American Football Database

A trick play, also known as a gadget play or a gimmick play, is a play in American football that uses deception and unorthodox strategies to fool the opposing team. A trick play is often risky, offering the potential for a large gain or a touchdown if it is successful, but with the chance of a significant loss of yards or a turnover if not. Trick plays are rarely used not only because of the riskiness, but to also maintain the element of surprise for when they are used.

Trick plays take advantage of the fact that nearly all American football plays are either a pass from the quarterback or a run by the halfback. As a result, defenses will think pass when the quarterback has the ball and run when the running back has it. They respond by quickly changing position in an attempt to block further motion of the offense's players. Trick plays depart from these expectations, attempting to have the defence move into position to block the wrong play. They tend only to work if they are unanticipated.


In an idealized form of American football, the quarterback is the basic unit of the offense, receiving the ball during the snap and then either throwing it or handing it off to another player. That player, the "receiver", attempts to move the ball forward past the line of scrimmage. If they are successful, the line moves forward to that point and the process continues through a series of "plays", eventually (ideally) to a touchdown.

Due to a variety of interacting rules, offensive plays generally fall into two distinct groups. Plays where the (planned) source of gains are through the quarterback throwing the ball forward are known as "passing plays", while those where the gains are due to the player running with the ball are "rushing plays". Rules governing which players are eligible to receive a pass results in the offensive team being split into groups; the guards protect the quarterback, wide receivers and ends are positioned at the line to run forward to receive passes, and the backs are positioned behind the line to receive the ball in a hand-off and then continue running forward for a rush.

The defensive team is not privy to which type of play will develop. To protect against common plays, their line ends up divided up much the same way as the offence, with the defensive tackle at the front both holding the line as well as attempting to threaten the quarterback, the defensive backs positioned behind the line to protect against pass plays, and the linebackers positioned to counter a rush. Once the play starts, the defensive players tend to collapse towards the action, preventing forward motion of the rush, or blocking a pass. This commitment to a course of action is typically safe; there is only one forward pass allowed per play, so once the ball is passed the rushers are out of the action and all the defenders can attempt to block the receiver, and while anyone can throw the ball forward, doing so is so specialized that once the quarterback hands off the ball or tosses to a runner, the possibility of a forward pass is generally eliminated.

Trick plays attempt to cause the defence to commit to a play in order to leave them badly out of position for the play that actually develops. A simple example is the end-around play, where one of the eligible receivers runs parallel to the line of scrimmage (see man-in-motion), takes the ball from the quarterback in a handoff or lateral toss, and then starts a rush. As the receiver would normally be expected to run down the field in order to catch a forward pass, the defensive back assigned to cover that motion starts opposite him some distance behind the line. If the back does not move laterally to match the motion of the receiver, the receiver may find themselves unopposed on the opposite side of the line once the play develops.

More dangerous trick plays normally combine multiple passes or hand-offs a single play. In the Flea Flicker, the ball is handed-off or laterally passed to a player in what appears to be a rush play. The player then passes the ball back to the quarterback, who throws it to the receivers. Properly timed, the defensive team will have started responding to the rush by moving forward, leaving the receivers wide open. However, timing the play is difficult, and with two lateral passes and a forward throw, the chances for error are great. A failure leaves the ball behind the line of scrimmage in what will almost certainly be a loss of yards.

Common trick plays

Common trick plays attempt to place the defence out of position by starting action in one direction, then completing it in another. There is no real "trick" being played in terms of deception, the defence simply reacts without considering the possibility of the ball carrier changing mid-play.

End arounds. In an end-around play, a wide receiver or split end runs laterally behind the line of scrimmage, takes a handoff from the quarterback, and continues around the opposite end of the line. Because the defense normally expects the wide receivers to run a downfield pass pattern, an end-around that catches the defenders by surprise can result in a big gain. The chance of this working, however, is relatively low against an alert defense.

Reverse A similar trick play is a reverse, which often begins as an end-around. In a reverse, a ball-carrier running parallel to the line of scrimmage in one direction hands off to a teammate coming in the opposite direction. This abruptly reverses the lateral flow of the play; if the defense is slow to react, the second ball-carrier might make it around the end of the line to a near-open field. Variations of the basic reverse include the double reverse (which involves a second flow-reversing handoff), exceedingly rare triple reverses involving even more handoffs, the fake reverse described below, and the reverse flea flicker.

Double pass Essentially a reverse conducted with lateral passes instead of hand-offs. This play differs from the following primarily in that the ball remains behind the line of scrimmage during the passes.

Halfback pass. (See also Halfback option play.) In this play the quarterback pitches the ball to a halfback as if it were an outside run, but instead of running up the field the halfback looks for an open receiver to pass the ball to. Teams that have a player who is both a skilled runner and passer use this play more often. Former San Diego Chargers running back LaDainian Tomlinson is a notable example, having thrown seven touchdown passes off halfback options in his career.

