|Super Bowl XXXI|
|Date||January 26, 1997|
|Stadium||Louisiana Superdome, New Orleans, Louisiana|
|MVP||Desmond Howard, Kick Returner/Punt Returner|
|Favorite||Packers by 14|
|National anthem||Luther Vandross|
|Coin toss||Past Super Bowl winning coaches: Hank Stram, Mike Ditka, Tom Flores, Tom Landry, Chuck Noll, George Seifert|
|Halftime show||James Brown, ZZ Top, and The Blues Brothers|
Future Hall of Famers
|TV in the United States|
|Announcers||Pat Summerall and John Madden|
|Nielsen ratings|| 43.3 |
(est. 87.87 million viewers)
|Cost of 30-second commercial||US$1.2 million|
Super Bowl XXXI was an American football game played on January 26, 1997, at the Louisiana Superdome in New Orleans, Louisiana to decide the National Football League (NFL) champion following the 1996 regular season. The National Football Conference (NFC) champion Green Bay Packers (16-3) defeated the American Football Conference (AFC) champion New England Patriots (13-6), 35–21. This was the Packers' third overall Super Bowl victory, and their first since Super Bowl II. The Packers also extended their league record for the most overall NFL championships to 12.
Beginning with Super Bowl XIX in 1985, the NFC won twelve consecutive Super Bowl games. With this Packer win, the NFC streak was extended to thirteen consecutive wins, with fifteen of the last sixteen contests. The NFC domination in the Super Bowl was indicative with the overall record of 17-10, not including the 1966-1969 Super Bowls when the games were played between the old NFL and AFL.
Kick returner/punt returner Desmond Howard was named Super Bowl MVP, the first special teams player ever to do so. He ran for 154 kickoff return yards, and scored a critical touchdown on a Super Bowl record 99-yard kickoff return. Howard also recorded a Super Bowl record 90 punt return yards, thus setting the Super Bowl records of total return yards (244) and combined net yards gained (244). Howard became the 4th Heisman Trophy winner to be named Super Bowl MVP.
NFL owners awarded Super Bowl XXXI to New Orleans during their October 26, 1993 meeting in Chicago. This was the eighth time that New Orleans hosted the game.
Green Bay PackersEdit
After winning Super Bowl II after the 1967 regular season, the Packers became a losing team for much of the 1970s and 1980s, only making the playoffs in 1972 and the strike-shortened 1982 season. In addition to having the reputation of being a poor team, the Packers were unable to attract good players because many did not want to play in Green Bay's cold winter climate and the fact that they were a small market team. All that changed when Mike Holmgren became the Packers head coach in 1992. During his first year, the team improved to a 9-7 regular season record, barely missing the playoffs. One of the significant players on the 1992 Packers team was second year quarterback Brett Favre, who spent his rookie season playing for the Atlanta Falcons. During a September 20, 1992 game against the Cincinnati Bengals, Favre replaced injured starter Don Majkowski and proceeded to lead the team to a comeback victory. Afterwards, Favre became the starter for the rest of that season and held that position with the Packers until his purported retirement and subsequent conditional trade to the New York Jets in 2008 (followed by a departure for Minnesota in 2009).
Green Bay then made the playoffs in the 1993, 1994, and the 1995 seasons. As Holmgren, Favre, and the Packers continued to win, they were able to attract impact free agents like veteran defensive end Reggie White, nicknamed the "Minister of Defense", who joined the team in 1993.
In 1996, the Cowboys posted an NFC-best 13–3 regular season record after winning 8 of their first 9 games to start the season. After losing two straight games in November (one to the rival Dallas Cowboys), they finished off the regular season winning their remaining five games, including dominating wins over playoff teams Denver Broncos, 41–6, and Minnesota Vikings, 38–10. The Packers also had the best defense in the league in both points and yards. They allowed 210 points and also scored an NFL best 456 points, becoming the first team since the 1972 Miami Dolphins to score the most points in the league and allow the fewest. They set an NFL record with seven wins by at least 25 points.
