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The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina
File:Citadelcrest.jpg
Established1842
TypePublic university
Endowment$208.5 million[1]
PresidentLt Gen. John W. Rosa, Jr., USAF, Ret.
Students3,540
Undergraduates2,340 cadets, 200 non-cadets (active duty, veteran and evening students)
Postgraduates1,000 civilians
LocationCharleston, SC, USA
32°47′50″N 79°57′40″W / 32.79722°N 79.96111°W / 32.79722; -79.96111Coordinates: 32°47′50″N 79°57′40″W / 32.79722°N 79.96111°W / 32.79722; -79.96111
CampusUrban, 300 acres (121 ha)
ColorsBlue[2][3] and White         
NicknameBulldogs
MascotSpike and live mascots General and Boo V
Websitewww.citadel.edu

The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina, also known simply as The Citadel, is a state-supported, comprehensive college located in Charleston, South Carolina, United States; founded in 1842. It is one of the six Senior Military Colleges in the United States. It has 16 academic departments divided into five schools offering 18 majors and 35 minors. The core day program consists of military cadets pursuing bachelor's degrees who are required to live on campus for all four years. The evening program, known as The Citadel Graduate College, includes a large postgraduate program and a small number of part-time students pursuing undergraduate degrees. The Citadel is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.[4]

College overview

File:Cadet US Flag.jpg

Cadet folding the US flag

The Citadel is a state military college which combines academics, physical challenges and military discipline. The South Carolina Corps of Cadets is one of the largest uniformed student bodies in the United States and the school is one of only two colleges where all full-time undergraduates are required to be cadets and participate in ROTC.[5] In addition to the cadet program, evening civilian programs are offered through the Citadel Graduate College with its undergraduate and graduate programs. The academic program is divided into five schools - Engineering, Science and Mathematics, Humanities and Social Sciences, Business Administration, and Education; Bachelor's degrees are offered in 18 major programs of study and 35 minors. The graduate school offers 2 educational specialist courses, 16 master's degrees and 7 graduate certificates; a 2+2 evening program allows those with associate degrees from Trident Technical College to pursue bachelor's degrees in 4 subjects. 95% of the faculty hold doctoral degrees and the majority are full-time professors; the ratio of cadets to faculty is 13-1 and the average class size is 20.[6]

The Citadel enrolls 2,300 in its undergraduate Corps of Cadets and 1,200 civilian students in the evening programs; women comprise 7% of the Corps and minorities 14%. Approximately half of The Citadel's enrollment is from the state of South Carolina; cadets come from 45 states and 10 foreign countries.[7] South Carolina residents receive a discount in tuition, as is common at state-sponsored schools. The Citadel receives 8% of its operating budget from the state.[8]

In 2012, the school's ROTC program commissioned 183 officers, more than any other senior military college and ranking only behind the service academies.[9][10][11][12]

All students, both cadets and civilian students, are eligible to compete on The Citadel's athletic teams. While all programs make use of the Citadel campus and professors, cadets and civilian students do not share classes and only cadets live on campus.[13][14] The exception to this is the veterans program, reinstated in the fall of 2007, which allows cadets who left The Citadel for active military duty to return as civilians, attend classes with cadets, and complete their degrees if certain criteria are met.[15] Enlisted members from the Marine Corps and Navy also attend cadet classes as part of a program to commission highly-qualified NCOs.[16]

The mission of The Citadel is:

to educate and develop our students to become principled leaders in all walks of life by instilling the core values of The Citadel in a disciplined and intellectually challenging environment. A unique feature of this environment for the South Carolina Corps of Cadets is the sense of camaraderie produced through teamwork and service to others while following a military lifestyle.[17]

History

The Citadel presidents
Captain William F. Graham, USA 1843–1844
Major Richard W. Colcock, USA 1844–1852
Major Francis W. Capers, CSA 1852–1859
Major Peter F. Stevens, SCM 1859–1861
Major James B. White, SCM 1861–1865
Colonel John P. Thomas, CSA 1882–1885
BrigGen George D. Johnston, CSA 1885–1890
Colonel Asbury Coward, CSA 1890–1908
Colonel Oliver J. Bond, SCM 1908–1931
General Charles P. Summerall, USA 1931–1953
Colonel Louis S. LeTellier, SCM 1953-1954 (Interim)
General Mark W. Clark, USA 1954–1965
General Hugh P. Harris, USA 1965–1970
MajGen James A. Duckett, SCM '32 1970–1974
LtGen George M. Seignious, USA '42 1974–1979
VADM James B. Stockdale, USN 1979–1980
MajGen James Grimsley, Jr., USA '42 1980–1989
LtGen Cladius E. Watts, USAF '58 1989–1996
BrigGen Roger C. Poole, USAR '59 1996-1997 (Interim)
MajGen John S. Grinalds, USMC 1997–2005
BrigGen Roger C. Poole, USAR '59 2005-2006 (Interim)
LtGen John W. Rosa, Jr., USAF '73 2006–present

