Apr snow days = 0
|May snow days = 0
|Jun snow days = 0
|Jul snow days = 0
|Aug snow days = 0
|Sep snow days = 0
|Oct snow days = 0
|Nov snow days = 0.3
|Dec snow days = 1.6
|Jan sun = 176.7
|Feb sun = 172.3
|Mar sun = 220.1
|Apr sun = 243.0
|May sun = 266.6
|Jun sun = 294.0
|Jul sun = 334.8
|Aug sun = 303.8
|Sep sun = 234.0
|Oct sun = 220.1
|Nov sun = 162.0
|Dec sun = 161.2
|source 1 = NOAA<ref name = NOAA >
{{cite web
|url =
|title = NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data
|publisher = [[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]]
|accessdate = 2012-02-01
}}</ref> HKO (sun, 1961–1990),<ref name = HKO >
{{cite web
|url =
|title = Climatological Information for Tulsa, United States
|publisher = [[Hong Kong Observatory]]
|accessdate = 2011-09-19
|date=September 2011
}}</ref> The Weather Channel<ref name= >
{{cite web
| url =
| title = Average Weather for Tulsa, OK – Temperature and Precipitation
| date = August 2010 }}</ref>
|date=February 2012}}</div>
{{wide image|Tulsa11thtodowntownmorepanoramic.jpg|1000px|alt=Alt text|Panoramic view of Tulsa from above the University of Tulsa in 2008|<div class="center">Downtown Tulsa</div>}}
{{See also|Evolution of Tulsa's Skyline|List of tallest buildings in Tulsa|List of Art Deco buildings in Tulsa, Oklahoma}}
[[File:Philtower in Tulsa.jpg|thumb|upright|right|The [[Philtower]], built in the late Gothic Revival style, is surrounded by contemporary office buildings.]]
A building boom in the early 20th century gave Tulsa one of the largest concentrations of art deco architecture in the United States.<ref>{{cite web | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate=2007-05-02| title= Tulsa Historical Background | publisher=Downtown Tulsa Unlimited | accessdate=2007-04-14}}</ref> Most commonly in the zigzag and [[Streamline Moderne|streamline]] styles,<ref name="Art Deco in Tulsa"/> the city's art deco is dotted throughout its older neighborhoods, primarily in downtown and midtown. A collection of large art deco structures such as the [[Mid-Continent Tower]], the [[Boston Avenue Methodist Church]], and the [[Philtower]], have attracted events promoting preservation and architectural interest. In 2001, Tulsa served as the host city for the International Art Deco Congress, a semiannual event designed to promote art deco architecture internationally.<ref name="Art Deco Congress">{{cite web | url=| title= International Art Deco Congress || accessdate=2010-08-07}}</ref> Building booms in the 1970s and '80s gave the city a larger base of contemporary architectural styles. The [[BOK Tower]], built during this period, is the 2nd tallest building in Oklahoma and the surrounding states of Missouri, [[New Mexico]], [[Arkansas]], and Kansas.<ref name="Tallest Buildings by U.S. State">{{cite web | date=2006-10-06 | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate=2007-01-11| title= Tallest Buildings by U.S. State | first=Richie | last=Gill | publisher=All About Skyscrapers| accessdate=2007-04-14}}</ref> Tulsa also has the second-, third-, and fourth-tallest buildings in the state, including the [[Cityplex Towers|Cityplex Tower]], which is located in South Tulsa across from Oral Roberts University, far from downtown.<ref name="About Oklahoma">{{cite web | year=2007 | url=| title= About Oklahoma | publisher=Oklahoma Department of Tourism and Recreation| accessdate=2007-04-29}}</ref> One of the area's unique architectural complexes, Oral Roberts University, is built in a [[Futurist architecture|Post-Modern Futuristic]] style, incorporating bright gold structures with sharp, jetting edges and clear geometric shapes. The BOK Center, Tulsa's new arena, incorporates many of the city's most prominent themes, including Native American, art deco, and contemporary architectural styles.<ref>{{cite news | date=2004-09-28 | url=| title= Leaders praise arena design| first = Brian | last = Barber| publisher= Tulsa World | accessdate=2007-05-07}}</ref> Intended to be an architectural icon,<ref name="The BOK Center">{{cite web | year=2006 | url=| title= Arena Schematic Design Presented| publisher=Vision 2025 | accessdate=2007-05-07|archiveurl = |archivedate = September 28, 2007|deadurl=yes}}</ref> the building was designed by [[César Pelli]], the architect of the [[Petronas Towers]] in Malaysia.
{{Main|Neighborhoods of Tulsa, Oklahoma}}
[[Downtown Tulsa]] is an area of approximately {{convert|1.4|sqmi|km2}} surrounded by an inner-dispersal loop created by Interstate 244, Highway 64, and Highway 75.<ref>{{cite web | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate=2007-05-02| title= Quick Facts | publisher=Downtown Tulsa Unlimited | accessdate=2007-04-14}}</ref> The area serves as Tulsa's financial and business district, and is the focus of a large initiative to draw tourism, which includes plans to capitalize on the area's historic architecture.<ref name="Land Legacy">{{cite web | date=2005-12-25 | url=| title= Walk to tie city's projects together | publisher=Land Legacy | accessdate=2007-04-14}}</ref> Much of Tulsa's convention space is located in downtown, such as the [[Tulsa Performing Arts Center]], the [[Tulsa Convention Center]], and the [[BOK Center]]. Prominent downtown sub-districts include the Blue Dome District, the Brady Arts district, and the Greenwood Historical District, [[Owen Park]] Historical Neighborhood, the site of [[ONEOK Field]], a baseball stadium for the [[Tulsa Drillers]] opened in 2010.<ref>{{cite news | url=| first=PJ |last=Lassek |title= Tulsa Drillers stadium coming downtown to Greenwood District | publisher=Tulsa World| date=2008-06-25|accessdate=2008-09-19}}</ref><ref>{{cite news | url= |first=PJ |last=Lassek |title= City breaks ground on downtown ballpark | publisher=Tulsa World| date=2008-12-19|accessdate=2008-12-19}}</ref><ref>{{cite news | url=| first=PJ |last=Lassek |title=Baseball park named Oneok Field | publisher=Tulsa World| date=2009-01-13|accessdate=2009-01-13}}</ref>
[[File:Tulsa, Oklahoma.jpg|thumb|right|The [[Arkansas River]] marks the division between West Tulsa and other regions of the city.]]
The city's historical residential core lies in an area known as Midtown, containing upscale neighborhoods built in the early 20th century with architecture ranging from art deco to [[Greek Revival]]. The University of Tulsa, the [[Swan Lake (Tulsa)|Swan Lake]] neighborhood, [[Philbrook Museum]], and the upscale shopping districts of [[Utica Square]], Cherry Street, and Brookside are located in this region. A large portion of the city's southern half has developed since the 1970s, containing low density housing and retail developments. This region, marked by secluded homes and suburban neighborhoods, contains one of the state's largest shopping malls, [[Woodland Hills Mall]], as well as [[Southern Hills Country Club]], and Oral Roberts University.
East of Highway 169 and north of 61st street, a diverse racial makeup marks the eastern portions of the city, with large [[Asian people|Asian]] and [[Mexican people|Mexican]] communities and much of the city's manufacturing industry.