Favre won the NFL Most Valuable Player Award for the second straight season after throwing for 3,899 yards and an NFC record 39 touchdown passes during the 1996 regular season, with only 13 interceptions. His 39 touchdown passes was the third highest total in league history at that time. Favre was also a good runner, ranking third on the team with 136 rushing yards and scoring 2 touchdowns.
The Packers also had a triple-slammy in a sense with game-breaking kick returner Desmond Howard. The former Heisman Trophy winner's NFL career as a wide receiver was widely viewed as a disappointment up until this point, recording just 92 receptions in his first 4 NFL seasons. After joining Green Bay before the 1996 season, the team used him as a kick returner. Howard excelled in this role and ended up setting an NFL record with 875 punt return yards, while also leading the league in yards per return (15.1) and punt return touchdowns (3). He also caught 13 passes for 95 yards and added another 460 yards returning kickoffs.
Green Bay also had a number of offensive weapons. Wide receiver Antonio Freeman led the team with 933 yards and 9 touchdowns. Multi-talented veteran wide receiver Don Beebe was also a constant breakaway threat, catching 39 passes for 606 yards and adding another 403 yards, and a touchdown returning kickoffs. Beebe was a member of Buffalo Bills during their 4 Super Bowl losses, and was thus extremely eager for another shot at a Super Bowl win. The Packers also had 2 outstanding tight ends: Pro Bowler Keith Jackson recorded 40 catches for 504 yards and 10 touchdowns, and Mark Chmura had 28 receptions for 370 yards.
Although Green Bay's running game did not have any standout backs or Pro Bowlers, running backs Dorsey Levens, Edgar Bennett, and fullback William Henderson were all very good at blocking, running and receiving. Bennett was the team's leading rusher with 899 yards, while also catching 31 passes for 176 yards and scored 3 touchdowns. Levens rushed for 566 yards, caught 31 passes for 226 yards, returned 5 kickoffs for 84 yards, and scored 10 touchdowns. Henderson had 130 rushing yards, caught 27 passes for 203 yards, and returned 2 kickoffs for 38 yards. Up front, Pro Bowl center Frank Winters anchored the offensive line, along with guard Adam Timmerman.
On defense, White continued to be a weapon, recording 29 tackles, 3 fumble recoveries, and led the team with 8.5 sacks. Defensive tackle Santana Dotson was also a big asset, recording 5.5 sacks and 1 fumble recovery. In the secondary, the team was led by safety Eugene Robinson, who recorded 55 tackles, 6 interceptions, and 107 return yards. Defensive back LeRoy Butler was also a major force, recording 65 tackles, 6.5 sacks, 2 fumbles recoveries, and 5 interceptions for 149 return yards and a touchdown.
New England PatriotsEdit
The Patriots were also considered a losing team for much of the late 1980s and early 1990s, including a dismal 1–15 regular season record in 1990. Then in 1993, New England turned to veteran head coach Bill Parcells to lead the team, hoping to repeat the success he had with the New York Giants.
Although the Patriots posted a 5-11 regular season record during Parcells' first year, eight of their losses were by 7 points or fewer. To Parcells credit, much of the improvement was the result of the contributions from their draft picks that they made before the season: linebackers Willie McGinest and Chris Slade. Tight end Ben Coates also became a major contributor as a favorite target of Drew Bledsoe. With that improvement, the team was sold to Robert Kraft in January 1994 for a (then) record price of $200,000,000—an astonishing price considering the Pats had generally been considered a laughing-stock and second rate team, had the worst stadium in the league, and couldn't sell out save for select home games resulting in most games going without television coverage—sports in New England centered on the beloved Bruins, Celtics and Red Sox, not the NFL team orphaned in remote Foxborough, Massachusetts, forty miles outside Boston.