Early history

In 1829 a structure was built on what is now Marion Square in downtown Charleston to house arms and ammunition, federal troops from nearby Fort Moultrie began guarding the new state arsenal in 1830 and in 1832 they were replaced by state militia. Over the next 10 years arsenals throughout the state were consolidated in Charleston and Columbia, Governor John Richardson eventually proposed converting both into military academies and on December 20, 1842 the South Carolina Legislature passed "an Act to convert the Arsenal at Columbia and the citadel and magazine in and near Charleston, into Military Schools" thereby transforming the two state arsenals into the South Carolina Military Academy. The act specified:

That the students when admitted, shall be formed into a military corps, and shall constitute the public guard of the Arsenal at Columbia, and of the Citadel and Magazine in and near Charleston...to guard effectually, the public arms and other property at the places aforsaid...[18]

The first 20 cadets reported to the Citadel Academy at Marion Square in downtown Charleston on March 20, 1843, a date now celebrated as "Corps Day". Initially both schools operated as separate institutions governed by a common Board of Visitors, in 1845 the Arsenal Academy in Columbia became an auxiliary to the Citadel Academy in Charleston; first year students attended the Arsenal then transferred to the Citadel Academy to complete their education. Both schools continued to operate during the Civil War but the Arsenal in Columbia was burned by Union forces and never reopened.[19]

Mexican–American War

Citadel cadets and faculty members trained South Carolina's "Palmetto Regiment" for service in the Mexican–American War; 17 graduates and cadets fought with the unit which teamed with U.S. Marines to enter the famous "Halls of Montezuma" in Mexico City in 1847.[20] Lt. William J. Magill, a member of the first graduating class of 1846 was the first alumnus to serve in the U.S. Army and was a member of the 3d Dragoons under future President Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War.[21]:10

Civil War and aftermath

When South Carolina seceded from the Union in December 1860, Major Robert Anderson moved his garrison of U.S. troops to Fort Sumter and requested reinforcements from the federal government. On January 9, 1861, a battery on Morris Island manned by Citadel Academy cadets fired on the Federal steamer Star of the West, preventing it from reaching Fort Sumter with troops and supplies and thus firing what some consider the first shots of the Civil War.[22] Citadel cadets also manned several guns at "the battery" on Charleston harbor during the firing on Fort Sumter of April 12–13, 1861;[21]:23 The first shot of the bombardment is believed by many historians to have been fired by Second Lieutenant Henry S. Farley, Class of 1860.[23]

On January 28, 1861, the Corps of Cadets of The SC Military Academy was made part of the military organization of the state and named the Battalion of State Cadets. The Academy continued to operate as a military academy, but classes were often disrupted when the governor called the cadets into military service. Mounting and manning heavy guns, performing guard duty, providing security and escorting prisoners were among the services performed by the cadets. The Battalion of State Cadets participated in eight engagements during the Civil War. As a result of these actions, the flag of the South Carolina Corps of Cadets carries the following Confederate battle streamers:[24][25][26]:11

File:South Carolina State Arsenal, Marion Square, Charleston (Charleston County, South Carolina).jpg

The old Citadel, Charleston in 1940.

