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This page gives you the opportunity to redirect to the original article that is on Wikipedia or stay on the [[Main Page|American Football Database]].
<!-- Infobox begins -->{{Infobox settlement
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|name = San Jose, California
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Clicking on the link on this page will redirect to Wikipedia's {{pagename}} article.
|official_name = <small>City of San Jose</small>
 
|settlement_type = [[City]]
 
|nickname = S.J., San Jo', The Valley of Heart's Delight
 
|motto = The Capital of [[Silicon Valley]]
 
|image_skyline = SanJose Infobox Pic Montage.jpg
 
|imagesize =
 
|image_caption = Images, from top down, left to right: <br>[[Downtown San Jose]], [[De Anza Hotel]], East San Jose suburbs, [[Lick Observatory]], [[Plaza de César Chávez]]
 
|image_flag = Flag of San Jose, California.png
 
|image_seal = Sanjose california city seal.png
 
|image_map = Santa Clara County California Incorporated and Unincorporated areas San Jose Highlighted.svg
 
|mapsize = 250x200px
 
|map_caption = Location of San Jose within [[Santa Clara County, California]]
 
|pushpin_map =USA2
 
|pushpin_map_caption = Location in the United States
 
|coordinates_region = US-CA
 
|subdivision_type = [[List of countries|Country]]
 
|subdivision_name = {{USA}}
 
|subdivision_type1 = [[Political divisions of the United States|State]]
 
|subdivision_name1 = [[California]]
 
|subdivision_type2 = [[List of counties in California|County]]
 
|subdivision_name2 = [[Santa Clara County, California|Santa Clara]]
 
|government_type = [[Charter city]], [[Council-manager government|Council-manager]]
 
|leader_title = Mayor
 
|leader_name = [[Chuck Reed]]
 
|leader_title1 = [[Vice Mayor]]
 
|leader_name1 = [[Madison Nguyen]]
 
|leader_title2 = [[City Manager]]
 
|leader_name2 = Debra Figone
 
|leader_title3 = [[California State Senate|Senate]]
 
|leader_name3 ={{Collapsible list
 
|title ='''List of Senators'''
 
|frame_style = border:none; padding: 0;
 
|list_style = text-align:left;display:none;
 
|1=[[Ellen Corbett]]
 
|2=[[Joe Simitian]]
 
|3=[[Elaine Alquist]]
 
|4=[[Sam Blakeslee]]
 
}}
 
|leader_title4 = [[California State Assembly|Assembly]]
 
|leader_name4 ={{Collapsible list
 
|title ='''Assembly List'''
 
|frame_style = border:none; padding: 0;
 
|list_style = text-align:left;display:none;
 
|1=[[Rich Gordon]]
 
|2=[[Sally J. Lieber]]
 
|3=[[Nora Campos]]
 
|4=[[Jim Beall (California politician)|Jim Beall]]
 
|5=[[Anna M. Caballero]]
 
}}
 
|leader_title5 = [[U.S. Congress|U.S. House of Representatives]]
 
|leader_name5 ={{Collapsible list
 
|title ='''List of Congressional Members'''
 
|frame_style = border:none; padding: 0;
 
|list_style = text-align:left;display:none;
 
|1=[[Anna Eshoo]]
 
|2=[[Mike Honda]]
 
|3=[[Zoe Lofgren]]
 
}}
 
|established_title = [[History of San Jose, California#First Spanish pueblo in California|Pueblo]] founded
 
|established_title2 = [[Municipal corporation|Incorporated]]
 
|established_date = November 29, 1777
 
|established_date2 = March 27, 1850
 
|established_title3 =
 
|established_date3 =
 
<!-- Area------------------>
 
|area_magnitude =
 
| unit_pref =US
 
| area_footnotes = <ref name=gazetteer>{{cite web| url= http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/files/Gaz_places_national.txt| title = Gazetteer | publisher= U.S. Census Bureau|accessdate= 8 April 2012}}</ref>
 
| area_total_sq_mi = 179.965
 
| area_land_sq_mi = 176.526
 
| area_water_sq_mi = 3.439
 
| area_total_km2 = 466.109
 
| area_land_km2 = 457.201
 
| area_water_km2 = 8.908
 
| area_water_percent = 1.91
 
| area_note =
 
|area_metro_sq_mi = 8818
 
|area_metro_km2 = 22681
 
|area_water_percent =
 
|area_urban_sq_mi = 447.82
 
|area_urban_km2 = 720.69
 
|population_as_of = 2012
 
|population_note = City population is an estimate by the California Department of Finance.
 
|population_total = 958,966<ref name="bizjournals.com">http://www.bizjournals.com/bizjournals/on-numbers/scott-thomas/2012/04/new-york-tops-the-nine-cities-in-the.html?appSession=471079044891058</ref>
 
|population_rank =[[Santa Clara County, California|1st]] in Santa Clara County<br/>[[List of largest California cities by population|3rd]] in California<br/>[[List of United States cities by population|10th]] in the United States
 
|population_urban = 1,836,911
 
|population_metro = 1,975,342
 
|population_blank1_title = [[Combined statistical area|CSA]]
 
|population_blank1 = 7563460
 
|population_demonym = San Josean
 
|population_density_km2 =
 
|population_density_sq_mi = auto
 
|population_footnotes =
 
|timezone = [[Pacific Time Zone|PST]]
 
|utc_offset = −8
 
|timezone_DST = PDT
 
|utc_offset_DST = −7
 
|coordinates_display = display=inline,title
 
|latd = 37 |latm = 20 |lats = 7 |latNS = N
 
|longd = 121 |longm = 53 |longs = 31 |longEW = W
 
|elevation_footnotes =<ref name=elevation>{{cite web |url={{Gnis3|1654952}} |title=USGS—San Jose, California |accessdate=February 17, 2007 }}</ref>
 