The team then posted a 10-6 record in 1994 after starting the regular season at 3-6, but were eliminated by the Cleveland Browns in their first playoff game. The Krafts had also eliminated the practice of TV blackouts (and courted and nailed deals with local affiliates), and the season resulted in a resurge of interest in the NFL game across the region. Nonetheless, New England then seemed to return to form and failed to make the playoffs in 1995, a year when many organizations were coming to grips with the new salary cap put in by the NFL to improve competition in the league. In the off season, Parcells hired his old Giants defensive co-ordinator Bill Belichick in January 1996 as Assistant Head Coach and receivers position coach. Part of the team's spotty performance might have been that the new coach and the new owner did not really get along well, and Belichick came to serve during the 1996 season as the head coach's interface with the Kraft family and the non-football operations side of the business.
After losing their first two games in the 1996 regular season with lackluster performances, they would run through the rest of the season competitive in every game to finish with an 11-5 record, their best in the Parcells era. The Patriots offense became the 7th best unit in the league in terms of yards, and 2nd best in points after the Packers. Their pass offense, led by Bledsoe and wide receiver Terry Glenn, ranked third in the NFL. Bledsoe would throw for 4,086 yards and 27 touchdowns with just 15 interceptions, and Glenn would set a rookie record with 90 receptions to go along with his 1,132 yards and 6 touchdowns. Tight end Ben Coates was also a big contributor, catching 62 passes for 682 yards and 9 touchdowns. Wide receiver Shawn Jefferson recorded 50 receptions for 771 yards and 4 touchdowns.
Running back Curtis Martin would be the focal point of the rushing attack with his 1,152 yards and 14 touchdowns on the ground, while also catching 46 passes for another 333 yards and 3 touchdowns. Pro Bowl running back Dave Meggett provided the team with a good special teams threat, gaining 1,369 yards and a touchdown returning kickoffs and punts, while also rushing for 122 yards and catching 33 passes for 292 yards.
On defense, the team's main weapon was Pro Bowler McGinest, who recorded 49 tackles, 2 fumble recoveries, an interception which he returned 46 yards for a touchdown, and a team leading 9.5 sacks. New England also had a solid secondary, led by defensive backs Willie Clay (72 tackles, 1 fumble recovery. 4 interceptions, 50 return yards), Ty Law (56 tackles, 3 interceptions, 45 return yards, 1 touchdown), and Lawyer Milloy (54 tackles, 1 sack, 1 fumble recovery, 2 interceptions).
Aided by Martin's 166 rushing yards and 3 touchdowns, including a 78-yard touchdown run in the second quarter, the Patriots first eliminated the Pittsburgh Steelers, 28–3. New England gained a total of 346 yards in the game, while limiting Steelers quarterback Mike Tomczak to just 110 passing yards, with no touchdowns and 2 interceptions.
The Patriots then defeated the Jacksonville Jaguars, 20–6, in the AFC Championship Game. The 1995 expansion team Jaguars advanced after upsetting the AFC top seeded Denver Broncos. However, New England took advantage of several key Jacksonville miscues in a game dominated by defense. A bad snap allowed Patriots defensive back Larry Whigham to tackle Jaguars punter Bryan Barker at the Jacksonville 4-yard line, setting up Martin's 1-yard touchdown run a few plays later. The Jaguars scored a field goal in the second quarter, but Jacksonville punt returner Chris Hudson's fumble set up Patriots kicker Adam Vinatieri's 29-yard field goal. Eventually the teams exchanged field goals and the Patriots led 13–6 going into the fourth quarter. With under 4 minutes left in the game, the Jaguars reached the New England 5-yard line, but Patriots defensive back Willie Clay intercepted a pass in the end zone. After New England was forced to punt, cornerback Otis Smith recovered a fumble from Jaguars running back James Stewart and returned it 47 yards for a touchdown to put the game away.