Areas of Tulsa west of the Arkansas River are called [[West Tulsa]], and are marked by large parks, wilderness reserves, and large oil refineries. The northern tier of the city is home to [[OSU-Tulsa]], [[Gilcrease Museum]], [[Tulsa International Airport]], the [[Tulsa Zoo]], the [[Tulsa Air and Space Museum]], and the nation's third-largest municipal park, Mohawk Park.<ref name="Mowhawk Park - 3rd Largest">{{cite web | url=| title=Zoo History | publisher=[[Tulsa Zoo and Living Museum]] | accessdate=2006-04-15}}</ref>
A 2011 study by [[Walk Score]] ranked Tulsa 32nd most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.<ref>{{cite web |url=|title=2011 City and Neighborhood Rankings |publisher=Walk Score |year=2011 |accessdate=Aug 28, 2011}}</ref>
(Downtown Tulsa)
|1900= 1390
|1910= 18182
|1920= 72075
|1930= 141258
|1940= 142157
|1950= 182740
|1960= 261685
|1970= 331638
|1980= 360919
|1990= 367302
|2000= 393049
|2010= 391906
|estimate= 396466
|estyear= 2011
|footnote=<center>[ U.S. Decennial Census]<br>[ 2011 estimate]</center>
According to the [[2010 census]], Tulsa a population of 391,906 and the racial and ethnic composition was as follows:<ref></ref><ref></ref>
* [[White American]]: 62.6% (57.9% [[Non-Hispanic Whites]], down from 85.7% in 1970<ref></ref>)
* African American: 15.6%
* Native American: 5.3%
* Asian American: 2.3% (0.5% [[Indian American|Indian]], 0.4% [[Vietnamese American|Vietnamese]], 0.3% [[Chinese American|Chinese]], 0.2% [[Hmong American|Hmong]], 0.2% [[Korean American|Korean]], 0.2% [[Burmese American|Burmese]])
* [[Pacific Islander American|Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander]]: 0.1%
* Some other race: 8.0%
* [[Multiracial American|Two or more races]]: 5.9%
* [[Hispanic and Latino Americans|Hispanic or Latino]] (of any race): 14.1% (11.5% [[Mexican American|Mexican]], 0.4% [[Puerto Ricans in the United States|Puerto Rican]], 0.3% [[Guatemalan American|Guatemalan]], 0.2% [[Spanish American|Spanish]], 0.2% [[Honduran American|Honduran]], 0.2% [[Salvadoran American|Salvadoran]])<ref></ref>
As of the [[2010 United States Census|2010 census]], there were 391,906 people, 163,975 households, and 95,246 families residing in the city, with a population density of {{convert| 1991.9|PD/sqmi}}. There were 185,127 housing units at an average density of 982.3 per square&nbsp;mile (379.2/km<sup>2</sup>). Of 163,975 households, 27% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.2% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.9% were non-families. Of all households, 34.5% are made up of only one person, and 10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 people and the average family size was 3.04.<ref></ref>
In the city proper, the age distribution was 24.8% of the population under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, and 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older, while the median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 93.5 males, while for every 100 females over the age of 17 there were 90.4 males. In 2011, the median income for a household in the city was $40,268 and the median income for a family was $51,977. The per capita income for the city was $26,727. About 19.4% of the population were below the poverty line.<ref></ref> Of the city's population over the age of 25, 29.8% holds a bachelor's degree or higher, and 86.5% have a high school diploma or [[General Educational Development|equivalent]].<ref></ref><ref></ref>
[[File:Prayer Tower on the campus of Oral Roberts University.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Tulsa is sometimes considered the "[[Bible Belt#Buckle|buckle of the Bible Belt]]";<ref name="bucklebible">{{cite news | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate= 2007-02-19 | title=Jewish Life in the Bible Belt| first=Thursday | last=Bram | publisher=New Voices Magazine| accessdate=2007-05-07}}</ref> it is the home of [[Oral Roberts University]] and the university's [[Prayer Tower]].]]
===Metropolitan area===
[[File:Tulsametroarea2.PNG|thumb|right|The Tulsa MSA's location (red) in the state of Oklahoma with the Tulsa-Bartlesville CSA (pink)]]
{{Main|Tulsa Metropolitan Area}}
The Tulsa [[Metropolitan Area]], or the region immediately surrounding Tulsa with strong social and economic ties to the city,<ref>{{cite web | url=| title= State and County Quickfacts – Metropolitan Statistical Area | publisher=[[United States Census Bureau]]| accessdate= 2007-07-15}}</ref> occupies a large portion of the state's northeastern quadrant. It is informally known as "Green Country", a name derived from the state's official tourism designation for all of northeastern Oklahoma, though its usage in relation to the Tulsa Metropolitan Area can be traced to the early part of the 20th century.<ref name="Green Country Reborn">{{cite news | date=2003-09-15 |url= | title=Vision of the Future Now, Part 3| first=David | last=Arnett | publisher=Tulsa Today | accessdate=2007-04-21}}</ref>
The [[United States Census Bureau|Census Bureau]] defines the sphere of the city's influence as the Tulsa [[Metropolitan Statistical Area]] (MSA), spanning seven counties: Tulsa, [[Rogers County, Oklahoma|Rogers]], Osage, Wagoner, [[Okmulgee County, Oklahoma|Okmulgee]], [[Pawnee County, Oklahoma|Pawnee]], and [[Creek County, Oklahoma|Creek]]. The 2009 U.S. Census estimate shows the Tulsa MSA to have 929,015 residents<ref name="metropop08"/> The Tulsa-Bartlesville [[Combined Statistical Area]] (CSA) is created by adding the nearby [[Bartlesville, Oklahoma]], micropolitan area, consisting of [[Washington County, Oklahoma|Washington County]] in Northeastern Oklahoma. In 2011, U.S. Census Estimates show the Tulsa-Bartlesville CMSA to have 998,438 residents,<ref>{{cite web | url=|title= Oklahoma Apartments in Oklahoma| publisher=Oklahoma Apartments|accessdate=2012-04-29}}</ref> and it is expected to have already surpassed one million residents as of late 2012.<ref name="Metro growth nearing 7 digits" />
{{See also|List of companies based in Tulsa, Oklahoma}}
[[File:The BOK Building.jpg|thumb|right|upright|The BOK Tower serves as the world headquarters for Williams Companies.]]
Though the oil industry has historically dominated Tulsa's economy, efforts in economic diversification have created a base in the sectors of [[aerospace]], finance, technology, telecommunications, [[high tech]], and manufacturing.<ref name="Work in Tulsa"/> The [[Tulsa International Airport]] (TUL) and the Tulsa Port of Catoosa, the nation's most inland seaport, connect the region with international trade and transportation. An [[American Airlines]] maintenance base at Tulsa International Airport is the city's largest employer and the largest maintenance facility in the world, serving as the airline's global maintenance and engineering headquarters,<ref name="American Airlines">{{cite web | url=| title= American's TUL Maintenance & Engineering Base Sets Goal to Achieve {{Nowrap|$500 Million}} in Revenue, Cost Savings By End of 2006 | publisher= American Airlines | accessdate=2007-07-14}}</ref> while the Tulsa Port of Catoosa and the Tulsa International Airport house extensive industrial parks.<ref name="Port of Catoosa">{{cite web | url=| title= Tulsa Port of Catoosa | publisher= Catoosa Chamber of Commerce | accessdate=2007-07-14|archiveurl = |archivedate = November 19, 2007|deadurl=yes}}</ref><ref name="Tulsa International Airport" />
Products from Tulsa manufacturers account for about 60% of Oklahoma's exports,<ref name="Jobs" /> and in 2001, the city's total [[GDP|gross product]] was in the top one-third of metropolitan areas, states, and countries, with more than {{Nowrap|$29 billion}} in total goods, growing at a rate of {{Nowrap|$250 million}} each year.<ref name="Do Business in Tulsa">{{cite web | year=2007 | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate=2007-07-20| title= About Tulsa | publisher= Tulsa Metro Chamber | accessdate=2007-04-27}}</ref> In 2006, Forbes magazine rated Tulsa as second in the nation in income growth, and one of the best cities in the country to do business with.<ref name="forbestop50">{{cite news | year=2006 | url= | title= Tulsa, OK: Best Places to do Business 2006 |work=Forbes Magazine | accessdate=2006-07-23}}</ref> Usually among the lowest in the nation in terms of cost of doing business, the Tulsa Metropolitan Area in 2005 was rated among the five lowest metropolitan areas in the United States for that category.<ref name="Tulsa: Economic Profile and Forecast">{{cite web | year=2005 | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate=2007-06-05| title= Economic Profile and Forecast| format=PDF | publisher= Tulsa Metro Chamber | page=3 |accessdate=2007-04-14}}</ref>