Wide receiver pass / Fake reverse. Similar to the halfback pass, the ball is given to a wide receiver on an end around or reverse, but instead of turning upfield he looks for a passing target (which in some situations might include the quarterback, who has run a pass pattern after the handoff.) Like the halfback pass, this play often utilizes a multi-skilled player; Antwaan Randle El is a wide receiver who played quarterback in college and is known for his ability to pass, throwing a 43-yard touchdown pass to Hines Ward, another wide receiver who also played as a quarterback in college, during Super Bowl XL.

Flea Flicker In the Flea Flicker, the ball is passed or thrown to a player to begin what appears to be a typical rush. Like the halfback pass, the receiver stops to throw the ball, but in this case, throws it back to the quarterback. The quarterback can then attempt a conventional pass play. This eliminates the need for the receiver to be a strong thrower, as the distances are normally kept short for these plays.

Reverse Flea Flicker. As the name implies, this is a combination of a reverse and a flea flicker. After one or more reverse handoffs, the ball is lateraled back to the quarterback, who looks for an open receiver downfield. As with all flea-flickers, the play is designed to trick the defensive backs into coming upfield prematurely to defend what they believe to be a rushing play.


The offense (left) run a "halfback direct snap": In this case, before the play the quarterback (#9) has gone to the far side of the field (lining up as a receiver), while the ball is being snapped directly to a running back (#22).

Halfback Direct Snap. These are plays, usually run from shotgun formations (or "Wildcat Offense" formations), where someone other than quarterback (usually, but not always, a halfback) takes the snap. From this start, the offense may try a running play, a passing play, or a flea-flicker.

Dual Quarterbacks The offense brings two quarterbacks onto the field for a play. This is typically utilized when a team's second or third-string quarterback has dual-threat ability, confusing the defense as to how the play will develop, and who will be passing the ball. Teams may keep one of the quarterbacks far wide as a receiver and throw a screen pass to him on a Double Pass play, where he then throws deep downfield or across the field to the scrambling quarterback. Seneca Wallace and Matt Hasselbeck were used in this package by the Seattle Seahawks in 2009. In Week 8 of the 2008 season, the Baltimore Ravens lined up Troy Smith at halfback next to Joe Flacco in the shotgun. Flacco handed the ball off to Smith, who rolled to the right, and then lobbed the pass back down the sideline to a sprinting Flacco for a gain of 43 yards.

Hook and lateral. Also known as a "hook and ladder", the hook and lateral play involves a lateral pass after a completed forward pass. The most common variant of this play involves a receiver who runs a curl pattern, catches a short pass, then immediately laterals the ball to another receiver running a crossing route. Sometimes known as a "circus".


Conventional trick plays involve the defence's inability to quickly react to changes in direction, based on the basic assumption that such changes rarely occur. Another class of trick plays are deliberately more tricky, involving deception about the position of the ball, the state of the play, or taking advantages of tricks in the rules.

Statue of Liberty. The "Statue of Liberty play" starts with a snap to the quarterback, who falls back, preparing for a pass. Normally the snap is caught in two hands, and then the ball is moved to the throwing hand (typically right) while the non-throwing arm moves lower. In this trick, the quarterback carries out the same motions, but moves the ball to the non-throwing hand. When he fakes the pass, the non-throwing arm is moved behind his back, hiding the ball. One of the backs, running in the direction opposite the fake pass, takes the ball and starts a rush. Like the reverse, the goal is to catch the defence on the wrong side of the line, and can be a high-value play when executed successfully. However, the movements and timing required are difficult and can easily lead to blown plays.

Fumblerooski. In the fumblerooski, the quarterback takes the snap and immediately places the ball, unseen by the defence, on the ground. This is technically a fumble, and thus the name of the play. The quarterback then moves away from the ball, faking a pass or setting up for a fake hand-off to one side of the line. Meanwhile, one of the backs picks up the ball and starts a rush in the opposite direction. In general terms the play is very similar to the Statue of Liberty, although it gives the quarterback more room for motion.

Bounce rooski. After taking the snap, the quarterback drops back slightly and pretends to pass to one of the receivers near the line of scrimmage. However, he deliberately passes short, so the ball bounces off the ground near the intended receiver. The receiver then catches the ball nonchalantly as it bounces up again. If the ball had moved forward, hitting the ground would trigger the end of the play as an incomplete pass. However, this is not the case for a lateral pass, where the bounce is technically a fumble, and play continues.