Meanwhile, the Packers first eliminated the San Francisco 49ers, 35–14. Green Bay's defense and special teams dominated the game, forcing 5 turnovers, and helping the team score 35 points even though Favre was limited to just 79 passing yards. San Francisco starting quarterback Steve Young, who was still suffering from a rib injury sustained during their 14-0 playoff win over the Philadelphia Eagles, had to leave the game in the first quarter. Howard opened up the scoring by returning a punt 71 yards for a touchdown. Later, he returned a punt 46 yards to set up Favre's 4-yard touchdown pass to Andre Rison. By the time the first half ended, Green Bay had a commanding 21–7 lead. San Francisco cut their deficit to 7 points with a third quarter touchdown, but the Packers responded by driving 72 yards to score a touchdown, in which Bennett's fumble was recovered in the end zone by Freeman. Green Bay then put the game away with an 11-yard touchdown run by Bennett.
Green Bay then defeated the Carolina Panthers, 30–13, in the NFC Championship Game. Like the Jaguars, the Panthers were also a 1995 expansion team that advanced to the conference title game. But unlike Jacksonville, Carolina came into the contest as the NFC #2 seed and had eliminated the defending Super Bowl champion Dallas Cowboys, 26–17. In the NFC Championship Game, Carolina scored first with a 3-yard touchdown reception by Howard Griffith, but Green Bay scored on 2 touchdown passes by Favre and a field goal in the second quarter to take a 17-10 halftime lead. The Packers then dominated the second half, only allowing one more field goal from the Panthers. Levens recorded 5 catches for 117 yards and a touchdown, along with 88 rushing yards. Bennett rushed for 99 yards and a touchdown. Favre threw for 292 yards and 2 touchdowns with 1 interception. Kicker Chris Jacke scored 3 field goals.
Super Bowl pregame news and notesEdit
The Packers were favored to win the game by 14 points, largely because many thought the Patriots were a Cinderella team, and because of the recent dominance of the NFC in Super Bowl games.
Much of the pregame hype surrounded the conflict between Parcells and Patriots owner Robert Kraft. Kraft took control of the team after Parcells was hired, and the two of them had different ideas on how to run the organization. Six days before the Super Bowl, in an article by Will McDonough, the Globe reported Parcells would leave the Patriots after the Super Bowl to become the coach of the New York Jets. The book Patriot Reign alleges the Patriots have cell phone records showing Parcells was in constant contact with the Jets during the week. Then Patriot defensive coordinator (and now head coach) Bill Belichick is quoted as saying Parcells' plans to leave for the Jets were a distraction, "Yeah, I'd say it was a little bit of a distraction all the way around. I can tell you first-hand, there was a lot of stuff going on prior to the game. I mean, him talking to other teams. He was trying to make up his mind about what he was going to do. Which, honestly, I felt [was] totally inappropriate. How many chances do you get to play for the Super Bowl? Tell them to get back to you in a couple of days. I'm not saying it was disrespectful to me, but it was in terms of the overall commitment to the team." Parcells even refused to travel back with the rest of the Patriots after the game, and was eventually hired by the rival New York Jets.
To honor the recent death of former NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle, who died on December 6, 1996, each player wore a special helmet decal with Rozelle's signature, "Pete," printed across the NFL logo. Tributes to Rozelle were also published in the game program.
Television and entertainmentEdit
The game was the first Super Bowl to be televised in the United States by the Fox network. Play-by-play announcer Pat Summerall and color commentator John Madden, both previously of CBS, called the game. James Brown hosted all the events with help from his fellow Fox NFL Sunday cast members Terry Bradshaw, Howie Long and Ronnie Lott.
Starting with this game, through Super Bowl XXXVII, the Super Bowl logo was painted at the 50-yard line, and the teams helmets were placed on the 30-yard lines. During the past Super Bowl games since the 1970 AFL-NFL Merger (Super Bowl VI), the NFL logo was painted on the 50-yard line, except for Super Bowls XXV and XXIX. The Super Bowl XXV logo was painted at midfield, and the NFL 75th Anniversary logo was painted at midfield in Super Bowl XXIX. The league started to put the NFL logo at midfield again for Super Bowl XXXVIII.