A number of large financial corporations are headquartered in Tulsa, the largest being the [[BOK Financial Corporation]]. The semi-national convenience store chain [[QuikTrip]], Hilti, and [[Mazzio's]] semi-national pizza chain also call Tulsa home. Many international oil and gas-related companies have headquarters in Tulsa, including [[Williams Companies]], [[SemGroup]], [[Syntroleum]], [[ONEOK]], Samson and Excel Energy. Meanwhile, there are 30 companies in Tulsa that employ more than 1,000 people,<ref name="Tulsa's Largest Employers">{{cite web | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate= 2006-11-16| title= Tulsa's Largest Employers| publisher= Tulsa Metro Chamber | pages=3–5 | accessdate=2006-04-27|format=DOC}}</ref> though small businesses make up more than 80% of the city's companies.<ref name="Small Business Awards">{{cite web | date=2006-05-14 | url=| title= Small Business Awards to honor Tulsa area business leaders | publisher= Tulsa Metro Chamber | accessdate=2006-04-27}}</ref>
During a national recession from 2001 to 2003, the city lost 28,000 jobs.<ref name="Jobs">{{cite news | date=2007-01-25 | url= | title= Job gains make 2006 record year | first=Laurie| last=Winslow | publisher=[[Tulsa World]] | accessdate=2007-06-30}}</ref> In response, a development initiative, [[Vision 2025]], promised to incite economic growth and recreate lost jobs. Projects spurred by the initiative promised urban revitalization, infrastructure improvement, tourism development, riverfront retail development, and further diversification of the economy. As of 2007, employment levels have surpassed pre-recession heights<ref name="Jobs" /><ref name="OSU Economic Report - Tulsa">{{cite web | year=2006 | url= | title= 2006 Oklahoma Economic Outlook| format=PDF | work=Oklahoma State University | publisher= Center for Applied Economic Research | page=1 | accessdate=2007-04-14}}</ref> and the city is in a significant economic development and investment surge.<ref name="Globe Street Retail">{{cite news | date=2006-06-11 | url= | title=Cap Rates Turning More Investors Onto Tulsa | first=Connie | last=Gore | publisher= | accessdate=2006-07-23|archiveurl = |archivedate = September 28, 2007|deadurl=yes}}</ref> This economic improvement is also seen in Tulsa’s housing trends which show an average of a 6% increase in rent in 2010.<ref name=name>{{Cite web|url=|title= Tulsa Today: Average Tulsa Apartment Rents Improve|accessdate = October 27, 2010 }}</ref> Since 2006, more than 28,000 jobs have been added to the city.<ref></ref><ref></ref>
[[File:Philbrook.jpg|thumb|right|The Philbrook Museum, a former oil baron's estate, features extensive gardens and artwork.]]
Though Oklahoma is placed entirely in the Southern United States by the [[United States Census Bureau]],<ref>{{cite web | url=| title= Census Regions and Divisions of the United States| publisher= [[United States Census Bureau]] | accessdate=2006-05-11|format=PDF}}</ref> Tulsa is influenced by the nearby [[Southwestern United States|Southwest]], [[Midwestern United States|Midwest]], and Southern cultural regions, as well as a historical native American presence. These influences are expressed in the city's museums, cultural centers, performing arts venues, ethnic festivals, park systems, zoos, wildlife preserves, and large and growing collections of public sculptures, monuments, and artwork.<ref name="Tulsa's Public Art">{{cite web | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate= 2006-03-29| title= Tulsa's Public Art| publisher= Tulsa Metro Chamber of Commerce | accessdate=2006-05-11}}</ref>
===Arts and theatre===
Located in the former estate of [[petroleum|oil]] pioneer [[Waite Phillips]], Philbrook Museum is considered one of the top 50 [[fine art]] museums in the United States, and is one of only five to offer a combination of a historic home, formal gardens, and an art collection.<ref>{{cite web | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate= 2006-03-29| title= Philbrook Museum of Art| publisher= Tulsa Metro Chamber of Commerce | accessdate=2006-04-15}}</ref> The collections of [[Thomas Gilcrease]] are housed at the Gilcrease Museum, which also holds the world's largest, most comprehensive collection of art and artifacts of the American West.<ref>{{cite web | url= | title= The All-Terrain Vacation| publisher= | accessdate=2006-04-12}}</ref> With remnants of the Holocaust and artifacts relevant to Judaism in Oklahoma, the [[Sherwin Miller Museum of Jewish Art]] preserves the largest collection of [[Judaism|Judaica]] in the Southwest United States.<ref>{{cite web | url= | title= Sherwin Miller Museum of Judaism | publisher= Sherwin Miller Museum of Jewish Art | accessdate=2006-04-20}}</ref> Other museums, such as the Tulsa Historical Society, the Tulsa Air and Space Museum, the Oklahoma Jazz Hall of Fame, and the Tulsa Geosciences Center, document histories of the region, while the Greenwood Cultural Center preserves the culture of the city's African American heritage, housing a collection of artifacts and photography that document the history of the Black Wall Street prior to the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921.
[[File:Woodward Park.jpg|thumb|left|160px|Cyrus Dallin's [[Appeal to the Great Spirit]] in Woodward Park]]
Since 1969, public displays of artwork in Tulsa have been funded by one percent of its annual city budget.<ref name="Tulsa's Public Art" /> Each year, a sculpture from a local artist is installed along the Arkansas River trail system, while other sculptures stand at local parks, such as an enlarged version of [[Cyrus Dallin]]'s [[Appeal to the Great Spirit]] sculpture at [[Woodward Park (Tulsa)|Woodward Park]].<ref name="Tulsa's Public Art" /> At the entrance to Oral Roberts University stands a large statue of praying hands, which, at {{convert|60|ft|m}} high, is the largest bronze sculpture in the world.<ref>{{cite web | url= | title= World's Largest Praying Hands | publisher= Roadside America | accessdate=2007-05-11}}</ref> As a testament to the city's oil heritage, the {{convert|76|ft|m|sing=on}} [[Golden Driller]] guards the front entrance to the Tulsa County Fairgrounds.
[[File:GoldenDriller.jpg|right|thumb|upright|The iconic Golden Driller, built in 1953 for the 1966 International Petroleum Expo,<ref name="Golden Driller">{{cite web | url=| title= Tulsa Landmarks| publisher=Best of Tulsa | accessdate=2007-04-26}}</ref> now stands at the Tulsa County Fairgrounds.]]
Tulsa contains several permanent dance, theater, and concert groups, including the [[Tulsa Ballet]], the [[Tulsa Opera]], the [[Tulsa Symphony Orchestra]], [[Light Opera Oklahoma]], [[Signature Symphony at TCC]], the [[Heller Theatre]], American Theatre Company, which is a member of the Theatre Communications Group and Oklahoma's oldest resident professional theatre, and [[Theatre Tulsa]], the oldest continuously operating [[community theatre]] company west of the [[Mississippi River]].<ref>{{cite web | url=| title= History of Theatre Tulsa| publisher=Theatre Tulsa | accessdate=2007-04-26}}</ref> Tulsa also houses the Tulsa Spotlight Theater, which shows the longest-running play in America ([[The Drunkard]]) every Saturday night. Large performing arts complexes include the Tulsa Convention Center, the Tulsa Performing Arts Center, [[Expo Square Pavilion]], the [[Mabee Center]], the Tulsa Performing Arts Center for Education, and the River Parks Amphitheater and Tulsa's largest venue, the BOK Center. Ten miles west of the city, an outdoor amphitheater called "Discoveryland!" holds the official title of the world performance headquarters for the musical ''[[Oklahoma!]],''<ref>{{cite web | url=| title= Honors and Awards| publisher=Discoveryland!| accessdate=2007-04-26 |archiveurl = <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 2007-04-05}}</ref> while Cain's Ballroom, considered the birthplace of Western Swing,<ref name="Selling Tulsa">{{cite news | date=2006-07-15 | url= | title= Selling Tulsa: Branded | first=John | last=Stancavage | publisher=[[Tulsa World]] | accessdate=2007-04-26}}</ref> housed the performance headquarters of [[Bob Wills]] and the [[Texas Playboys]] during the 1930s. The centerpiece of the downtown Brady Arts District, the [[Brady Theater]], is the largest of the city's five operating performing arts venues that are listed on the [[National Register of Historic Places]].<ref name="National Register of Historic Places">{{cite web | url=| title= National Register of Historic Places – Oklahoma, Tulsa | publisher=National Register of Historic Places | accessdate=2007-07-14}}</ref> The city's film community hosts annual festivals such as the Tulsa United Film Festival and Tulsa Overground Film and Music Festival.
