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The triple jump, sometimes referred to as the hop, step and jump or the hop, skip and jump, is a track and field sport, similar to the long jump. The competitor runs down the track and performs a hop, a bound and then a jump into the sand pit. The triple jump was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympics event since the Games' inception in 1896.

According to IAAF rules, "the hop shall be made so that an athlete lands first on the same foot as that from which he has taken off; in the step he shall land on the other foot, from which, subsequently, the jump is performed." [1]

The current male and female world record holders are Jonathan Edwards of Great Britain, with a jump of Template:T&Fcalc, and Inessa Kravets of Ukraine, with a jump of Template:T&Fcalc. Both records were set during 1995 World Championships in Gothenburg.

HistoryEdit

Historical sources on the ancient Olympic Games occasionally mention jumps of 15 meters or more. This led sports historians to conclude that these must have been a series of jumps, thus providing the basis for the triple jump.[2] However, there is no evidence for the triple jump being included in the ancient Olympic Games, and it is possible that the recorded extraordinary distances are due to artistic license of the authors of victory poems, rather than attempts to report accurate results.[3]

The triple jump was a part of the inaugural modern Olympics in Athens, although at the time it consisted of two hops on the same foot and then a jump. In fact, the first modern Olympic champion, James Connolly, was a triple jumper. Early Olympics also included the standing triple jump, although this has since been removed from the Olympic program and is rarely performed in competition today. The women's triple jump was introduced into the Atlanta Olympics in 1996.[4]

In Irish mythology the geal-ruith (triple jump), was an event contested in the ancient Irish Tailteann Games as early as 1829 BC.[5]

TechniqueEdit

The athlete sprints down a runway to a takeoff mark, from which the triple jump is measured. The takeoff mark is commonly a physical piece of wood or similar material embedded in the runway, or a rectangle painted on the runway surface. In modern championships a strip of plasticine, tape, or modeling clay is attached to the far edge of the board to record athletes overstepping or "scratching" the mark, defined by the trailing edge of the board. There are three phases of the triple jump: the "hop" phase, the "bound" or "step" phase, and the "jump" phase. These three phases are executed in one continuous sequence.

The hop starts with the athlete jumping from the take off board on one leg, which for descriptive purposes will be the right leg . The objective of the first phase is to hop out, focusing all momentum forward. The hop landing phase is very active, involving a powerful backward "pawing" action of the right leg, with the right take-off foot landing heel first on the runway. The hop landing also marks the beginning of the step phase, where the athlete utilises the backward momentum of the right leg to immediately execute a powerful jump forwards and upwards, the left leg assisting the take-off with a powerful hip flexion thrust. This leads to the familiar step-phase mid-air position, with the right take off leg trailing flexed at the knee, and the left leg now leading flexed at the hip and knee. The jumper then holds this position for as long as possible, before extending the knee of the leading left leg and then immediately beginning a powerful backward motion of the whole left leg, again landing on the runway with a powerful pawing action. The step landing forms the beginning of the take-off of the final phase (the jump), where the athlete utilises the backward force from the left leg to take off again. The jump phase is very similar to the long jump although most athletes have lost too much speed by this time to manage a full hitch kick, and most use a hang or sail technique. When landing in the sand-filled pit, the jumper should aim to avoid sitting back on landing, or placing either hand behind the feet. The sand pit usually begins 13m from the take off board for male international competition, or 11m from the board for international female and club-level male competition. Each phase of the triple jump should get progressively higher, and there should be a regular rhythm to the 3 landings.

A "foul", also known as a "scratch," or missed jump, occurs when a jumper oversteps the takeoff mark, misses the pit entirely, does not use the correct foot sequence throughout the phases, or does not perform the attempt in the allotted amount of time (usually about 90 seconds). When a jumper "scratches," the seated official will raise a red flag and the jumper who was "on deck," or up next, prepares to jump.

RecordsEdit

OutdoorEdit

Area Men's Women's
Mark (m) Athlete Mark (m) Athlete
World Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete
Continental records
Africa Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete
Asia Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete
Europe Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete
North, Central America
and Caribbean
Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete
Oceania Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete
South America Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete

Note: As in all track-and-field events, results cannot count towards records if they are Wind assisted (>2.0 m/s).