|elevation_m = 26
 
|downtown elevation_ft = 85
 
|website = [http://www.sanjoseca.gov/ www.sanjoseca.gov]
 
|postal_code_type = [[ZIP code]]
 
|postal_code = 95101–95103, 95106, 95108–95139, 95118, 95141, 95142, 95148, 95150–95161, 95164, 95170–95173, 95190–95194, 95196 95116
 
|area_code = [[Area code 408|408]], [[Area code 669|669]]
 
|blank_name = [[Federal Information Processing Standard|FIPS code]]
 
|blank_info = 06-68000
 
|blank1_name = [[Geographic Names Information System|GNIS]] feature ID
 
|blank1_info = 1654952
 
|footnotes =
 
}}
 
<!-- Infobox ends -->
 
   
'''San Jose''' ({{IPAc-en|icon|ˌ|s|æ|n|_|h|oʊ|ˈ|z|eɪ}}; [[Spanish language|Spanish]]: [[Saint Joseph|St. Joseph]]) is the [[List of largest California cities by population|third-largest city]] in [[California]], the [[List of United States cities by population|tenth-largest]] in the U.S.,<ref>{{cite web | url = http://factfinder2.census.gov | title=American FactFinder|publisher=U.S. Census Bureau}}</ref> and the [[county seat]] of [[Santa Clara County, California|Santa Clara County]] which is located at the southern end of [[San Francisco Bay Area|San Francisco Bay]]. San Jose is the largest city within [[Silicon Valley]], which is a major component of the greater [[San Francisco Bay Area]], a region of 7.6&nbsp;million people and the sixth largest metropolitan area ([[Table of United States Combined Statistical Areas|CSA]]) in the United States.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Table_of_United_States_Combined_Statistical_Areas |title=Table of United States Combined Statistical Areas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia |publisher=En.wikipedia.org |date= |accessdate=2012-02-13}}</ref> It is the largest city in [[Northern California]].
 
   
San Jose was founded on November 29, 1777, as ''El Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe'', the first civilian town in the [[Spanish colonization of the Americas|Spanish colony]] of [[Alta California|Nueva California]], which later became [[Alta California]].<ref>{{cite web|title=The First City|url=http://www.californiahistory.net/text_only/4_3_1.htm|work=California History Online|date=|accessdate=March 15, 2008 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080218051828/http://www.californiahistory.net/text_only/4_3_1.htm <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = February 18, 2008}}</ref> The city served as a farming community to support Spanish military installations at [[San Francisco]] and [[Monterey, California|Monterey]]. When California gained statehood in 1850, San Jose served as its first capital.<ref>{{cite web|title=California Admission Day—September&nbsp;9, 1850|url=http://www.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=23856|publisher=[[California State Parks]]|year=2007|accessdate=March 15, 2008}}</ref>
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'''Take me to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Jose,_California {{pagename}}] article on Wikipedia'''.
   
After more than 150&nbsp;years as a small farming city, San Jose and the surrounding [[Santa Clara Valley]] became the last (and largest) contiguous area of undeveloped land surrounding the [[San Francisco Bay]]. San Jose experienced increased demand for housing from soldiers and veterans returning from [[World War II]]. San Jose then continued its aggressive expansion during the 1950s and 1960s by annexing more land area. The rapid growth of the high-technology and electronics industries further accelerated the transition from an agricultural center, to an [[List of California urban areas|urbanized metropolitan area]].
 
   
By the 1990s, San Jose's location within the booming local technology industry earned the city its nickname, ''Capital of Silicon Valley''. San Jose now maintains [[global city]] status and is the largest city in the San Francisco Bay Area in terms of population, land area, and industrial development.<ref name="GaWC">{{cite web |last = GaWC |title = The World According to GaWC | url = http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2008t.html |accessdate = 2011-02-26 }}</ref> The U.S. Census Bureau reported the population of the city to be 945,942 as of the 2010 Census. As of April 2012, the estimated population of San Jose was 958,966.<ref name="bizjournals.com"/>
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San Jose, along with the [[Santa Clara Valley]], experienced about half a century of spectacular [[suburban sprawl]], with characteristics of intense urbanization similar to the [[Los Angeles, California|Los Angeles]] area of [[Southern California]]. The city has taken definite steps to avoid becoming "L.A. North".<ref>Beckett, Jamie, [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/1996/04/22/MN54795.DTL&ao=all "L.A. North? San Jose Says No Way; City's new image includes attack on sprawl, crime"], San Francisco Chronicle, April 22, 1996</ref>
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These Redirect pages should be eliminated in either of two ways.
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* #2 On every page a {{Pagename}} link exists make a direct link to the original Wikipedia article.
   
==Etymology==
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Things to think about:
San Jose was founded by Lieutenant [[José Joaquín Moraga]] as ''Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe'' (in honor of [[Saint Joseph]]) on November 29, 1777.<ref name="arbuckle">{{cite book | title=Clyde Arbuckle's History of San Jose | year=1986 | author=Clyde Arbuckle | publisher=Smith McKay Printing | isbn=978-9996625220{{Please check ISBN|reason=does not match hyphenation rules and is probably invalid}}
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* #1 Creating our own page for this article may add a superfluous amount of pages.
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On April 3, 1979, the [[San Jose City Council]] adopted '''San José''', with the [[Diacritic|diacritical mark]] on the "e", as the spelling of the city name on the city seal, official stationery, office titles and department names. Also, by city council convention, this spelling of ''San José'' is used when the name is stated in both upper- and lower-case letters, but not when the name is stated only in upper-case letters. The accent reflects the Spanish version of the name, and the dropping of accents in all-capital writing was typical in Spanish. The name is still more commonly spelled without the diacritical mark as ''San Jose''. The official name of the city remains ''City of San Jose'' with no diacritical mark, according to the City Charter.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.sanjoseca.gov/clerk/charter.asp#Art1 |title='&#39;City of San Jose'&#39; City Charter |publisher=Sanjoseca.gov |date= |accessdate=July 1, 2010}}</ref> However, the city's website uses San José.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.sanjoseca.gov/about.asp|title='Welcome to the City of San José'|date= |accessdate=November 1, 2011}}</ref>
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* #2 Some of these article links may be on hundreds of pages that would need direct links.
 