  1. Confederate States Army
  2. Star of the West, January 9, 1861
  3. Wappoo Cut, November 1861
  4. James Island, June 1862
  5. Charleston and Vicinity, July–October 1863
  6. James Island, June 1864
  7. Tulifinny, December 1864
  8. James Island, December 1864-February 1865
  9. Williamston, May 1865

(The Confederate States Army streamer is gray embroided in silver and the remainder embroidered in blue)[25]

In early December 1864, Governor Bonham ordered the Battalion of State Cadets to Tulifinny Creek to join a small Confederate force defending the Charleston and Savannah Railroad. On December 7 and December 9 the entire Corps of Cadets fought a much larger Union force (including a contingent of U.S. Marines), successfully defending the rail line and forcing the Union troops to withdraw; the cadets suffered eight casualties including one killed and they were commended for their display of discipline and gallantry under fire winning the admiration of the veteran troops who fought with them; it is also the only occasion when the entire student body of a U.S. college fought in combat.[27][28][29] The Citadel is also one of a handful of colleges to have received a battle streamer for wartime service. Other schools include the University of Alabama,[30] Florida State University (then known as Florida Military and Collegiate Institute),[31] the University of Hawaii,[32] the United States Merchant Marine Academy,[33] the University of Mississippi,[34] the College of William and Mary,[35] and Virginia Military Institute.[36]

On February 18, 1865, the school ceased operation as a college when Union troops entered Charleston and occupied the site. Following the war, the Board of Visitors eventually regained possession of The Citadel campus and with the urging of Governor Johnson Hagood, Class of 1847 the South Carolina Legislature passed an act to reopen the college. The 1882 session began with an enrollment of 185 cadets.

Into the 20th century

File:Citadel Bulldog.jpg

The Citadel bulldog mascot

In the war with Spain in 1898, more Citadel alumni volunteered for service than were needed.[citation needed] In World War I, Citadel graduates were among the first contingents of American troops to fight with the Australian, and later British and French divisions; several served prominently with the Marine Corps at the Battle of Belleau Wood. By that time, The Citadel had outgrown its campus on Marion Square, despite numerous building additions. The name of the college was officially changed in 1910 to "The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina"; the word "Academy" had become synonymous with secondary schools, and the public had the misconception that the South Carolina Military Academy was a preparatory school.[37] In 1918, the city of Charleston offered the state of South Carolina 176 acres (71 ha) on the banks of the Ashley River for a new campus on the condition that the state fund the construction of a new Citadel campus there.[38] The state accepted the offer on February 26, 1919, and alloted $300,000 towards the construction of a new campus.[39] The college moved to its current location in 1922.

The title of the head of The Citadel was changed from superintendent to president in 1921, when The Citadel moved to its present location. Col Oliver J. Bond was the last superintendent and the first president of The Citadel.

Women at The Citadel

The Corps of Cadets was officially all male until 1996, in 1995 Shannon Faulkner won a legal battle and was granted admission by order of a federal judge; she reported the first day of knob (freshmen) orientation, but was admitted to the school's infirmary immediately following lunch on the first day of military training. Faulkner remained in the infirmary for less than a week and quit.[40][41][42][43]

A Supreme Court ruling in a discrimination lawsuit against Virginia Military Institute eventually compelled the school to officially change its admission policy to admit women.[44] The first group of four female cadets matriculated in August 1996.[45] Using credits from another college Nancy Mace completed her degree in three years and became the first female graduate in Corps history on May 9, 1999;[46][47] Czech born Petra Lovetinska was the first female graduate to have attended for four years and the first foreign female cadet as well as the first female graduate to be commissioned into the U.S. military.[48] Lovetinska received her citizenship by Act of Congress.[49]

As of July 2012, women comprise 7% of the Corps of Cadets and 21% of the overall student body.[50] In 2006 a survey by the college revealed that roughly 70% of female cadets claimed to have experienced sexual harassment on campus and 19% claimed to have been a victim of sexual assault.[51]

Graduation 2012 marked another milestone in the history of women at The CItadel when Shanna M. Couch and Alexandria R. Burns were named First and Second Honor Graduates respectively. This was the first time in school history that either of the top two graduates of a class were women. A four year starter on the soccer team, Couch was also the first woman at The Citadel to receive an NCAA Postgraduate Scholarship.[52] Burns, a native of Pendleton South Carolina, was recognised for her remarkable academic achievement by the Anderson County Council in a resolution passed in June 2012.[53]

Rankings

File:Big Red Flag.jpg

Replica of The Citadel flag flown by cadets between 1861 to 1865

In 2012, U.S. News & World Report ranked The Citadel highest among public institutions in the "Regional Universities - South" category and fifth out of all universities (public and private) in the same category,[54] defined as those institutions offering "a full range of undergrad programs and some master's programs but few doctoral programs".[55] In 2012 U.S. News & World Report also ranked The Citadel as the eighth best value among institutions in the "Regional Universities - South" category,[54] In 2005 Newsweek magazine named The Citadel as one of America's "hottest colleges".[56]