All-time top ten athletesEdit

Men (outdoor)Edit

RankMarkWind (m/s)AthleteLocationDate
1 Template:T&Fcalc 1.3 Template:Flagathlete Gothenburg August 7, 1995
2 Template:T&Fcalc −0.4 Template:Flagathlete Atlanta July 27, 1996
3 Template:T&Fcalc 0.3 Template:Flagathlete Moscow August 18, 2013
4 Template:T&Fcalc 1.5 Template:Flagathlete Indianapolis June 16, 1985
5 Template:T&Fcalc 0.1 Template:Flagathlete Daegu September 4, 2011
6 Template:T&Fcalc 1.6 Template:Flagathlete Rome August 31, 1987
1.9 Template:Flagathlete Odessa May 20, 1995
8 Template:T&Fcalc 0.4 Template:Flagathlete Belém May 20, 2007
1.0 Template:Flagathlete Bratislava June 20, 1990
10 Template:T&Fcalc 0.0 Template:Flagathlete Mexico City October 15, 1975

Men (indoor)Edit

RankMarkAthleteLocationDate
1 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Paris March 6, 2011
2 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Sindelfingen March 1, 1997
Template:Flagathlete Budapest March 7, 2004
4 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Grenoble February 2, 1994
5 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete New York City February 22, 1987
6 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Valencia March 9, 2008
7 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Bucharest February 18, 2006
8 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Paris March 6, 2011
Template:Flagathlete Moscow March 12, 2006
10 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Barcelona March 12, 1995

Women (outdoor)Edit

RankMarkWind (m/s)AthleteLocationDate
1 Template:T&Fcalc 0.9 Template:Flagathlete Gothenburg August 10, 1995
2 Template:T&Fcalc 0.5 Template:Flagathlete Beijing August 17, 2008
3 Template:T&Fcalc −0.5 Template:Flagathlete Heraklion July 4, 2004
4 Template:T&Fcalc 0.9 Template:Flagathlete Athens August 21, 2004
5 Template:T&Fcalc 0.0 Template:Flagathlete Monaco July 18, 2014
6 Template:T&Fcalc 0.3 Template:Flagathlete Rome July 11, 2003
7 Template:T&Fcalc 0.9 Template:Flagathlete Osaka August 31, 2007
8 Template:T&Fcalc 1.7 Template:Flagathlete Split September 4, 2010
9 Template:T&Fcalc 0.0 Template:Flagathlete Athens August 4, 1997
−0.3 Template:Flagathlete Sydney September 24, 2000

Women (indoor)Edit

RankMarkAthleteLocationDate
1 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Budapest 2004-03-06
2 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Valencia 1998-02-28
3 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Doha 2010-03-13
4 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Peanía 2008-02-13
5 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Valencia 2008-03-08
6 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Barcelona 1995-03-11
7 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Paris 1997-03-08
8 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Valencia 2008-03-08
9 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Maebashi 1999-03-07
Template:Flagathlete Bucharest 2000-02-05
Template:Flagathlete Tartu 2008-02-20

Olympic medalistsEdit

MenEdit

Template:Olympic medalists in men's triple jump

WomenEdit

Template:Olympic medalists in women's triple jump

World Championships medalistsEdit

MenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
1987 Rome Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
1991 Tokyo Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
1993 Stuttgart Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
1995 Gothenburg Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
1997 Athens Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
1999 Seville Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
2001 Edmonton Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
2003 Saint-Denis Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
2005 Helsinki Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
2007 Osaka Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
2009 Berlin Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
2011 Daegu Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
2013 Moscow Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete

WomenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1993 Stuttgart Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
1995 Gothenburg Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
1997 Athens Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
1999 Seville Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
2001 Edmonton Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
2003 Saint-Denis Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
2005 Helsinki Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
2007 Osaka Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
2009 Berlin Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
2011 Daegu Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
2013 Moscow Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete

Season's bestsEdit

MenEdit

YearDistanceAthletePlace
1967 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Chorzow
1968 Template:T&FcalcA Template:Flagathlete Ciudad de Mexico
1969 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Athina
1970 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Suhumi
1971 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Cali
1972 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Suhumi
1973 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Moscow
1974 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Rome
1975 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Mexico City
1976 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Rio de Janeiro
1977 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Sochi
1978 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Bratislava
1979 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete San Juan
1980 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Moscow
1981 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Sacramento
1982 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Provo
1983 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Moscow
1984 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Moscow
1985 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Indianapolis
1986 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Budapest
1987 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Rome
1988 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Sofia
1989 Template:T&Fcalci Template:Flagathlete Budapest
1990 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Stockholm
1991 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Tokyo
1992 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Zürich
1993 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Stuttgart
1994 Template:T&Fcalci Template:Flagathlete Grenoble
1995 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Gothenburg
1996 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Atlanta
1997 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Athens
1998 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Oslo
1999 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Seville
2000 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Sydney
2001 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Edmonton
2002 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Manchester
2003 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Haina
2004 Template:T&Fcalci Template:Flagathlete Budapest
2005 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Lausanne
2006 Template:T&Fcalci Template:Flagathlete Bucuresti
2007 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Belém
2008 Template:T&Fcalci Template:Flagathlete Valencia
2009 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Berlin
2010 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete New York City
2011 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Daegu
2012 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete London
2013 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Moscow
2014 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete La Habana

WomenEdit

YearDistanceAthletePlace
1986 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Indianapolis
1987 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Hamamatsu
1988 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Shijiazhuang
1989 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Stockholm
1990 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Sapporo
1991 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Moscow
1992 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Villeneuve d'Ascq
1993 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Stuttgart
1994 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Stara Zagora
1995 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Gothenburg
1996 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Sacramento
1997 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Athens
1998 Template:T&Fcalci Template:Flagathlete Maebashi
1999 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Seville
2000 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Yokohama
2001 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Edmonton
2002 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Radès
2003 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Rome
2004 Template:T&Fcalci Template:Flagathlete Budapest
2005 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete
Template:Flagathlete
Paris
Helsinki
2006 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Athens
2007 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Osaka
2008 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Beijing
2009 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Cheboksary
2010 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Split
2011 Template:T&Fcalc
Template:T&Fcalc Template:AthAbbr
Template:Flagathlete
Template:Flagathlete
Paris
Bogotá
2012 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Helsinki
2013 Template:T&Fcalci Template:Flagathlete Göteborg
2014 Template:T&Fcalc Template:Flagathlete Monaco
  • "i" denotes indoor performance.

ReferencesEdit

  1. "IAAF Competition Rules 2012-2013". http://www.iaaf.org/download/download?filename=7c4c7e46-8979-453d-a355-a736fdac2281.pdf&urlslug=Competition%20Rules%202012-13. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
  2. Rosenbaum, Mike (2012). An Illustrated History of the Triple Jump. Retrieved from http://trackandfield.about.com/od/triplejump/ss/illustriplejump.htm.
  3. Koski, Rissanen & Tahvanainen (2004). Antiikin urheilu. Olympian kentiltä Rooman areenoille. [The Sports of Antiquity. From the Fields of Olympia to Roman Arenas.] Jyväskylä: Atena Kustannus Oy. ISBN 951-796-341-6
  4. "Athletics at the 1996 Atlanta Summer Games: Women's Triple Jump". Sports-reference.com. http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/summer/1996/ATH/womens-triple-jump.html. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
  5. Adams, Patricia (2006-03-01). History of the Highland Games and Women in Scottish Athletics. ...contained in the Irish "Book of Leinster", which was written in the twelfth century AD...this book describes the Tailteann Games held at Telltown, County Meath from 1829 BC until at least 554 BC...included in these events...were the geal-ruith (triple jump). Clan MacTavish Genealogy and History, 1 March 2006. Retrieved from http://www.dunardry.net/ladies_lounge.html.
  6. Men's Outdoor Triple Jump Records. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  7. Women's Outdoor Triple Jump Records. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  8. Triple Jump - men - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  9. Triple Jump - women - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  10. Triple Jump - men - senior - indoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  11. Triple Jump - women - senior - indoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.

External linksEdit

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