==History==
 
{{Quote box |width=20em |align=left |bgcolor=#B0C4DE
 
|title=Historical Affiliations
 
|fontsize=90% |quote=[[Spanish Empire]] 1781–1821<br>
 
[[First Mexican Empire]] 1821–1823<br>
 
[[United Mexican States]] 1823–1848<br>
 
[[United States]] 1848–present
 
}}
 
{{Main|History of San Jose, California}}
 
 
Prior to European settlement, the area was inhabited by several groups of [[Ohlone]] Native Americans.<ref name="NRHP">{{cite web | url=http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/santaclara/history.htm | title=Early History | publisher=[[National Register of Historic Places]] | accessdate=June 5, 2007 }}</ref> The first lasting European presence began with a series of [[Franciscan]] [[Spanish missions in California|missions]] established from 1769 by Father [[Junípero Serra]].<ref name="DSJ history">{{cite web | url=http://www.californiahistory.net/4_PAGES/missions_junipero.htm | title=Junípero Serra | year=2000 | work=California History Online | publisher=California Historical Society | accessdate=June 20, 2007 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20040812151444/http://www.californiahistory.net/4_PAGES/missions_junipero.htm |archivedate = August 12, 2004}}</ref> On orders from [[Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa]], Spanish [[Viceroy of New Spain]], San Jose was founded by Lieutenant [[José Joaquín Moraga]] as ''Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe'' (in honor of [[Saint Joseph]]) on November 29, 1777, to establish a farming community. The town was the first civil settlement in [[Alta California]].<ref name="arbuckle"/>
 
 
In 1797, the pueblo was moved from its original location, near the present-day intersection of [[Guadalupe Parkway]] and Taylor Street, to a location in what is now [[Downtown San Jose]]. San Jose came under [[Mexico|Mexican rule]] in 1821 after Mexico broke with the Spanish crown. It then became part of the United States, after it capitulated in 1846 and California was annexed.<ref name="NRHP"/>
 
 
On March 27, 1850, San Jose became the second incorporated city in the state (after Sacramento), with [[Josiah Belden]] its first mayor. The town was the state's first capital, as well as host of the first and second sessions (1850–1851) of the [[California Legislature]]. Today the [[Circle of Palms Plaza]] in downtown is the historical marker for the first state capital. The city as a station on the [[Butterfield Overland Mail]] route.
 
 
Though not impacted as severely as [[San Francisco]], San Jose suffered damage from the [[1906 San Francisco earthquake]]. Over 100 people died at the Agnews Asylum (later Agnews State Hospital) after its walls and roof collapsed,<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/santaclara/agn.htm | title=Agnews Insane Asylum | publisher=[[National Register of Historic Places]] | accessdate=June 7, 2007}}</ref> and the San Jose High School's three-story stone-and-brick building was also destroyed. The period during World War II was a tumultuous time. [[Japanese American]]s primarily from [[Japantown, San Jose, California|Japantown]] were sent to [[internment camps]], {{Citation needed|date=March 2008}} including the future mayor, [[Norman Mineta]]. Following the Los Angeles [[zoot suit riots]], anti-Mexican violence took place during the summer of 1943.{{Citation needed|date=March 2008}} In 1940, the Census Bureau reported San Jose's population as 98.5% white.<ref name="census"/> The entire region prepared for the beginning of the war.
 
 
As World War II started, the city's economy shifted from agriculture (the [[Del Monte Foods|Del Monte]] cannery was the largest employer) to industrial manufacturing with the contracting of the [[Food Machinery Corporation]] (later known as [[FMC Corporation]]) by the [[United States War Department]] to build 1000 [[Landing Vehicle Tracked]].<ref name=PolHist>{{cite web | url=http://www2.sjsu.edu/depts/PoliSci/faculty/christensen/flashback.htm | title=Flashback: A short political history of San Jose | publisher=San Jose State University | accessdate=June 7, 2007}}{{dead link|date=February 2012}}</ref> After World War II, FMC (later [[United Defense]], and currently [[BAE Systems]]) continued as a [[defense contractor]], with the San Jose facilities designing and manufacturing military platforms such as the [[M113 Armored Personnel Carrier]], the [[Bradley Fighting Vehicle]], and various subsystems of the [[M1 Abrams]] battle tank.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.uniteddefense.com/co/history.htm | title=BAE Systems History}}{{dead link|date=February 2012}}</ref>
 
 
[[IBM]] established its West Coast headquarters in San Jose in 1943 and opened a downtown research and development facility in 1952. Both would prove to be harbingers for the economy of San Jose, as [[Reynold Johnson]] and his team would later invent [[IBM 305 RAMAC|RAMAC]], as well as the [[Hard disk drive]], and the technological side of San Jose's economy grew.<ref>Winslow, Ward (editor); ''The Making of Silicon Valley: a One Hundred Year Renaissance''; 1995; ISBN 0-9649217-0-7</ref>
 
 
During the 1950s and 1960s, city manager [[A. P. Hamann|A. P. "Dutch" Hamann]] led the city in a major growth campaign. The city annexed adjacent areas, such as [[Alviso, California|Alviso]] and [[Cambrian Park, California|Cambrian Park]], providing large areas for suburbs. An anti-growth reaction to the effects of rapid development emerged in the 1970s championed by mayors [[Norman Mineta]] and [[Janet Gray Hayes]]. Despite establishing an [[urban growth boundary]], development fees, and incorporations of [[Campbell, California|Campbell]] and [[Cupertino, California|Cupertino]], development was not slowed, but rather directed into already incorporated areas.<ref name=PolHist/>
 