U.S. News & World Report also ranked The Citadel's School of Engineering 17th among all undergraduate engineering programs in the United States in 2012 and ranked the civil engineering program eighth in undergraduate engineering specialty programs.[54][57]

In 2010, The Citadel ranked first nationally in graduation rate for public colleges with students having an average SAT score of 1000-1200.[58] As of 2012, the 4 year graduation rate is 63% compared to a national average of 30%;[59] the 6 year rate is 72%.[60]

Student life

Undergraduate cadets at The Citadel are members of the South Carolina Corps of Cadets. Cadets must meet physical fitness and SAT/ACT testing standards for acceptance into the Corps of Cadets.[61] On occasion, waivers to height/weight standards can be granted upon successful completion of the physical training test. On most days, cadets have both morning and afternoon physical (fitness) training, called "PT", military instruction on leadership, weapons, drill, and discipline, in addition to their regular college classes.

Most weekdays start with a formal muster and inspection of all personnel and their rooms. Cadets then march to structured military meals. After a day spent in classes, sports, intramurals and other activities, the day usually ends with an evening muster formation and mandatory evening study period during which there is enforced quiet time and all cadets are required to be in the barracks, library or academic buildings. Cadets are restricted to campus during the week but are allowed general leave on weekends and have limited but gradually escalating privileges for weekend and overnight passes.

Because The Citadel emphasizes corps unity and discipline, cadets may not be married and must live on campus in the barracks with their assigned company. The Citadel emphasizes an extremely strict disciplinary and physical fitness indoctrination for fourth-class cadets, who are called knobs because of the shaved heads[26]:93 they must maintain until the end of their first year when they are then recognized as upperclassmen.

Cadets who accumulate too many demerits or breach regulations can be punished by serving confinements or tours. A tour is one hour spent marching in the barracks with a rifle at shoulder arms and is normally performed when a cadet would otherwise be permitted to leave campus. A confinement is one hour spent in a cadet's room when they would normally be permitted to leave campus.

File:Citadel Class Ring II.jpg

Citadel Class Ring

First class cadets, those in their senior year, receive their class rings at a special ring presentation ceremony, which was previously held in the college's chapel, but which now takes place in the school's field house. The Citadel ring is 10 karat gold with no gem stone and is one of the heaviest all-precious/semi-precious metal college rings in the United States. The design is common to all cadets and the design does not change with each class with the exception of the class year. Active-duty and evening undergraduate students receive a ring which is the same size, but with a different design.[26]:188-20[62]

One of the core values of The Citadel is a strictly enforced Honor Code that mandates that all cadets and students not lie, cheat, steal or tolerate those who do. A cadet run Honor Court investigates all alleged violations and conducts trials, expulsion is the usual penalty when found guilty.

Included in The Citadel Graduate College student body are numerous active duty Marine and Navy enlisted personnel attending The Citadel under the Seaman To Admiral program (STA-21) and the Marine Enlisted Commissioning Education Program (MECEP), which originated at The Citadel in 1973.[63]

The Regimental Band and Pipes

Established in 1909, the Regimental Band is one of the twenty-one companies that comprise the current Corps and is a prominent feature at every formal parade. Prospective members must pass an audition. None of the band's members are music majors as The Citadel does not offer such a major, yet the band and pipes enjoy an international reputation. Selected by the Director of the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo to represent the United States at the 2010 Silver Jubilee Tattoo, The Citadel Regimental Band and Pipes performed their own seven minute segment of the Jubilee program in August 2010 as well as performing as part of the massed pipes and massed bands. This was The Citadel's second appearance at the Tattoo having also appeared there in 1991. In the summer of 2013 the Band and Pipes has been invited to perform at The Royal Nova Scotia International Tattoo in Halifax, Canada.[64][65] The Citadel Regimental Pipe Band, established by General Mark W. Clark in 1955, is one of the few college bagpipe bands in the country[66] and it performs at the weekly parade at The Citadel as well as at numerous other public events. The Citadel Regimental Band participated in the Presidential Inaugural parade in 1953, and again combined with the pipe band in the 1961 and 1985 Presidential Inaugural parades.

File:SGuards.jpg

The Summerall Guards performing the Citadel Series.