===Outdoor recreation===
{{See also|List of festivals and events in Tulsa, Oklahoma}}
The City of Tulsa manages 135 parks spread over {{convert|6000|acre|ha}}.<ref name="Tulsa Parks and Recreation">{{cite web | year=2010 | url= | title= Tulsa: Home to Black Wall Street | publisher= | accessdate=2010-08-06}}</ref> Woodward Park, a {{convert|45|acre|ha|sing=on}} tract located in midtown Tulsa, doubles as a [[botanical gardens]] featuring the Tulsa Municipal Rose Garden, with more than 6,000 rose plants in 250 varieties, and the [[Carl Linnaeus|Linnaeus]] Teaching Gardens, which demonstrate the latest and most successful techniques for growing vegetables, annuals, perennials, woody plants and groundcovers.<ref name="Woodward Park">{{cite web | year=2005 | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate= 2006-04-14 | title= History of Woodward Park | publisher= Tulsa Garden Center| accessdate=2006-04-25}}</ref> Tulsa River Parks is a series of linear parks that run adjacent to the Arkansas River for about {{convert|10|mi|km}} from downtown to the Jenks bridge. Since 2007 a significant portion of the River Parks area has been renovated with new trails, landscaping and playground equipment. The River Parks Turkey Mountain Urban Wilderness Area on the west side of the Arkansas River in south Tulsa is a 300-acre area that contains over 45 miles of dirt trails available for hiking, trail running, mountain biking and horseback riding.
[[File:Tommso.jpg|thumb|left|The river parks trail system traverses the banks of the Arkansas River.]]
The city's zoo, the [[Tulsa Zoo and Living Museum]], was voted "America's Favorite Zoo" in 2005 by [[Microsoft Game Studios]] in connection with a national promotion of its [[Zoo Tycoon 2]] computer game.<ref name="Zoo Tycoon 2: Favorite Zoo">{{cite web | date=2007-10-04 | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate= 2006-04-17 | title= Tulsa Zoo is Crowned King of the Jungle | publisher= [[Microsoft Games]]| accessdate=2006-04-25}}</ref> Doubling as a museum that documents the cultures and history of various climates in North America, the zoo encompasses a total of {{convert|78|acre|ha}} with approximately 1,500 animals and 436 species.<ref name="Zoo History">{{cite web | year=2007 | url=| title=Zoo History | publisher= Tulsa Zoo and Living Museum | accessdate=2006-04-25}}</ref> The zoo is located in {{convert|2820|acre|ha|sing=on}} Mohawk Park (the third largest municipal park in the United States) which also contains the {{convert|745|acre|ha|sing=on}} Oxley Nature Center.<ref name="Mowhawk Park - 3rd Largest"/><ref name="Save Mohawk Park">{{cite web | date=2007-04-07 | url=| title= December 2005 Revision to Master Plan Proposal | publisher= Tulsa Audubon Society | accessdate=2006-04-25}}</ref>[[File:Tulsa River Parks Fountains.jpg|thumb|right|Tulsa's River Parks contain many monuments and attractions, such as these fountains.]] On the west bank of the Arkansas River in the suburb of [[Jenks, Oklahoma|Jenks]], the [[Oklahoma Aquarium]] is the state's only freestanding aquarium, containing over 200 exhibits, including a shark tank.<ref name="Oklahoma Aquarium">{{cite web | year=2007 | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate= 2006-03-29| title= Oklahoma Aquarium | publisher= Tulsa Convention and Visitors Bureau | accessdate=2006-04-20}}</ref>
The [[Tulsa State Fair]], operating in late September and early October, attracts over one million people during its 10-day run,<ref>{{cite web | year=2006 | url= | title= 2005 Tulsa State Fair Stats Preliminary Numbers | publisher= Tulsa State Fair | accessdate=2006-04-15|archiveurl = |archivedate = October 23, 2006|deadurl=yes}}</ref> and the city's [[Oktoberfest]] celebration was named one of the top 10 in the world by [[USA Today]] and one of the top German food festivals in the nation by [[Bon Appetit]] magazine.<ref>{{cite news | first=Daniel | last=Harrison | title=Top 10: American Oktoberfest Destinations | publisher=Ask Men | url = | accessdate = 2007-05-05}}</ref> A number of other cultural heritage festivals are held in the city throughout the year, including the Intertribal Indian Club Powwow of Champions in August; Scotstfest, India Fest, Greek Festival, and Festival Viva Mexico in September; ShalomFest in October; Dia de Los Muertos Art Festival in November; and the Asian-American Festival in May. The annual Mayfest arts and crafts festival held downtown was estimated to have drawn more than 365,000 people in its four-day run in 2012.<ref>{{cite news | date=2007-05-21 | first=Leigh | last=Bell | title=Weather, crowd holds up until end of Mayfest | publisher=Tulsa World | url=| accessdate = 2012-09-04}}</ref> On a smaller scale, the city hosts block parties during a city-wide "Block Party Day" each year, with festivals varying in size throughout city neighborhoods.<ref>{{cite web | year=2005 | url= | title= Mayor's Office for Neighborhood | publisher= City of Tulsa | accessdate=2007-05-21}}</ref> Tulsa has one major amusement park attraction, Big Splash Water Park, featuring multi-story water slides and large wave pools. Until 2006, the city also hosted [[Bell's Amusement Park]], which closed after Tulsa County officials declined to renew its lease agreement.<ref name="Rides disappearing at Bells">{{cite news | date=2007-01-27 | url= | title= Rides disappearing at Bells | publisher= KOTV | accessdate=2006-04-15|archiveurl=|archivedate=2007-07-15}}</ref>
[[File:BOK Center faccade.JPG|thumb|left|The centerpiece of the Vision 2025 projects, the BOK Center, opened in August 2008.]]