 
San Jose's position in [[Silicon Valley]] triggered more economic and population growth, which led to the highest housing costs increase in the nation, 936% between 1976 and 2001.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.ti.org/vaupdate31.html | title=San Jose case study, part one: the urban-growth boundary | publisher=Thoreau Institute | accessdate=June 7, 2007}}</ref> Efforts to increase density continued into 1990s when an update of the 1974 urban plan kept the urban growth boundaries intact and voters rejected a ballot measure to ease development restrictions in the foothills. Sixty percent of the housing built in San Jose since 1980 and over three-quarters of the housing built since 2000 have been multifamily structures, reflecting a political propensity toward [[Smart Growth]] planning principles.<ref name=HsgConst>{{cite web | url=http://www.sanjoseca.gov/planning/data/build_permit_hist/table1.asp | title=Building Permit History, 1980–2006 | publisher=City of San Jose | accessdate=June 7, 2007}}</ref>
 
 
==Geography==
 
 
[[File:Downtown san jose south market st.jpg|thumb|250px|Downtown San Jose, looking over the [[The Tech Museum of Innovation|Tech Museum]] and [[Plaza de César Chávez]] park.]]
 
[[File:AlumRockViewSiliconValley w.jpg|thumb|250px|Looking west over northern San Jose (downtown is at far left) and other parts of Silicon Valley. See an up-to-the-minute view of San Jose from the [http://mthamilton.ucolick.org/hamcam/ Mount Hamilton web camera]]]
 
 
San Jose is located at {{Coord|37.335278|-121.891944|type:city_region:US-CA|format=dms}}. According to the [[United States Census Bureau]], the city has a total area of {{convert|180.0|sqmi|km2}}, of which 3.4&nbsp;square miles (8.9&nbsp;km²; 1.91%) is water.
 
 
San Jose lies between the [[San Andreas Fault]], the source of the [[1989 Loma Prieta earthquake]], and the [[Calaveras Fault]]. San Jose is shaken by moderate earthquakes, above four on the Richter Scale, on average of one to two times a year. These quakes originate just east of the city on the creeping section of the Calaveras Fault, which is a major source of earthquake activity in Northern California. On April 14, 1984, at 1:15&nbsp;pm, local time a 6.2 magnitude earthquake struck the Calaveras Fault near San Jose's Mount Hamilton.<ref>{{cite book|title=The Nature and Tectonic Significance of Fault Zone Weakening|author=R. E. Holdsworth|url=http://books.google.com/?id=K1sFPEjiwiAC&pg=PA15&dq=Calaveras+Fault+San+Jose+earthquake+1984#v=onepage&q=Calaveras%20Fault%20San%20Jose%20earthquake%201984&f=false|coauthors= R. A. Strachan, J. Magloughlin, R. J. Knipe|year=2001|isbn=978-1-86239-090-4|page=15|publisher=Geological Society of London}}</ref> The most serious earthquake, in 1906, damaged many buildings in San Jose as described earlier. Earlier significant quakes rocked the city in 1839, 1851, 1858, 1864, 1865, [[1868 Hayward earthquake|1868]], and 1891.{{Citation needed|date=June 2007}} The [[Daly City]] Earthquake of 1957 caused some damage. The [[Loma Prieta earthquake]] of 1989 also did some damage to parts of the city. The other faults near San Jose are the [[Monte Vista Fault]] and the [[Hayward Fault Zone]].
 
 
===Topography===
 
The [[Guadalupe River (California)|Guadalupe River]] runs from the [[Santa Cruz Mountains]] (which separate the South Bay from the Pacific Coast) flowing north through San Jose, ending in the San Francisco Bay at [[Alviso, California|Alviso]]. Along the southern part of the river is the neighborhood of [[Almaden Valley]], originally named for the mercury mines which produced mercury needed for gold extraction from [[quartz]] during the [[California Gold Rush]] as well as [[mercury fulminate]] blasting caps and detonators for the U.S. military from 1870 to 1945.<ref>{{cite report |title=Final Environmental Impact Report, Almaden Quicksilver Park |authors=David Crimp, Leda Patmore, C. Michael Hogan, Harry Seidman and Vivian Paparigian prepared by Earth Metrics Inc. |publisher=Santa Clara County Parks and Recreation Department |date=1976 }}</ref> East of the Guadalupe River, [[Coyote Creek (Santa Clara County)|Coyote Creek]] also flows to south San Francisco Bay and originates on [[Mount Sizer]] near [[Henry W. Coe State Park]] and the surrounding hills in the [[Diablo Range]], northeast of [[Morgan Hill, California]].
 
 
The lowest point in San Jose is 13&nbsp;feet (4&nbsp;m) below sea level at the San Francisco Bay in Alviso;<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.journalism.sfsu.edu/www/pubs/prism/apr96/14.html | title=Sinking State | publisher=[[San Francisco State University]] | date=April 1996 | accessdate=April 27, 2008}}{{dead link|date=August 2012}}</ref> the highest is 2,125 feet.<ref>http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html</ref> Due to the proximity to [[Lick Observatory]] atop Mount Hamilton, San Jose has taken several steps to reduce [[light pollution]], including replacing all street lamps and outdoor lighting in private developments with [[low pressure sodium lamp]]s.<ref name="LPS policy">{{cite web | url=http://sanjoseca.gov/planning/counter/policies/pol_lighting.pdf | title=Outdoor lighting on private developments | author=[[San Jose City Council]], |date=March 1, 1983 | accessdate=June 18, 2007 }}</ref> To recognize the city's efforts, the [[asteroid]] [[6216 San Jose]] was named after the city.<ref name="UCSC">{{cite web | url=http://www.ucsc.edu/oncampus/currents/97-98/05-25/asteroid.htm | title=UCSC, Lick Observatory designate asteroid for the city of San Jose | publisher=[[University of California, Santa Cruz]] | date=May 25, 1998 | accessdate=June 18, 2007 }}</ref>
 
 
San Jose lies close to the Pacific Ocean and close to [[San Francisco Bay]] (a small portion of its northern border touches the bay). [[Santa Clara Valley]] is the population center of the Bay Area, and like the hub and spokes of a wheel, surrounding communities emanate outwards from the valley. This growth in part, has shaped the greater Bay Area as it is today in terms of [[Population geography|geographic population distribution]] and the trend of suburbanization away from the valley.
 