Summerall Guards

One of the most unique and elite cadet units is the Summerall Guards, a silent drill team consisting of 61 cadets chosen each spring from the junior class. Founded in 1932 the team performs a routine called The Citadel Series that has changed very little from its inception and has never been written down, the Guards have performed at numerous high profile events around the U.S. including three presidential inaugurations, the National Cherry Blossom Festival, Mardi Gras in New Orleans and at several NFL games.[67]

The Honors Program

An Honors Program is available for cadets with exceptional academic standing and includes a core curriculum of honors courses conducted by the most highly rated faculty members, small seminars and classes are conducted in a discussion type forum that encourages intellectual advancement. The program also assists the most highly qualified cadets in applying for scholarships, grants and merit based internships; since 1992 The Citadel has produced 13 Fulbright Scholars and 4 Truman Scholars.[68]

Each year cadets participate in study abroad programs in numerous foreign countries, an internship program in Washington, DC allows cadets an opportunity to work at various government agencies and in the offices of congressmen and senators. Summer internship programs are available in many cities with major U.S. corporations.[69]

Athletics

File:TheCitadelBulldogsLogo.png

Athletic logo - "Spike" the Bulldog

The Citadel competes in NCAA Division I and has been a member of the Southern Conference since 1936; the school mascot is the Bulldog. Men's intercollegiate sports are football, basketball, baseball, wrestling, cross country, indoor and outdoor track, rifle, tennis and golf; women sports are volleyball, soccer, cross country, indoor and outdoor track, rifle and golf. Numerous club sports include lacrosse, rugby, pistol, sailing, crew, ice hockey and triathlon.

The Citadel Bulldogs baseball team has won 20 Southern Conference regular season and tournament championships, most recently in 2010. The 1990 team won the Atlantic Regional, earning the school its first trip to the College World Series (CWS) and finishing the season ranked sixth in the final Collegiate Baseball poll with a record of 46–14; they also became the first military school to play in the CWS. Numerous alumni have played in the major leagues in recent years; Head Coach Fred Jordan '79 is the school's winningest with more than 700 victories as of the 2012 season.[70]

The football team has won two Southern Conference Championships and appeared in the Division I-AA playoffs (now FCS) three times; the 1992 squad went 11-2 and finished the regular season ranked #1 in the I-AA poll.[71] As of 2010 the football program had a graduation success rate of 90% compared to the Division I average of 65% [72] Several alumni have played in the NFL including current WR/KR Andre Roberts of the Arizona Cardinals and CB Cortez Allen of the Pittsburgh Steelers. FB Nehemiah Broughton '05 also recently played with the Washington Redskins, Arizona Cardinals and New York Giants; K Greg Davis '87 had a 12-year career with several teams including Arizona and the Atlanta Falcons, ESPN color commentator Paul Maguire '60 played for three AFL champions with the Buffalo Bills and former Arizona Cardinals running back Lyvonia "Stump" Mitchell '81 has been a head coach at two Division I colleges and served as an assistant for the Seattle Seahawks and Washington Redskins.

Completed in 2005, the Inouye Rifle Center is utilized by cadets, law enforcement and the South Carolina National Guard. The rifle team has won four national championships.[73]

In 2010 The Citadel had a graduation success rate for athletes of 87%; this compares to the national Division I average of 70%.

Campus

File:Inside PT Barracks.jpg

Checkerboard Quadrangle of Padgett Thomas Barracks

The Citadel sits on a 300-acre (120 ha) tract of land on the Ashley River. There are 27 buildings grouped around a 10-acre (4.0 ha) grass parade ground. The buildings around the parade ground include ten classroom buildings, an administration building, five barracks, mess hall, a student activities building, chapel, library, a yacht club, a marksmanship center, a field house, faculty housing area and various support facilities including a laundry, cadet store, tailor shop and power plant. The campus is bounded on the west by the Ashley River, to the north by the Wagener Terrace neighborhood, to the east by Hampton Park and the Hampton Park Terrace neighborhood, and to the South by the Westside Neighborhood. Just off the main campus are the football stadium, baseball stadium, and alumni center. Additionally, there is a large beach house facility located near the north end of the Isle of Palms.[74]

The Daniel Library
The Daniel Library was opened in 1960 with major renovations completed in the fall of 2010. It houses over 200,000 volumes of material as well as electronic access to thousands of journals. The third floor of the building houses the campus archives and museum. The Prioleau Room on the first floor houses special collections and is considered by many as one of the best places on campus to study with its dark wood paneling and fireplace.