Key to the bounce rooski is that everyone on the offensive team has to pretend that its an incomplete pass. This typically happens with the receiver never starting motion, all of the offensive players stopping and leisurely returning to their places on the line, and everyone basically relaxing. If the fake is successful, when the defence does the same, the receiver can run off unopposed, or, as it was a lateral pass, make a forward pass after the receivers have had ample time to move far down the field.

The trick only works if the offensive team "plays it" well, and none of the defenders notices exactly where the ball hit the ground. In the event either fails, the defenders can simply grab the ball from the stationary receiver, making this a dangerous ploy. Although the name implies great similarities with the fumblerooski, the two are very different in terms of on-field action.

One of the famed examples of the bounce rooski was Nebraska vs Oklahoma in 1982, seen in this YouTube video. In this example it does not appear that all of the defenders were fooled.

Fake punt. This play can take a number of different forms. Usually the punter will simply take the snap and look to throw a pass or run with the ball after the defenders have turned downfield to block for the punt return. In another variation, the ball may be snapped directly to one of the backs (usually a halfback or fullback) who then runs downfield or throws.

Fake field goal. As with a fake punt, there are a number of different forms for a fake field goal. Usually the holder (often the punter or backup quarterback on most teams) will throw or run as with the fake punt. Danny White was both quarterback and punter for the Dallas Cowboys in the 1980s and often executed this play. Less frequently, the placekicker, who virtually never handles the ball in an American football game, will serve as the passer or rusher on a fake field goal. Examples include then-New England kicker Adam Vinatieri receiving a direct snap and throwing a touchdown pass during an NFL game in 2004, and LSU kicker Colt David rushing for a 15-yard touchdown in 2007 after receiving the ball on a blind lateral from holder (and starting QB) Matt Flynn.

Fake procedure. Going by a variety of names, this trick involves the quarterback getting up and walking away from his position behind the center before the snap, apparently in order to hear the call from the coach or to call a timeout.

However, as one player is allowed to be in motion before the snap, play is not technically stopped. If the defence relaxes, believing the quarterback is about to walk to the sidelines, the ball can be snapped to one of the other players and played against a defence that is unprepared. If the defence is not fooled, the quarterback can simply complete the fake task, and return to the center to call the snap.

The Indianapolis Colts, New Orleans Saints, Pittsburgh Steelers, and St. Louis Rams have used variations of this play in the NFL, and it was also used in the movie The Longest Yard (2005) for a winning two-point conversion. Under some state high school rules, if the quarterback or coaches on the sideline say anything that may lead the defense to believe that a snap is not imminent, then the play is not legal under the Unfair Act section of Rule 9.

Fake spike. When the clock is running low, it is not uncommon for a quarterback to spike the ball to stop the clock, either to set up for the next play or bring on the special teams. Here too, the objective is to trick the defense into believing that no downfield play will be run.

A famous example occurred in 1994 with the Clock Play, when Dan Marino’s Dolphins were playing the Jets. From the account of Pat Kirwan, former Jets defensive coach and executive,[1]

With little time left, Marino had driven the Dolphins near our goal line and lined up as if he were going to spike the ball to stop the clock. But instead, he faked the spike, and as our defense let up for a split second, Marino threw the winning touchdown.

Peyton Manning is also a frequent user of the fake spike, and "sold it" so well in a 2001 game against New Orleans that the referee Jeff Triplette blew the whistle to stop the play, costing the Colts a probable touchdown.[2]

Famous trick plays

  • In the Music City Miracle, the Tennessee Titans used a kickoff return play containing two designed backward passes, one traveling nearly the width of the field, to defeat the Buffalo Bills in a 2000 NFL wild card playoff game.
  • The Boise State Broncos famously used three trick plays in rapid succession near the end of the 2007 Fiesta Bowl to pull off a 43-42 victory over Oklahoma. The three plays were a hook-and-lateral play, a wide receiver option, and a Statue of Liberty play.
  • The Nebraska Cornhuskers scored a famous touchdown in the 1984 Orange Bowl against the Miami Hurricanes on a fumblerooski play. The ball was deliberately left sitting on the field during a fake sweep, allowing Nebraska lineman Dean Steinkuhler to surreptitiously pick it up and run unchallenged towards the endzone. The play has subsequently been banned at most levels of competitive football.
  • On December 18, 2011, the Carolina Panthers ran the trick play "Annexation of Puerto Rico" against the Houston Texans scoring a touchdown on the play. The play was based on a similar play from the 1994 film Little Giants. However, unlike the film which used a fumblerooski (illegal in the NFL), quarterback Cam Newton lined up next to fullback Richie Brockel, surreptitiously handing the ball to the fullback through his legs. Newton rolled right pretending to still be holding the ball, while Brockel immediately turned left and ran in for a touchdown while the defenders followed Newton.[3]

See also