The telecast ended up being the highest-rated program in the history of the then ten-year-old Fox network, and it currently ties Super Bowl XLII for the highest-rated program in the entire history of the network. Afterwards, Fox televised The X-Files episode "Leonard Betts". Fox's broadcast was also the first Super Bowl to have a constant, live-updating graphic for the score, time and down & distance. The FoxBox was used also in Super Bowl XXXIII and the graphic positioned over live action has become the norm in virtually all sports broadcasts at the national and regional production levels.
With the Packers win, they became the third team to win Super Bowls on three different networks (I-broadcast on both CBS and NBC, II-CBS, and Fox). They also became the first team to win three Super Bowls with Fox as one of the networks to televise their win. They also became the first dark-colored team to win a Super Bowl indoors. The previous seven games played in domes were all won by the road team which wore white.
The pregame show featured Los del Río who performed their multi-platinum smash hit "Macarena", the dance craze that became a worldwide summer hit in 1996. Country singer-songwriter Mary Chapin Carpenter and Cajun musical group Beausoleil also appeared.
Halftime show Edit
The halftime show was titled "Blues Brothers Bash" and featured actors Dan Aykroyd, John Goodman, and James Belushi as the Blues Brothers. The show highlighted blues music and also had performances by the rock band ZZ Top and singer James Brown.
While practicing for the show, stuntwoman Laura "Dinky" Patterson, one of a 16-member professional bungee-jumping team, died of massive cranial trauma when she jumped headfirst from the top level of the Superdome and smashed head-first into the concrete-based playing field, causing her death. The New York Times reported on January 29, 1997 that Patterson had been working with bungee cords that were being handled by volunteers who had received little training. The bungee-jumping portion of the halftime show was removed. A title-graphic commemorating Patterson and acknowledging her death was displayed during the broadcast of the Super Bowl.
The Packers dominated the Patriots on both sides of the ball, outgaining New England 323 yards to 257 and intercepting quarterback Drew Bledsoe four times. Packers defensive lineman Reggie White set a Super Bowl record with three sacks, including back-to-back takedowns in the 3rd quarter.
Green Bay forced New England to punt on the opening possession of the game and started their first drive with great field position after receiver Desmond Howard returned the ball 32 yards to the Packers 46-yard line. Green Bay then opened up the scoring with Brett Favre's 54-yard touchdown pass to Andre Rison on their second offensive play of the game. Then on the Patriots' ensuing drive, Packers defensive back Doug Evans intercepted a pass from Bledsoe at the New England 28-yard line. On the first play after the turnover, New England lineman Ferric Collons sacked Favre for a 10-yard loss, but running back Dorsey Levens rushed for 4 yards and caught a pass for 14 over the next two plays, setting up Chris Jacke's 37-yard field goal to make the score 10–0.
New England stormed back, scoring touchdowns on each of their next 2 possessions. On the second play of the Patriots ensuing drive, Bledsoe completed a 32-yard screen pass to fullback Keith Byars and followed it up with a "dump-off" pass to running back Curtis Martin, who caught the ball near the line of scrimmage and ran 20 yards to the Packers 27-yard line before being tackled. Bledsoe then threw three straight incompletions, but on the third one, Packers defensive back Craig Newsome was called for a 26-yard pass interference penalty, giving New England a first down at the 1-yard line. On the next play, Bledsoe completed a 1-yard touchdown pass to Byars to cut his team's deficit to 10–7.