Tulsa supports a wide array of sports at the professional and collegiate levels. Currently, the city hosts one team in first-tier professional leagues, the [[Tulsa Shock]] of the [[Women's National Basketball Association|WNBA]]; two NCAA Division&nbsp;I colleges; and four professional, [[minor league]] sports teams, playing in basketball, baseball, hockey, and soccer.<ref name="Tulsa Soccer">{{cite news | date=2007-07-29 | url=| title= Pro soccer: Soccer comes to Tulsa| first = Glenn | last = Hibdon| publisher= Tulsa World | accessdate=2007-07-29}}</ref> The city also contains one of the nation's top rated golf courses, Southern Hills Country Club, which is one of two courses that have hosted seven [[Men's major golf championships|men's major championships]]: three [[U.S. Open (golf)|U.S. Opens]] and four [[PGA Championship]]s, the most recent in 2007.<ref name="Southern Hills 2007 PGA Championship">{{cite web | year=2007 | url=| title= Southern Hills Country Club is rich in History | publisher=PGA | accessdate=2006-04-20}}</ref> The course has held five amateur championships<ref name="Southern Hills 2007 PGA Championship"/> and from 2001 to 2008 the [[LPGA]] had a regular tour stop, most recently known as the [[SemGroup Championship]] at Cedar Ridge Country Club.<ref>{{cite news | date=2008-11-19 | url=| title= Lack of sponsor ends LPGA tourney's run| first = Jimmie | last = Tramel| publisher= Tulsa World | accessdate=2008-11-19}}</ref> The 19,199-seat BOK Center is the centerpiece of the Vision 2025 projects and was completed in August 2008. The BOK Center was in the top ten among indoor arenas worldwide in ticket sales for the first quarter of 2009. It is the home for the city's WNBA, [[arena football]], and hockey teams.<ref name="In The Loop, 2nd Quarter 2007">{{cite web | year=2007 | url=,%202nd%20quarter,%202007.pdf | archiveurl=,+2nd+quarter,+2007.pdf | archivedate=2007-06-05| title= In The Loop, 2nd Quarter 2007 | format=PDF | publisher=Tulsa Downtown Unlimited | page=3 | accessdate=2007-05-03}}</ref> From 1978 to 1984, the city hosted the [[Tulsa Roughnecks]], who played in the now-defunct [[North American Soccer League (1968–1984)|North American Soccer League]] and won that league's championship in 1983. Also in 1984, the city hosted the [[Oklahoma Outlaws]] of the now-defunct [[United States Football League]] for a single season.<ref>{{cite web | url=| title= The Story of the Oklahoma/Arizona Outlaws || page=3 | accessdate=2008-06-27}}</ref>
Tulsa has two universities that compete at the NCAA Division&nbsp;I level: the [[University of Tulsa]] Golden Hurricane, and the Oral Roberts University Golden Eagles. The University of Tulsa's [[Tulsa Golden Hurricane men's basketball|men's basketball program]] has reached the [[NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship|Sweet Sixteen]] three times, made an appearance in the [[Elite Eight]] in [[2000 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament|2000]], won the [[National Invitation Tournament|NIT]] championship in [[1981 National Invitation Tournament|1981]] and [[2001 National Invitation Tournament|2001]], and won the inaugural [[College Basketball Invitational]] in [[2008 College Basketball Invitational|2008]].<ref name="Oklahoma Basketball History">{{cite web | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate=2006-12-08| title= History of Basketball in Oklahoma | publisher=Oklahoma Historical Society | accessdate=2006-04-20}}</ref><ref name="CBI Official Home Page">{{cite news | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate=2008-05-31| title= Tulsa Wins First CBI Title | agency= Associated Press | accessdate=2008-04-22}}</ref> The [[Tulsa Golden Hurricane football|Tulsa football team]] has played in 16 [[bowl game]]s, including the [[Sugar Bowl]] (twice) and the [[Orange Bowl]].<ref name="University of Tulsa CFB Data Warehouse">{{cite web | year=2009 | url=| title= University of Tulsa CFB Data Warehouse | publisher=CFB Data Warehouse | accessdate=2009-08-14}}</ref> Oral Roberts University's [[Oral Roberts Golden Eagles men's basketball|men's basketball team]] reached the Elite Eight in [[1974 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament|1974]] and won the [[The Summit League|Mid-Continent Conference]] title three straight years, from 2005 to 2007.<ref name="Oral Roberts University Team Details">{{cite web | year=2007 | url=| title= Oral Roberts University (NCAA) Men | publisher=USBASKET| accessdate=2006-04-25}}</ref> At the secondary level, the Tulsa area is home to several high school athletic programs that are frequently ranked among the best nationally.<ref>{{cite web | url=| title= Football Team Rankings | publisher= Rivals High| accessdate=2008-06-27}}</ref>
In 2008 Tulsa funded 39.2 million to build a new ballpark in the Greenwood District near downtown for its [[Double-A (baseball)|Class AA]] [[Texas League]] baseball team, the Tulsa Drillers. The ground breaking was held on December 19, 2008. ONEOK bought the naming rights for {{Nowrap|10 million}} for the next 25 years. The first game at ONEOK Field was held on April 8, 2010. Country music star [[Tim McGraw]] threw out the first pitch.
The city's running and cycling communities support events such as the [[Tulsa Tough]] cycling race, the Route 66 Marathon,<ref name="Route 66 Marathon">{{cite web | year=2009 | url= | title= 2008 Route 66 Marathon | publisher= 2008 Route 66 Marathon| accessdate=2009-01-08}}</ref> and the [[Tulsa Run]], which features over 8000 participants annually.<ref name="Tulsa Run, History">{{cite web | year=2007 | url= | title= Tulsa Run. The History of a Fall Classic. | publisher= Tulsa Run| accessdate=2007-06-08}}</ref> Gambling is supported by a community of [[Indian gaming]] venues that have been allowed to expand gambling options. In 2005, [[treaty|compacts]] between the state and various tribes allowed facilities to offer table card games and slot machines.<ref name="OSF Gambling Compliance">{{cite web | year=2007 | url=| title= FAQ – OSF Gambling Compliance| work=OSF – Gaming Compliance Unit | publisher=State of Oklahoma | accessdate=2006-04-30}}</ref> Another popular gambling draw, [[Horse racing]] events are housed by the [[Fair Meadows Race Track]] and [[Will Rogers Downs]] in nearby [[Claremore, Oklahoma|Claremore]].
[[File:2006 Navy - Tusla.jpg|thumb|right|The University of Tulsa football team competes at the NCAA Division 1 level.]]
===Sports Teams===
====Current teams====
{| class="wikitable"
|- "
! Club !! Sport !! League !! Stadium
| [[Tulsa Shock]]
| [[Basketball]]
| [[Women's National Basketball Association|WNBA]]
| [[BOK Center]]
| [[Tulsa 66ers]]
| [[Basketball]]
| [[NBA Development League|NBADL]]
| [[SpiritBank Event Center]]
| [[United Basketball League|Tulsa Tornadoes]]
| [[Basketball]]
| [[United Basketball League|UBL]]
| [[Will Rogers High School]]
| [[Tulsa Drillers]]
| [[Baseball]]
| [[Texas League]]
| [[ONEOK Field]]
| [[Tulsa Oilers]]
| [[Hockey|Ice Hockey]]
| [[Central Hockey League]]
| [[BOK Center]]
| [[Oklahoma Defenders]]
| [[Arena Football]]
| [[Champions Professional Indoor Football League|CPIFL]]
| [[Tulsa Convention Center]]
| [[Tulsa Revolution]]
| [[Indoor Soccer]]
| [[Professional Arena Soccer League|PASL-Pro]]
| [[Tulsa Convention Center]]
| [[FC Tulsa]]
| [[Soccer]]
| [[National Premier Soccer League|NPSL]]
| [[Memorial High School (Tulsa, Oklahoma)|Memorial High School]]
====Collegiate Teams in the Tulsa Metropolitan Area====
{| class="wikitable"
|- "
! School !! Nickname !! Colors !! Association !! Conference !! Secondary Association
| [[University of Tulsa]]
| [[Tulsa Golden Hurricane|Golden Hurricane]]
| Old Gold, Royal Blue and Crimson
| [[NCAA Division I]]
| [[Conference USA|C-USA]]
| [[Oral Roberts University]]
| [[Oral Roberts Golden Eagles|Golden Eagles]]
| Vegas Gold and Navy Blue
| [[NCAA Division I]]
| [[Southland Conference|Southland]]
| [[Oklahoma Wesleyan University]]
| Eagles
| Red, White and Blue
| [[National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics|NAIA]]
| [[Midlands Collegiate Athletic Conference|MCAC]]
| [[National Christian College Athletic Association|NCCAA Division I Central Region]]
| [[Rogers State University]]
| [[Rogers State Hillcats|Hillcats]]
| Blue and Red
| [[National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics|NAIA]] <br> [[NCAA Division II]] in 2013
| [[Sooner Athletic Conference|SAC]] <br> [[Heartland Conference|Heartland]] in 2013
| [[RHEMA Bible Training Center|Rhema Bible Training Center]]
| Eagles
| Red White And Blue
| [[United States Collegiate Athletic Association|USCAA]]
| Division I
| [[Association of Christian College Athletics|ACCA]]
{{See also|Media of Tulsa, Oklahoma}}
[[File:TulsaWorld.jpg|right|thumb|upright|''[[The Tulsa World]]'' operates primarily from its headquarters in downtown Tulsa.]]