The Citadel Graduate College

The Citadel’s evening graduate program serves the Lowcountry by offering regionally and professionally accredited bachelor's, master's and specialist degrees scheduled around the student’s profession, family and lifestyle. CGC offers 19 graduate programs with concentrations in education, psychology, computer science and business.[note 1] The Masters of Business Administration program is the only nationally accredited MBA program in the Lowcountry region of South Carolina. CGC also offers undergraduate evening programs in business and engineering.

Core values

In its vision statement the Citadel Board of Visitors identifies the following as the school's "core values:"[75]

  • Honor: First and foremost honor includes adherence to the Honor Code of The Citadel. A cadet “will not lie, cheat or steal, nor tolerate those who do”. The commitment to honor extends beyond the gates of The Citadel and is a life-long obligation to moral and ethical behavior. In addition, honor includes integrity; “doing the right thing when no one is watching”. Finally, honorable behavior includes exercising the moral courage to “do the right thing when everyone is watching”. The Honor Code is the foundation of our academic enterprise.
  • Duty: First and foremost duty means to accept and accomplish the responsibilities assigned to me. At The Citadel, my primary duty is to perform academically and then to perform as a member of the Corps of Cadets and the campus community. I accept the consequences associated with my performance and actions. Once I have held myself accountable for my actions, then I will hold others accountable for their actions. Finally, duty means that others can depend on me to complete my assignments and to assist them with their assignments. Duty is also a call to serve others before self.
  • Respect: First and foremost respect means to treat other people with dignity and worth – the way you want others to treat you. Respect for others eliminates any form of prejudice, discrimination, or harassment (including but not limited to rank, position, age, race, color, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, national origin, religion, physical attributes, etc.). In addition, respect for others means to respect the positions of those in authority which include faculty, staff, administrators, active duty personnel and the leadership of the Corps of Cadets. Finally, respect includes a healthy respect for one’s self.

Leadership training

ROTC

All cadets are required to undergo four years of ROTC training in one of the four branches of the armed services, but they are not required to enter military service after graduation.

Krause Center

Established with a gift from L. William Krause '64, the Krause Center for Leadership and Ethics offers symposiums, classes and training seminars to help instill the principles of leadership, ethics, morals and service. A minor in leadership studies is also sponsored through this program. Training is conducted each year for freshmen and sophomores on honor and ethics. Leadership classes are also given to cadets in the senior chain of command. The institute also sponsors programs that offer cadets an opportunity to perform community service and instill a sense of commitment to one's fellow man.[76]

Summer camp

File:Knobs on the Quad.jpg

Knobs on the quad

"The Citadel Summer Camp", a summer camp for boys and girls ages 10 to 15, was held at The Citadel every summer from 1957 until 2006. Founded by General Mark Wayne Clark, its purpose was to develop and strengthen the physical, mental, ethical, spiritual, patriotic and social characteristics of campers.[77] The Citadel Summer Camp ceased operation in 2006 because of financial issues, space limitations and pressure from several pending lawsuits concerning sexual misconduct.[78][79]

Cadet Officer Leadership School

Selected members of Air Force JROTC units from the Southeastern United States cadets are eligible to spend a week at The Citadel for officer training for their home JROTC units. A routine day attending Cadet Officer Leadership School (COLS) begins with waking up to Reveille for morning PT, the remainder of the day is uniform wear and inspection, two classes and constant regulation drill. On the day of graduation from the school, cadets participate in a "pass in review" ceremony where awards and decorations are given to certain cadets who have gone above the normal standards. A PT ribbon and a Leadership School ribbon are given to all cadets who graduate from COLS back at their home unit.

Alumni

The Citadel has produced a wealth of distinguished alumni in many different career fields; well known alumni include longtime U.S. Senator Ernest "Fritz" Hollings, best selling novelist Pat Conroy, football commentator Paul Maguire, Space Shuttle astronaut Colonel Randy Bresnik, Arizona Cardinals wide receiver Andre Roberts and the longest serving Commander of the U.S. Navy Blue Angels Captain Greg McWherter.[80] Notable alumni include 6 governors, 3 U.S. senators, 12 congressmen, the presidents of 46 colleges and universities, the Director of the U.S. Olympic Committee and many professional athletes.[81]