New England's defense then forced the Packers to punt from their own 17-yard line after a three-and-out, giving the Patriots the ball back after running back Dave Meggett received Craig Hentrich's 39-yard punt at the New England 43-yard line. After a 7-yard reception and a 2-yard run by Martin on their first 2 plays, Bledsoe completed a 44-yard pass to wide receiver Terry Glenn to advance to the Green Bay 4-yard line. From there, tight end Ben Coates's 4-yard touchdown reception gave New England a 14–10 lead. The Packers and Patriots combined for a total of 24 points, the most ever scored in the first quarter of a Super Bowl. The Patriots became the first team in Super Bowl history to score 14 points in the first quarter and lose the game.
New England's lead was short lived. After both teams exchanged punts, Favre threw a Super Bowl record 81-yard touchdown pass to receiver Antonio Freeman, putting the Packers back in the lead, 17-14. A third down, 9-yard sack by safety LeRoy Butler forced the Patriots to punt on their ensuing drive, and Howard returned Tom Tupa's punt 34 yards to the New England 47-yard line. The Packers then drove to the 14-yard line to score on Jacke's 31-yard field goal to increase their lead, 20–14.
Meggett returned the ensuing kickoff 21 yards to the Patriots 25-yard line. On the first play of the drive, Bledsoe completed a 19-yard pass to Coates to advance to their own 44-yard line. But two plays later, Packers defensive back Mike Prior intercepted a long pass that was intended for wide receiver Shawn Jefferson, and returned it 8 yards to the Green Bay 26-yard line. After the turnover, the Packers went on a 9-play, 74-yard drive that took 5:59 minutes off the clock and scored on Favre's 2-yard touchdown run to give Green Bay a 27–14 lead with just 1:11 left in the half.
After a 24-yard kickoff return by Meggett, Bledsoe completed an 18-yard pass to Coates, and followed it up with a 10-yard pass to Glenn. Then after a 1-yard run by Meggett on the next play, Bledsoe completed a 7-yard pass to receiver Vincent Brisby to bring up 3rd down and 2 yards to go from the Packers 42-yard line. But Green Bay's defense forced 2 pass incompletions from Bledsoe, causing the Patriots to turn the ball over on downs with just 19 seconds left before halftime. The Packers tried to get into scoring range by calling a pass on the next play, but linebacker Willie McGinest sacked Favre, and the score remained 27–14 at halftime.
Howard returned the second half kickoff 23 yards to the Green Bay 25-yard line. From there, Favre led the Packers all the way to the New England 37, but the Patriots made a key defensive stand, stopping Green Bay running back Dorsey Levens for no gain on third down and one, and then tackling him again for a 7-yard loss on a fourth down conversion attempt. Then after driving to the Packers 41-yard line, New England was forced to punt, but they managed to pin Green Bay deep in their own territory when Howard made a fair catch of Tupa's 29-yard punt at the 12-yard line. On the ensuing drive, a 7-yard sack by Patriots cornerback Otis Smith helped the New England defense force the Packers to punt, and the Patriots got the ball back with great field position after Meggett returned Craig Hentrich's 48-yard punt 6 yards to the New England 47-yard line.
Taking advantage of their excellent starting field position, New England drove 53 yards in 7 plays and scored on an 18-yard touchdown run by Martin to cut the Packers' lead to 27-21. But on the ensuing kickoff, Howard returned the ball 99 yards for a touchdown—the longest play in Super Bowl history. Favre then completed a pass to tight end Mark Chmura for the successful two-point conversion, giving the Packers a 35-21 lead.
The score proved to be the last one of the contest as the defenses of both teams took over for the rest of the game. The Patriots limited the Packers to 3 punts and a missed 47-yard field goal attempt by Jacke. Green Bay did even better, not allowing New England to advance past their own 32 yard line. Furthermore, White sacked Bledsoe on back-to-back plays on the Patriots first drive after Howard's game-clinching touchdown return. White then recorded a third sack late in the fourth quarter. Bledsoe was also intercepted twice in the final period (one by Newsome and the other one by linebacker Brian Williams).