Tulsa's leading newspaper is the daily ''[[Tulsa World]]'', the second most widely circulated newspaper in Oklahoma with a Sunday circulation of 189,789.<ref>{{cite web | title=2006 Top 100 Daily Newspapers in the U.S. by Circulation | publisher=Burrelles''Luce'' | url= | format=PDF | accessdate=2007-03-02 | year=2006 }}</ref> ''Urban Tulsa'', another large publication, is a weekly newspaper covering entertainment and cultural events. Covering primarily economic events and stocks, the Tulsa Business Journal caters to Tulsa's business sector. Other publications include the ''Oklahoma Indian Times'', the ''Tulsa Daily Commerce and Legal News'', the ''Tulsa Beacon'', ''This Land Press'', and the ''Tulsa Free Press''. Until 1992, the ''[[Tulsa Tribune]]'' served as a daily major newspaper competing with the ''Tulsa World''. The paper was acquired by the ''Tulsa World'' that year.<ref>{{cite web | year=2006| url= | title=The Tulsa Tribune | publisher=Soylent Communications | accessdate=2007-05-07}}</ref>Tulsa is also served by television and radio broadcasting networks. All major U.S. television networks are represented in Tulsa. Cable television service in the area is provided by [[Cox Communications]]. As in most major American cities, local radio stations in the Tulsa area are controlled by a small handful of large broadcasting companies. The late radio personality [[Paul Harvey]] was born in Tulsa and worked at local radio station [[KFAQ|KVOO]] in his early career.
Western Swing, a musical genre with roots in [[Country Music]], was made popular at Tulsa's Cain's Ballroom. [[The Tulsa Sound]], a variation of [[Rockabilly]], [[Blues]], and [[Rock 'n' Roll]], was started and largely developed by local musicians [[J. J. Cale]] [[Leon Russell]] in the 1960s and 1970s. The Tulsa Sound heavily influenced musicians [[Eric Clapton]] and [[Jimmy Markham]].<ref>{{cite web | url= | first=ast=downing| title=Tulsa Rocks Part Two: The Tulsa Sound | publisher=Tulsa Today | accessdate=2008-06-23 }}</ref>
Musicians from Tulsa or that started their musical careers in Tulsa include [[Garth Brooks]], [[The Gap Band]], [[Hanson (band)|Hanson]], [[Caroline's Spine]], [[Ronnie Dunn]], [[Gene Autry]], [[David Gates]], [[Jim Keltner]], Bob Wills,<ref>{{cite web | title=Famous Musicians from Tulsa | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate=2007-03-14 | accessdate=2007-04-29 | publisher=Tulsa City-County Library }}</ref> [[David Cook (singer)|David Cook]],<ref>{{cite news | title=David Cook: Back in Blue Springs| url= | date=2008-05-10|accessdate=2008-05-25 | publisher=[[Tulsa World]] | author=Cary Aspinwall }}</ref> Broncho, [[Tyson Meade]], The Damn Quails, [[JD McPherson]].<ref></ref> In 2012, Tulsa was ranked as having one of the best music scenes outside of New York, Los Angeles and Nashville.<ref></ref>
{{Main|Government of Tulsa, Oklahoma}}
{{See also|List of mayors of Tulsa, Oklahoma}}
[[File:One Technology Center.jpg|thumb|right|upright|The Tulsa City Hall serves as the base for most city government functions.]]
A [[mayor-council government]] has been in place in Tulsa since 1989 when the city converted from a [[city commission government]] deemed wasteful and less efficient.<ref name="About the Tulsa City Council">{{cite web | url= | title=About the Tulsa City Council | publisher=The Tulsa City Council| accessdate=2007-04-17|archiveurl = |archivedate = July 6, 2007|deadurl=yes}}</ref> Since the change, Tulsa mayors have been given more power in accordance with a [[mayor-council government#Executive or Strong Mayor Form|strong mayoral system]] and have greater control of a more consolidated array of governmental branches.<ref name="About the Tulsa City Council" /> [[Plurality voting system|Plurality voting]] is used to elect mayors, who serve a term in office of four years. The present mayor of Tulsa is Republican [[Dewey F. Bartlett, Jr.]] who won the [[Tulsa, Oklahoma mayoral election, 2009|2009 election]] and took office on December 7, 2009.<ref>{{cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= |authorlink= | title=Bartlett to be Tulsa's next mayor | date=2009-11-10 | publisher= | url = | work =[[Tulsa World]] | pages = | accessdate = 2009-11-11 | language = }}</ref> Another Tulsa political figure, [[Jim Inhofe]], who now represents Oklahoma in the [[United States Senate]], served as the mayor of Tulsa early in his political career.<ref>{{cite news | date=2007-05-04 | url=| title= Vice President Visits Tulsa: Cheney, Inhofe blast Democrats' plan for Iraq | first=Randy | last=Krehbiel | publisher= Tulsa World | accessdate=2007-05-06}}</ref>
A city councilor from each of the city's nine council districts is elected every two years, each serving a term of two years. Councilors are elected from their own respective districts based on a plurality voting system, and serve on the Tulsa City Council. As a whole, the council acts as the legislative body of city government, which aims to pass laws, approve the city budget, and manage efficiency in city government. In accordance with the mayor-council form of government, the Tulsa City Council and the office of the Mayor coordinate in city government operations. A third body of the government, the city auditor, is elected independently of the city council and mayor to ensure that the auditor can act in an objective manner. The auditor is elected for a term of two years.<ref name="About the Tulsa City Council" /> Phil Wood, a Democrat, held the position for 21 years before being defeated by Republican Preston Doerflinger in the 2009 election.<ref>{{cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= |authorlink= | title=Wood concedes race for city auditor to Doerflinger | date=2009-11-10 | publisher= | url = | work =[[Tulsa World]] | pages = | accessdate = 2009-11-11 | language = }}</ref> The city serves as the seat of county government for Tulsa County, and lies mostly within [[Oklahoma's 1st congressional district]], with its far northwestern areas in southern Osage County in [[Oklahoma's 3rd congressional district]]. Municipal and State laws are enforced in Tulsa by the [[Tulsa Police Department]], an organization of 781 officers as of 2012.<ref></ref><ref></ref>
In 2012, Tulsa's crime rate were 46 murders, 1,106 robberies, and 6,045 burglaries.<ref></ref><ref></ref>
{{See also|List of schools in Tulsa, Oklahoma}}
[[File:U Tulsa McFarlin Library.jpg|thumb|left|The McFarlin Library serves the [[University of Tulsa]] campus.]]
===Public Schools===
The [[Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)|Presbyterian Church (PCUSA)]] established the Presbyterian Mission Day School, a one-story building at what would become 4th Street and Boston Avenue in 1884. A second story was soon added to accommodate the number of children who were to attend. This school operated until 1889.<ref name = "TPC-Education">Tulsa Preservation Commission Website. "Tulsa History – Education.(1880–1941)". Retrieved December 28, 2010. []</ref> When Tulsa incorporated in 1899, it took over the school and became the first public school. James M. Hall and three other men bought the property with their own funds and held the title until the city could reimburse them.<ref name = "TPC-Education"/><ref name = "Hallobit">[ "Obituary:James M. Hall," ''Tulsa World'', May 27, 1935]</ref>
Tulsa built its first two public schools in 1905. Construction of more schools began accelerating in 1906. In December 1907, control of the public schools passed from the city government to the Tulsa Board of Education.<ref name = "TPC-Education"/>
'''Tulsa High School''' opened in 1906 on the same block formerly occupied by the Presbyterian mission school, which had been razed. The new school was a three-story cream colored brick building with a dome. The school was accredited by the North Central Association of Schools and Colleges in 1913. It proved too small by 1916, when Tulsa voters approved a bond issue to construct a new high school at Sixth Street and Cincinnati Avenue, which was renamed [[Central High School (Tulsa, Oklahoma)|Central High School]]. The north half of this facility opened in 1917, while the south half opened in 1922.<ref>[ Saunders, Joyce. "Central High School." Accessed January 5, 2011]</ref> This building remained in this service until 1976, when it was replaced by a new building on West Edison Street. The old building was taken over by the Public Service Company of Oklahoma.<ref name = "TPC-Education"/>
There are three primary public school districts in the city of Tulsa. [[Tulsa Public Schools]], with nine high schools and over 41,000 students, is the second-largest school district in Oklahoma<ref>{{cite web | date=2009-11-06 | url=| title= (OKC) District's enrollment growth a tale of demographic shifts| format=ASP | publisher= [[Daily Oklahoman]] | accessdate=2009-11-06}}</ref> and includes [[Booker T. Washington High School (Tulsa, Oklahoma)|Booker T. Washington High School]], a [[magnet school]] judged to be the 65th best high school in the United States by [[Newsweek]] Magazine in 2008.<ref name="The 100 Best Highschools in America">{{cite news | date=2006-05-16 | url= | title= The 100 Best High Schools in America | first=Barbara | last=Kantrowitz |work=Newsweek | accessdate=2006-04-20|archiveurl = |archivedate = April 20, 2006|deadurl=yes}}</ref> Each with one upper high school, [[Jenks Public Schools|Jenks]] and [[Union Public Schools|Union]] schools are the city's two other primary districts, covering the southern portion of the city near the towns of Jenks and [[Broken Arrow, Oklahoma|Broken Arrow]]. In 2006, there were more than 90,000 students attending Tulsa County's public schools.<ref name="About the Tulsa Library System">{{cite web | year=2007 | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate= 2006-06-03| title= About the Tulsa City-County Library | publisher= Tulsa Metro Chamber | accessdate=2006-04-28}}</ref> The Catholic Diocese of Tulsa supports a system of parochial and diocesan schools, including [[Bishop Kelley High School]]. Another Catholic high school, [[Cascia Hall Preparatory School]], is administered by [[Augustinians]].<ref>{{cite web | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate=2007-02-08 | title= Catholic Schools | publisher= Tulsa Metro Chamber | accessdate=2006-05-03}}</ref> Most other private schools have religious affiliations with various Jewish and Protestant denominations, including [[Holland Hall School]], affiliated with the [[Episcopal Church in the United States of America|Episcopal Church]].