 
There are four distinct valleys in the city of San Jose: Almaden Valley, situated on the south-west fringe of the city; Evergreen Valley to the south-east, which is hilly all throughout its interior; Santa Clara Valley, which includes the flat, main urban expanse of the South Bay; and the rural Coyote Valley, to the city's extreme southern fringe.
 
 
===Climate===
 
[[File:Palm Trees in San Jose California.jpg|thumb|250px|A San Jose city street lined with [[Arecaceae|palms]].]]
 
San Jose, like most of the Bay Area, has a Subtropical [[Mediterranean climate]].<ref name="WR-259">{{cite web | url=http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/mtr/sfd_sjc_climate/sjc/SJC_CLIMATE3.php | title=Climate of San Jose | author=Miguel Miller | accessdate=June 18, 2007 | publisher=National Weather Service }}</ref> San Jose has 300+ days of sunshine and an average daily high temperature of {{convert|73|°F|°C|abbr=on}} annually. Although San Jose lies inland and does not front the Pacific Ocean like [[San Francisco]], it is surrounded on three sides by mountains. Because of this, the city is somewhat more sheltered from rain, giving it a [[semiarid]] feel with a mean annual rainfall of 14.4&nbsp;inches (366&nbsp;mm), compared to some other parts of the Bay Area, which can get about three times that amount.
 
 
January's average high is {{convert|59|°F|°C|abbr=on}} and average low is {{convert|42|°F|°C|abbr=on}}. July's average high is {{convert|84|°F|°C|abbr=on}} and average low is {{convert|57|°F|°C|abbr=on}}.<ref name=http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliMAIN.pl?casjos>{{cite web|url=http://www.accuweather.com/us/ca/san-jose/95113/forecast-month.asp |title=San Jose Month Weather|publisher=AccuWeather}}</ref> The highest temperature ever recorded in San Jose was {{convert|114|°F|°C|abbr=on}} in June 1961; the lowest was {{convert|18|°F|°C|abbr=on}} on January 6, 1884. On December 22 and 23 1990 the low temperature hit {{convert|19|°F|°C|abbr=on}}. Temperature ''fluctuations'' between night and day can vary as little as 10 °F to 12 °F (a ''fluctuation range'' of 5.5 °C to 6.6 °C), meaning that its climate does not experience huge temperature drops or rises like some other parts of California.
 
 
With the light rainfall, San Jose and its suburbs experience about 300 full or partly sunny days a year. Rain occurs primarily in the months from November through April or May. During the winter and spring, hillsides and fields turn green with grasses and vegetation, although [[deciduous]] trees are few. With the coming of the annual hot summer dry period, the vegetation dies and dries, giving the hills a golden cover, which unfortunately also provides fuel for frequent [[grass fire]]s.
 
 
Measurable precipitation falls in downtown San Jose on an average of 58&nbsp;days a year. Annual precipitation has ranged from {{convert|6.12|in|mm}} in 1953 to {{convert|32.57|in|mm}} in 1983. The most precipitation in one month was {{convert|10.23|in|mm}} in February 1998. The maximum 24-hour rainfall was {{convert|3.60|in|mm}} on January 30, 1968. Although summer is normally quite dry in San Jose, a very heavy thunderstorm on August 21, 1968, brought {{convert|1.92|in|mm|adj=on}} of rain, causing some flooding.<ref>wrcc.dri.edu/summary/Climsmcaa.html; ''[[San Francisco Chronicle]]'', August 22, 1968</ref>
 
 
The snow level drops as low as 2,000&nbsp;feet (610&nbsp;m) above sea level, or lower, occasionally coating nearby [[Mount Hamilton (California)|Mount Hamilton]], and less frequently the [[Santa Cruz Mountains]], with snow that normally lasts a few days. This sometimes snarls traffic traveling on [[California State Route 17|State Route 17]] towards [[Santa Cruz, California|Santa Cruz]]. Snow rarely falls in San Jose; the most recent snow to remain on the ground was on February 5, 1976, when many residents around the city saw as much as 3&nbsp;inches (7.6&nbsp;cm) on car and roof tops. The official observation station measured only {{convert|0.5|in|mm|sing=on}} of snow.
 
 
Like most of the Bay Area, San Jose is made up of dozens of [[microclimate]]s. In July, for example, highs may be just 80 degrees, on average, close to the San Francisco Bay and 85 degrees, on average, in the southern and/or eastern extremes of the city. Downtown San Jose experiences the lightest rainfall in the city, while South San Jose, only 10&nbsp;miles (16&nbsp;km) distant, generally experiences more rainfall.
 