After the game, Favre reflected on his long road to becoming a Super Bowl champion, which included the death of his friend Mark Harvy in a car accident during the season. "Through everything I really believed I'd be here today. Right here in this stairwell, talking about being world champions. My best friend's gone forever. Trouble never seems to be far away, and the future won't be all rosy, but they can't take this away from me. Thirty years from now, the kids will be getting ready for Super Bowl LXI, and NFL Films will drag out Steve Sabol—he'll be around 102 then—and he'll talk about how Brett Favre fought through such adversity. And there will be other players and coaches. But I know this: We etched our place in history today."
Freeman was the top receiver of the game, finishing with 105 receiving yards and a touchdown on only 3 receptions. Dorsey Levens was the game's leading rusher with 61 rushing yards, and caught 3 passes for 23 yards. Favre completed 14 out of 27 passes for 246 yards and 2 touchdowns, and had 12 rushing yards and another touchdown on 4 carries. Favre became the first Super Bowl winning quarterback to have at least three touchdowns (Favre had 2 throwing, 1 rushing) and not be named Super Bowl MVP.
Bledsoe finished the game with 11 more pass completions (25) than Favre, but only 7 more total passing yards (253). His four interceptions tied a Super Bowl record. Martin was limited to just 41 rushing yards and 1 touchdown on 11 carries, but he also caught 3 passes for 28 yards. Meggett recorded 155 combined net yards (117 kick return, 30 punt return, 8 receiving). Coates was the Patriots leading receiver with 6 catches for 67 yards and a touchdown.
|Green Bay||Position||New England|
|Andre Rison||WR||Terry Glenn|
|Bruce Wilkerson||LT||Bruce Armstrong|
|Aaron Taylor||LG||William Roberts|
|Frank Winters||C||Dave Wohlabaugh|
|Adam Timmerman||RG||Todd Rucci|
|Earl Dotson||RT||Max Lane|
|Mark Chmura||TE||Ben Coates|
|Antonio Freeman||WR||Shawn Jefferson|
|Brett Favre||QB||Drew Bledsoe|
|Edgar Bennett||RB||Curtis Martin|
|William Henderson||FB||Keith Byars|
|Reggie White||LE||Ferric Collons|
|Gilbert Brown||NT-LDT||Pio Sagapolutele|
|Santana Dotson||RDT||Mark Wheeler|
|Sean Jones||RE||Willie McGinest|
|Wayne Simmons||LOLB||Todd Collins|
|Ron Cox||MLB||Ted Johnson|
|Brian Williams||ROLB||Chris Slade|
|Doug Evans||LCB||Ty Law|
|Craig Newsome||RCB||Otis Smith|
|LeRoy Butler||SS||Lawyer Milloy|
|Eugene Robinson||FS||Willie Clay|
- Referee: Gerald Austin #34
- Umpire: Ron Botchan #110
- Head Linesman: Earnie Frantz #111
- Line Judge: Jeff Bergman #32
- Field Judge: Phil Luckett #59
- Side Judge: Tom Fincken #47
- Back Judge: Scott Steenson #88
- Alternate Referee: Ed Hochuli #85
- Alternate Umpire: Neil Gereb #50
- ↑ http://tvbythenumbers.com/2009/01/18/historical-super-bowl-tv-ratings/11044
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Michael Holley. Patriots Reign (1st ed. HC ed.). HarperCollins. ISBN 006757949.
- ↑ "SI.com". CNN. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/football/features/superbowl/archives/31/.
- ↑ Neft, David S., Cohen, Richard M., and Korch, Rick. The Complete History of Professional Football from 1892 to the Present. 1994 ISBN 0312114354
- Super Bowl XXXI Memories Video.
- Super Bowl official website
- The Sporting News: History of the Super Bowl (Last accessed December 4, 2005)
- Large online database of NFL data and statistics
- Super Bowl play-by-plays from USA Today (Last accessed September 28, 2005)
- All-Time Super Bowl Odds from The Sports Network (Last accessed October 16, 2005)