===Public libraries===
The largest library system in the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, the [[Tulsa City-County Library]], contains over {{Nowrap|1.7 million}} volumes in 25 library facilities.<ref>{{cite web | url=| title= About the Library | publisher= Tulsa City-County Library | accessdate=2006-04-15}}</ref> The library is active in the community, holding events and programs at most branches, including free computer classes, children's storytimes, business and job assistance, and scholarly databases with information on a variety of topics.<ref name="About the Tulsa Library System"/> The [[University of Tulsa#Campus|McFarlin Library]] at the University of Tulsa is a [[federal depository library program|federal depository library]] holding over three million items.<ref name="McFarlin Library">{{cite web | year=2007 | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate= 2006-09-06| title= McFarlin Library | publisher= [[University of Tulsa]]| accessdate=2006-04-28}}</ref> Founded in 1930, the library is known for its collection of Native American works and the original works of Irish author [[James Joyce]].<ref name="McFarlin Library"/> The Tulsa City-County Library and the University of Tulsa's Law Library are also federal depository libraries, making Tulsa the only city in Oklahoma with more than two federal depository libraries.<ref name="Depository Libraries">{{cite web | date=2005-06-06 | url=| title= Depository Libraries| publisher= Oklahoma State University| accessdate=2006-04-28}}</ref>
===Higher education===
{{See also|List of Colleges and Universities in Tulsa, Oklahoma}}
Kendall College, a Presbyterian school, moved to Tulsa from [[Muskogee, Oklahoma|Muskogee]] in 1907. This became the start of higher education in Tulsa. In 1920, the school merged with a proposed McFarlin College to become [[The University of Tulsa]]. The McFarlin library of TU was named for the principal donor of the proposed college, oilman [[Robert M. McFarlin]].
[[File:Learning Resource Center - Graduate Center on the campus of Oral Roberts University.jpg|thumb|right|The Graduate Center houses Oral Roberts University's graduate college.]]
Tulsa has 15 institutions of higher education, including two private universities: the University of Tulsa, a school founded in 1894; and [[Oral Roberts University]], a school founded by evangelist [[Oral Roberts]] in 1963. The University of Tulsa has an enrollment of 4,192 undergraduate and graduate students<ref>{{cite web | year=2009 | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate=2008-08-22 | title= University of Tulsa Fast Facts | publisher= University of Tulsa| accessdate=2009-03-03}}</ref> and is ranked 83rd among national doctoral universities in [[U.S. News and World Report]]'s 2009 edition of America's Best Colleges and among the best 123 Western Colleges by the [[Princeton Review]] in 2007, which also ranks it in the top ten schools nationally for quality of life, overall happiness of students, and relationship with the community.<ref>{{cite web | year=2009 | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate=2008-08-22 | title= University of Tulsa Points of Pride | publisher= University of Tulsa| accessdate=2009-03-03}}</ref> Oral Roberts University, a [[charismatic Christian]] institution with an enrollment of 5,109 undergraduate and graduate students,<ref>{{cite web | year=2007 | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate=2006-12-31 | title= About ORU| publisher= [[Oral Roberts University]]| accessdate=2006-04-28}}</ref> was rated in 2007 by the Princeton Review one of the 123 best in the Western United States and among the West's top 50 Master's Universities by U.S. News and World Report in 2005.<ref name="ORU Rankings">{{cite web | year=2007 | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate=2007-10-21 | title= Oral Roberts University Ranked Tops by The Princeton Review and U.S. News and World Report| publisher= Oral Roberts University| accessdate=2009-03-03}}</ref>
[[Rogers State University]] is the Tulsa area's only public four-year university, though Tulsa Community College has a partnership allowing students to complete four-year Bachelor's degrees through OU-Tulsa, OSU-Tulsa, LU-Tulsa and NSU-Broken Arrow.<ref>{{cite web | year=2007 | url= | title= TCC & OSU-Tulsa: The Home Advantage | publisher= OSU-Tulsa| accessdate=2006-04-29}}</ref> The largest community college in Oklahoma, [[Tulsa Community College]] (TCC) operates four campuses spread across the area as well as a conference center in Midtown.<ref>{{cite web | year=2007 | url= | title= TCC/OSU-Tulsa Admissions | publisher= OSU-Tulsa| accessdate=2007-05-04}}</ref> [[Oklahoma State University System|Oklahoma State University]] houses three campuses in the city, the [[Oklahoma State University - Center for Health Sciences|OSU Center for Health Sciences]], the OSU College of Osteopathic Medicine, and [[Oklahoma State University - Tulsa|OSU – Tulsa]], accommodating upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses. The [[University of Oklahoma]] operates what is known as the OU-Tulsa Schusterman Center, offering bachelors, master's and doctoral degree programs in conjunction with the main campus in Norman and the OU Health Sciences Center in Oklahoma City. The OU-Tulsa Schusterman Center also houses the [[OU School of Community Medicine]], the first medical school of its kind in the nation. Tulsa also has a Tulsa branch of [[Langston University]], the only [[HBCU]] in the state, founded in 1897. The [[Spartan School of Aeronautics]] enrolls 1,500 students at its flight programs near Tulsa International Airport<ref>{{cite web | year=2006 | url= | title= Spartan School of Aeronautics FAQ | publisher= Spartan School of Aeronautics| accessdate=2007-05-07}}</ref> and the city's [[vocational education]] is headed by [[Tulsa Technology Center]], the oldest and largest vocational technology institution in the state.<ref>{{cite web | year=2007 | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate=2006-05-04 | title= About Tulsa Tech| publisher= Tulsa Technology Center| accessdate=2006-05-07}}</ref> [[Virginia College]] is a school focusing on career training in Business and office, Health and Medical and Network Engineering and has a campus in Tulsa. The college offers day and night classes, several of which are available online.<ref> Virginia College: Tulsa, Oklahoma</ref>
{{Main|Transportation in Tulsa, Oklahoma}}
[[File:Downtown Tulsa Bus Stop.jpg|left|thumb|The Tulsa bus network, operating from its main transit center, helps meet city infrastructure needs.]]