 
{{Weather box|location = San Jose, California
 
|single line = Y
 
|Jan high F = 59.3
 
|Feb high F = 63.4
 
|Mar high F = 67.0
 
|Apr high F = 72.1
 
|May high F = 76.7
 
|Jun high F = 81.8
 
|Jul high F = 84.3
 
|Aug high F = 84.0
 
|Sep high F = 82.2
 
|Oct high F = 75.9
 
|Nov high F = 65.3
 
|Dec high F = 58.9
 
|year high F =
 
|Jan low F = 41.9
 
|Feb low F = 44.6
 
|Mar low F = 46.4
 
|Apr low F = 48.3
 
|May low F = 55.5
 
|Jun low F = 59.4
 
|Jul low F = 62.5
 
|Aug low F = 61.6
 
|Sep low F = 57.3
 
|Oct low F = 52.5
 
|Nov low F = 49.5
 
|Dec low F = 41.9
 
|year low F =
 
|Jan record high F = 79
 
|Feb record high F = 80
 
|Mar record high F = 88
 
|Apr record high F = 96
 
|May record high F = 101
 
|Jun record high F = 114
 
|Jul record high F = 113
 
|Aug record high F = 107
 
|Sep record high F = 109
 
|Oct record high F = 103
 
|Nov record high F = 87
 
|Dec record high F = 83
 
|year record high F = 114
 
|Jan record low F = 18
 
|Feb record low F = 21
 
|Mar record low F = 27
 
|Apr record low F = 30
 
|May record low F = 34
 
|Jun record low F = 37
 
|Jul record low F = 37
 
|Aug record low F = 39
 
|Sep record low F = 38
 
|Oct record low F = 31
 
|Nov record low F = 28
 
|Dec record low F = 16
 
|year record low F = 16
 
|Jan rain inch = 3.03
 
|Feb rain inch = 2.84
 
|Mar rain inch = 2.69
 
|Apr rain inch = 1.02
 
|May rain inch = 0.44
 
|Jun rain inch = 0.1
 
|Jul rain inch = 0.06
 
|Aug rain inch = 0.07
 
|Sep rain inch = 0.23
 
|Oct rain inch = 0.87
 
|Nov rain inch = 1.73
 
|Dec rain inch = 2.00
 
|rain colour = green
 
|year rain inch = 15.08
 
|Jan rain days = 10.2
 
|Feb rain days = 9.7
 
|Mar rain days = 10.3
 
|Apr rain days = 5.4
 
|May rain days = 3.0
 
|Jun rain days = 0.9
 
|Jul rain days = 0.3
 
|Aug rain days = 0.5
 
|Sep rain days = 1.5
 
|Oct rain days = 3.6
 
|Nov rain days = 7.4
 
|Dec rain days = 8.9
 
|unit rain days = 0.01 in
 
|source 1 = NOAA<ref name=NCDC>
 
{{cite web
 
| url=http://cdo.ncdc.noaa.gov/climatenormals/clim20/ca/047821.pdf
 
| title= NCDC: U.S. Climate Normals
 
| publisher = [[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]]
 
| format = PDF
 
| accessdate=April 22, 2010
 
}}</ref> Weather.com (extremes) <ref name = TWC >
 
{{cite web
 
|url = http://www.weather.com/outlook/health/fitness/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/95129
 
|title = Average Weather for San Jose, CA - Temperature and Precipitation
 
|publisher = The Weather Channel
 
|accessdate = 2011-09-19
 
}}</ref>
 
|date=September 2011
 
}}
 
 
==Cityscape==
 
{{wide image|Panoramic_Downtown_San_Jose.jpg|1800px|<center>Overhead panorama of [[downtown San Jose]].</center>}}
 
 
The city is divided into several geographical regions. Many of these regions were originally [[unincorporated area|unincorporated communities]] or separate municipalities that were later annexed by the city. The city is generally divided into the following areas: [[Downtown San Jose]], Central, [[West Valley (California)|West San Jose]], [[North Valley (San Jose)|North San Jose]], [[East San Jose]], and [[South San Jose]].
 
 
Some well-known communities within San Jose include [[Downtown San Jose]], [[Japantown, San Jose, California|Japantown]], [[Rose Garden, San Jose, California|Rose Garden]], [[Sunol-Midtown, California|Sunol-Midtown]], [[Willow Glen, California|Willow Glen]], [[Naglee Park, San Jose, California|Naglee Park]], [[Burbank, Santa Clara County, California|Burbank]], [[West San Jose]], [[Winchester (San Jose)|Winchester]], [[Alviso, San Jose, California|Alviso]], [[East Foothills, California|East Foothills]], [[Alum Rock, California|Alum Rock]], Little Portugal, [[Blossom Valley, San Jose, California|Blossom Valley]], [[Cambrian Park, San Jose, California|Cambrian]], [[Almaden Valley, San Jose, California|Almaden Valley]], [[Silver Creek Valley]], [[Evergreen, San Jose, California|Evergreen Valley]], [[Edenvale (San Jose)|Edenvale]], [[Santa Teresa, San Jose, California|Santa Teresa]], [[Seven Trees, California|Seven Trees]], [[Coyote Valley]], and [[Berryessa, San Jose, California|Berryessa]].
 
 
===Landmarks===
 
Important landmarks in San Jose include [[Children's Discovery Museum of San Jose]], [[History Park at Kelley Park]], [[Cathedral Basilica of St. Joseph (San Jose)|Cathedral Basilica of St. Joseph]], [[Plaza de César Chávez]], [[Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library]], [[Mexican Heritage Plaza]], [[Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum]], [[Lick Observatory]], [[Hayes Mansion]], [[HP Pavilion (sports arena)|HP Pavilion at San Jose]], [[De Anza Hotel]], [[San Jose Improv]], [[San Jose Municipal Stadium]], [[Spartan Stadium (San Jose)|Spartan Stadium]], [[Japantown, San Jose, California|Japantown San Jose]], [[Winchester Mystery House]], [[Raging Waters]], [[Circle of Palms Plaza]], [[San Jose City Hall]], [[San Jose Flea Market]] [[Oak Hill Memorial Park]], and [[The Tech Museum of Innovation]].
 