Approximately 40% of graduates are commissioned as military officers in the active or reserve components with another 10% going directly to graduate programs; alumni currently serve in all five military services. Over the years, 271 Citadel alumni have reached the top ranks in the military by becoming flag officers (generals, rear admirals or commodores), ten have served as a state Adjutant General.[82]

During World War II of the 2,976 living graduates all but 49 served in the military;[83] the entire class of 1944 was inducted into the U.S. armed forces and only two members graduated.[84] Alumni served with some of the most famous units of the war including the Flying Tigers, Doolittle Raiders and the RAF Eagle Squadrons formed from American volunteers. Seven alumni have served as pilots with the two U.S. military flight demonstration units, the Thunderbirds and Blue Angels; graduates have served as commanders of both squadrons.[85][86] Alumni also serve in the military services of foreign countries including 5 four star generals from Thailand and the head of Jordan's Security Forces.[81]

Citadel alumni were killed in action during the Mexican–American War (6), Civil War (67), World War I (15), World War II (280), Korean War (32), Vietnam War (68), Lebanon (1), Grenada (1), the Gulf War (1), and the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan (18).[87]

Fictional depictions

In film

  • In the film For the Boys (1991), Bette Midler's son graduates as Regimental Commander of the Corps of Cadets.[88] His commencement speech is filmed in front of 2nd Battalion Barracks.
  • Major Ben Marco, Denzel Washington's character in the movie The Manchurian Candidate (2004), was a graduate of The Citadel.
  • Several scenes of the movie Dear John (2010) were filmed at The Citadel.[89]

In literature

  • A thinly veiled depiction of The Citadel provides the background for Calder Willingham's novel End as a Man (1947) and the film adaptation, The Strange One (1957).
  • Pat Conroy's 1980 novel The Lords of Discipline was based on Conroy's experience as a cadet at The Citadel during the 1960s and on his research of other military schools. This book is a fictitious account of the first African American cadet at The Citadel and the class struggle that ensued to both keep and reject the cadet. The novel outraged many of his fellow graduates of The Citadel, who felt that the book was a thinly veiled portrayal of campus life that was highly unflattering. The rift was not healed until 2000, when Conroy was awarded an honorary degree and asked to deliver the commencement address the following year. That year Conroy spearheaded fundraising to renovate the banquet hall in The Citadel Alumni Association building. The Lords of Discipline was made into a movie of the same name starring David Keith and Robert Prosky in 1983. My Losing Season (2002, ISBN 0553381903) is a factual account of Conroy's senior season as a guard on the 1966–67 Citadel basketball team and includes many recollections of his time as both a cadet and athlete at the school.
  • The Citadel (ISBN 0970106505), a novel written by Tom Schroder in 2000.
  • Sword Drill (2002, ISBN 1588988198), a novel by David Epps (Citadel Class of 1980), presents a fictional version of the Citadel’s now disbanded Junior Sword Drill program.[90]

In music

  • Portions of Dave Matthews Band's music video, "American Baby" (from their 2005 studio album, Stand Up), were filmed at The Citadel.[91]

In television

  • The Citadel was used as the location for shooting a 1974 episode of the TV show Columbo called "By Dawn's Early Light", guest starring Patrick McGoohan.
  • Congressman Frank Underwood, Kevin Spacey's character in House of Cards is a graduate of The Sentinel, a fictional version of The Citadel.

Notes

  1. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2011 Endowment Market Value and Percentage Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2010 to FY 2011" (PDF). 2011 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments. National Association of College and University Business Officers. March 19, 2012. http://www.nacubo.org/Documents/research/2011NCSEPublicTablesEndowmentMarketValues319.pdf. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
  2. The Citadel Graphic Standards Manual. The Citadel. p. 7. http://www3.citadel.edu/pao/logos/dl/Manual.pdf. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
  3. "Pantone Colours - Lab, RBG, & Hex Codes". umsiko.co.za. http://www.umsiko.co.za/links/color.html. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
  4. "Institution Details: The Citadel". Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. http://sacscoc.org/details.asp?instid=21600. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
  5. websites for The Citadel, VMI, Virginia Tech, Texas A&M, Norwich and North Georgia Colleg
  6. http://www.citadel.edu/root/graduatecollege, info
  7. http://www.citadel.edu/root/info
  8. http://thesportsarsenal.wordpress.com/2012/03/25/the-citadel-needs-to-sponsor-more-varsity-sports-and-a-few-other-things
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References

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