Transportation in Tulsa is aided by [[Tulsa Transit]]'s bus network of 97 vehicles<ref>{{cite web | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate= 2006-01-11| title= Oklahoma Publicly Funded Transportation Systems | publisher=[[Oklahoma Department of Transportation]]| accessdate=2006-04-29}}</ref> and two primary airports, while the Tulsa Port of Catoosa provides transportation of goods and industry through international trade routes. Though internal transportation is largely dependent on automobiles, the city is consistently ranked in the five lowest metropolitan areas for average price of gas at the pump.<ref>{{cite news | date=2005-11-23 | url= | title=Pump prices dip below $2 in some states; still up from '04| first=Bill | last=Nichols |work=USA Today | accessdate=2006-04-29}}</ref> As reported by the [[Oklahoma Department of Transportation]] in 2005, Tulsa's busiest freeway is [[U.S. Route 169|U.S. 169]] with about 106,000 vehicles daily between 51st and 61st Streets, and its second busiest freeway is [[Interstate 44]] with about 88,000 vehicles between Yale and Sheridan Avenues.<ref>{{cite web | year=2005 | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate=2007-06-05| title=2005 Annual Average Daily Traffic | format=PDF | publisher=Oklahoma Department of Transportation | accessdate=2006-04-15}}</ref> Currently, there are no mass transit rail lines in Tulsa, though the prospect of passenger rail lines from downtown Tulsa to the suburb of Broken Arrow is currently being studied.<ref>{{cite news | date=2007-05-01 | url=| first=Brian | last=Barber | title=Tulsa Commuters: Rail, Buss Mass Transit Studied: Take the BA train | publisher=The [[Tulsa World]] | accessdate=2007-05-09}}</ref> [[Freight]] railways bisect the city in every direction, and include [[BNSF]], [[Union Pacific Railroad|UP]], SK&O, and OSRR rail lines.
The [[Tulsa International Airport]], home to ten commercial airlines, seven cargo carriers, and several charter airlines, serves more than three million travelers annually with almost 80 departures every day,<ref name="Tulsa International Airport" /> contributing nearly {{Nowrap|$3.2 billion}} to the economy.<ref name="Tulsa International Airport" /> In 2007, the airport completed most of an expansion project, which included larger terminal sizes and the addition of restaurants and shops.<ref name="Tulsa International Airport">{{cite web | year=2007 | url=| title= Case Study:Tulsa International Airport| publisher=Johnson Controls | accessdate=2007-07-18|format=PDF}}</ref> Riverside-Jones airport, a [[general aviation]] airport in West Tulsa, saw 335,826 takeoffs and landings in 2008, making it the busiest airport in Oklahoma and fifth busiest general aviation airport in the nation.<ref name="Riverside Jones Airport">{{cite web | url=| title= Riverside Jones Airport | publisher=Tulsa Airport Authority| accessdate=2011-10-07}}</ref> Its operations contribute over {{Nowrap|$3.2 million}} to the economy annually.<ref name="Riverside Jones Airport"/> At the head of the [[McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System]], the Tulsa Port of Catoosa is the most inland ocean-going port in the United States<ref name="Tulsa Port of Catoosa 2"/><ref>{{cite web | year=2005 | url= | title= Live in Tulsa | publisher=Tulsa Chamber of Commerce| accessdate=2007-07-14 | archiveurl= <!--Added by H3llBot--> | archivedate=2007-05-25}}</ref> and connects [[barge]] traffic from Tulsa to the Mississippi River via the [[Verdigris River|Verdigris]] and Arkansas rivers. The port is one of the largest in the United States<ref name="Tulsa Port of Catoosa"/> and contributes to one of the busiest waterways in the world via its course to the Gulf of Mexico.<ref name="Tulsa Port News">{{cite web | url= | title= What's new at the port? | publisher=Tulsa Port Authority| accessdate=2007-07-30}}</ref> Long distance passenger rail transportation serves Tulsa only through [[Greyhound Lines|Greyhound bus lines]], which provides bus connections to nearby cities with [[Amtrak]] stations.<ref>{{cite web | url=| title= Amtrak's Thruway Bus Service | publisher=Ribbon Rail Productions| accessdate=2008-05-25}}</ref>
===Medical facilities===
{{main|Medical facilities in Tulsa}}
The Saint Francis Health System owns several hospitals with a central location at Saint Francis Hospital in the southern part of the city. The facility contains 700 doctors and 918 beds,<ref>{{cite web | year=2006 | url= | title= Saint Francis Hospital | publisher=Saint Francis Health System| accessdate=2006-05-07}}</ref> and with more than 7,000 employees, the network is the second largest healthcare employer in the state.<ref>{{cite web | url= | archiveurl= | archivedate=2007-09-28 | title= Saint Francis Health System | publisher=Health Executive| accessdate=2007-05-07}}</ref> The health system also operates a heart hospital, which was named by [[General Electric]] in 2004 one of the most advanced heart hospitals in the nation.<ref>{{cite news | date=2007-01-13 | url=| title=GE Healthcare Announces Preview of Latest Advanced All-Digital Heart Hospital| publisher=The Healthcare Sales and Marketing Network | accessdate=2007-05-07}}</ref> St. John Medical Center, located in an 11-story midtown center, employs nearly 700 doctors.<ref>{{cite web | url= | title= About St. John| publisher=Saint John Healthcare System | accessdate=2007-05-07|archiveurl = |archivedate = July 16, 2007|deadurl=yes}}</ref> Other networks, such as Hillcrest Health System, operate a number of facilities in varying sizes.<ref>{{cite web | url= | title= Southwestern Regional Medical Center| publisher=Cancer Treatment Centers of America| accessdate=2007-05-07}}</ref> Beginning in 2007, the city elected to renew a five-year contract with [[Emergency Medical Services Authority|EMSA]] for ambulance service after a period of consideration to switch to the Tulsa Fire Department for providing such services.<ref>{{cite news | date=2007-01-12 | url=| first=P.J | last= Lassek | title=Tulsa mayor chooses to stick with EMSA| publisher=[[Tulsa World]] | accessdate=2007-05-07}}</ref>
==Sister cities==
In accordance with the Tulsa Global Alliance, which operates in conjunction with [[Sister Cities International]], an organization that began under President [[Dwight Eisenhower]] in 1956, Tulsa has been given eight international [[town twinning|sister cities]] in an attempt to foster cross-cultural understanding:<ref>{{cite web | url=| title=Tulsa's Sister Cities| publisher=Tulsa Global Alliance| accessdate=2007-11-02|archiveurl = |archivedate = November 21, 2007|deadurl=yes}}</ref><ref></ref>
* {{flagicon|China}} [[Beihai]], China
* {{flagicon|Germany}} [[Celle]], Germany<ref name="Celle">{{cite web |url= |title=Stadt Celle | |accessdate=2010-01-05 }}</ref>
* {{flagicon|France}} [[Amiens]], France
* {{flagicon|Mexico}} [[San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí|San Luis Potosí]], Mexico
* {{flagicon|Israel}} [[Tiberias]], Israel
* {{flagicon|Japan}} [[Utsunomiya]], Japan
* {{flagicon|Russia}} [[Zelenograd]], Russia
* {{flagicon|Taiwan}} [[Kaohsiung]], Taiwan
==See also==
{{portal|Geography|North America|United States|Oklahoma}}
* [[List of people from Tulsa, Oklahoma]]
* [[Tulsa (book)]]
* [[Tulsa (movie)]]
==External links==
{{Sister project links|Tulsa, Oklahoma}}
* [ Official City Website]
* [ Tulsa Chamber of Commerce]
* [ Tulsa Convention & Visitors Bureau]
* [ Official Tulsa Police Website]
* [ Vision 2025]
* [ Tulsa Parks]
* [ Tulsa's River Parks]
* [ Tulsa Foundation for Architecture]
* [ Green Country Business and Events Showcase]
| title = Articles Relating to Tulsa and [[Tulsa County, OK|Tulsa County]]
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{{Tulsa PS}}
{{Tulsa County, Oklahoma}}
{{Osage County, Oklahoma}}
{{Rogers County, Oklahoma}}
{{Wagoner County, Oklahoma}}
{{Oklahoma cities and mayors of 100,000 population}}
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[[uz:Tulsa (Oklahoma)]]

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