 
<center><gallery>
 
File:Children's Discovery Museum of San Jose.jpg|[[Children's Discovery Museum of San Jose]]
 
File:USA-San Jose-De Anza Hotel-3.jpg|[[De Anza Hotel]]
 
File:HP Pavilion (angle).jpg|[[HP Pavilion at San Jose]]
 
File:San Jose Basilica.jpg|[[Cathedral Basilica of St. Joseph (San Jose)|Cathedral Basilica of Saint Joseph]]
 
File:Lick Observatory Shane Telescope.jpg|[[Lick Observatory]]
 
File:IMG 9864MountHamilton fxwb.jpg|[[Mount Hamilton (California)|Mount Hamilton]]
 
File:Dolce Hayes Mansion at dusk.jpg|[[Hayes Mansion]]
 
File:Plaza de Cesar Chavez 01.jpg|[[Plaza de César Chávez]]
 
File:Rc egyptian museum.jpg|[[Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum]]
 
File:Winchester Mystery House San Jose 01.jpg|[[Winchester Mystery House]]
 
File:Friendshipgarden.JPG|[[Kelley Park]]
 
File:2008-0817-SJSU-MLKlib.jpg|[[Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library]]
 
File:SJ City Hall Rotunda.jpg|[[San Jose City Hall]]
 
File:Fairmont San Jose.jpg|[[Fairmont San Jose Hotel]]
 
File:SanJoseCirclePalms.jpg|[[Circle of Palms Plaza]]
 
File:Spartan stadium DSC0768-Edit.jpg|[[Spartan Stadium (San Jose)|Spartan Stadium]]
 
</gallery></center>
 
 
==Demographics==
 
{|
 
|-
 
|align="right" |
 
{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;text-align: right;font-size: 90%;"
 
! Demographic profile<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bayareacensus.ca.gov|title=Demographic Profile Bay Area Census}}</ref>
 
! 2010
 
|-
 
|align="left" | Total Population || 945,942 - 100.0%
 
|-
 
|align="left" | One Race || 898,880 - 95.0%
 
|-
 
|align="left" | Not Hispanic or Latino || 632,306 - 66.8%
 
|-
 
|align="left" | Asian alone || 300,022 - 31.7%
 
|-
 
|align="left" | White alone || 271,382 - 28.7%
 
|-
 
|align="left" | Black or African American alone || 27,508 - 2.9%
 
|-
 
|align="left" | American Indian and Alaska Native alone || 2,255 - 0.2%
 
|-
 
|align="left" | Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone || 3,492 - 0.4%
 
|-
 
|align="left" | Some other race alone || 1,820 - 0.2%
 
|-
 
|align="left" | Two or more races alone || 25,827 - 2.7%
 
|-
 
|align="left" | Hispanic or Latino (of any race) || 313,636 - 33.2%
 
|}
 
|}
 
[[File:San Jose Demographics 2010.jpg|thumb|250px|A map of racial/ethnic distribution in the city of San Jose, 2010 census - Orange dots represent Hispanic origins, blue dots represent Black origins, green dots represent Asian origins, Red dots represent White origins, and gray dots represent other origins. Each dot represents 25 people.]]
 
 
{{USCensusPop
 
|1850 = 3500
 
|1860 = 4579
 
|1870 = 9089
 
|1880 = 12567
 
|1890 = 18060
 
|1900 = 21500
 
|1910 = 28946
 
|1920 = 39642
 
|1930 = 57651
 
|1940 = 68457
 
|1950 = 95280
 
|1960 = 204196
 
|1970 = 459913
 
|1980 = 629442
 
|1990 = 782248
 
|2000 = 894943
 
|2010 = 945942|
 
|footnote=sources:<ref name=2008population>{{cite web|url=http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2008-01.xls |title=Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places over 100,000, Ranked by July&nbsp;1, 2008 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008|date=2008-07|publisher=United States Census Bureau|accessdate=July 19, 2009}}{{dead link|date=February 2012}}</ref><ref name=population>{{cite web
 
|url=http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2009-01.csv|title=Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000}}{{dead link|date=February 2012}}</ref><ref>Moffatt, Riley. ''Population History of Western U.S. Cities & Towns, 1850–1990''. [[Lanham, Maryland|Lanham]]: Scarecrow, 1996, 54.</ref>
 
|<ref name="dof.ca.gov"/>
 
|}}
 
[[File:San Jose California Skyline.jpg|thumb|250px|A view of Downtown San Jose as seen from East Foothills.]]
 
 
===2010===
 
The [[2010 United States Census]]<ref>{{USCensus-2010CA}}</ref> reported that San Jose had a population of 945,942. The [[population density]] was 5,256.2 people per square mile (2,029.4/km²). The racial makeup of San Jose was 404,437 (42.8%) [[White (U.S. Census)|White]], 303,138 (32.0%) [[Asian (U.S. Census)|Asian]] (10.4% [[Vietnamese American|Vietnamese]], 6.7% [[Chinese American|Chinese]], 5.6% [[Filipino American|Filipino]], 4.6% [[Indian American|Indian]], 1.2% [[Korean American|Korean]], 1.2% [[Japanese American|Japanese]], 0.3% [[Cambodian American|Cambodian]], 0.2% [[Thai American|Thai]], 0.2% [[Pakistani American|Pakistani]], 0.2% [[Laotian American|Laotian]]), 30,242 (3.2%) [[African American (U.S. Census)|African American]], 8,297 (0.9%) [[Native American (U.S. Census)|Native American]], 4,017 (0.4%) [[Pacific Islander (U.S. Census)|Pacific Islander]], 148,749 (15.7%) from [[Race (United States Census)|other races]], and 47,062 (5.0%) from two or more races. [[Hispanic (U.S. Census)|Hispanic]] or [[Latino (U.S. Census)|Latino]] of any race were 313,636 persons (33.2%). Among the Hispanic population, 28.2% are [[Mexican American|Mexican]], 0.7% [[Salvadoran American|Salvadoran]], 0.5% [[Puerto Rican people|Puerto Rican]], and 0.3% [[Nicaraguan American|Nicaraguan]]. [[Non-Hispanic Whites]] were 28.7% of the population in 2010,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06/0668000.html |title=San Jose (city), California |work=State & County QuickFacts |publisher=U.S. Census Bureau |accessdate=April 20, 2012}}</ref> down from 78.9% in 1970.<ref name="census">{{cite web|title=California - Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990|publisher=U.S. Census Bureau|url=http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0076/twps0076.html|accessdate=April 20, 2012}}</ref>
 
 
The Census reported that 932,620 people (98.6% of the population) lived in households, 9,542 (1.0%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 3,780 (0.4%) were institutionalized.
 
 
There were 301,366 households, out of which 122,958 (40.8%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 162,819 (54.0%) were [[marriage|opposite-sex married couples]] living together, 37,988 (12.6%) had a female householder with no husband present, 18,702 (6.2%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 16,900 (5.6%) [[POSSLQ|unmarried opposite-sex partnerships]], and 2,458 (0.8%) [[same-sex partnerships|same-sex married couples or partnerships]]. 59,385 households (19.7%) were made up of individuals and 18,305 (6.1%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.09. There were 219,509 [[family (U.S. Census)|families]] (72.8% of all households); the average family size was 3.54.
 
 
The population was spread out with 234,678 people (24.8%) under the age of 18, 89,457 people (9.5%) aged 18 to 24, 294,399 people (31.1%) aged 25 to 44, 232,166 people (24.5%) aged 45 to 64, and 95,242 people (10.1%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.2 years. For every 100 females there were 101.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.8 males.
 
 
There were 314,038 housing units at an average density of 1,745.0 per square mile (673.7/km²), of which 176,216 (58.5%) were owner-occupied, and 125,150 (41.5%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.6%; the rental vacancy rate was 4.3%. 553,436 people (58.5% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 379,184 people (40.1%) lived in rental housing units.
 
 
===2000===
 
As of the [[census]]{{GR|2}} of 2000, there were 894,943 people, 276,598 households, and 203,576 families residing in the city.
 
 
The [[population density]] was 5,117.9 people per square mile (1,976.1/km²). There were 281,841 housing units at an average density of 1,611.8 per square mile (622.3/km²). Of the 276,598 households, 38.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were [[Marriage|married couples]] living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.4% were non-families. 18.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.20 and the average family size was 3.62.
 
 
In the city the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 35.4% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, and 8.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 103.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.5 males.
 
 
According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was the highest in the U.S. for any city with more than a quarter million residents with $76,963 annually. The median income for a family was $86,822.<ref>{{cite web |title= San Jose, California: Earnings in the Past 12 Months (In 2007 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars)|url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/STTable?_bm=y&-context=st&-qr_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S2001&-ds_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_&-CONTEXT=st&-tree_id=307&-keyword=San%20Jose,%20California&-redoLog=true&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=16000US0668000&-format=&-_lang=en |work=U.S. Fact Finder |publisher=U.S. Census Bureau}}</ref> Males had a median income of $49,347 versus $36,936 for females. The per capita income for the city was $26,697. About 6.0% of families and 8.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.3% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over.
 
 
San Jose and the rest of the Bay Area is home to many Christian congregations, including large Roman Catholic and [[Orthodoxy|Eastern Orthodox]] churches, [[Mormonism|Mormon]]s, and [[Jehovah's Witnesses]], alongside centers of [[Jewish]], [[Hinduism|Hindu]], [[Islam]]ic, [[Buddhism|Buddhist]] and [[Sikhism|Sikh]] faiths, among numerous other religious communities.
 
 
A high percentage of foreign-born residents (39.0% of the population) live in the city. These include many high-tech workers from [[East Asia|East]] and South Asia, Eastern European immigrants, as well as poorer immigrants from Latin America, many of whom can be found in the large, multi-generational [[barrio]] Alum Rock district. San Jose has the largest [[Vietnamese American|Vietnamese]] population of any city in the world outside of [[Vietnam]].<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2004/02/16/BAG2751OP81.DTL |title=S.F.'s 'Little Saigon' / Stretch of Larkin Street named for Vietnamese Americans|date=2004-02|publisher=San Francisco Chronicle|accessdate=March 6, 2010 | first=Cicero A. | last=Estrella}}</ref>
 
The people from these countries have settled in the city and across the Santa Clara Valley primarily during the last three or four decades.
 
 
==Economy==
 
[[File:Adobe HQ.jpg|thumb|250px|Adobe Systems headquarters in downtown San Jose.]]
 
The large concentration of high-technology engineering, computer, and microprocessor companies around San Jose has led the area to be known as [[Silicon Valley]]. As the largest city in the valley, San Jose has billed itself "the capital of Silicon Valley." Area schools such as the [[University of California, Berkeley]], [[University of California, Santa Cruz]], [[San Jose State University]], [[San Francisco State University]], [[California State University, East Bay]], [[Santa Clara University]], and [[Stanford University]] pump thousands of engineering and computer science graduates into the local economy every year.
 
 
High economic growth during the [[Dot-com bubble|tech bubble]] caused employment, housing prices, and traffic congestion to peak in the late 1990s. As the economy slowed in the early 2000s, employment and traffic congestion diminished somewhat. In the mid-2000s, traffic along major highways again began to worsen as the economy improved. San Jose had 405,000 jobs within its city limits in 2006, and an unemployment rate of 4.6%. In 2000, San Jose residents had the highest median household income [[Highest income places in the United States|of any city in the United States]] with a population over 300,000, and currently has the highest median income of any U.S. city with over 280,000 people.
 
 
San Jose lists many companies with 1,000 employees or more, including the headquarters of [[Adobe Systems|Adobe]], [[Altera]], [[Brocade Communications Systems]], [[Cadence Design Systems]], [[Cisco Systems]], [[eBay]], [[Lee's Sandwiches]], [[Sanmina-SCI]], and [[Xilinx]], as well as major facilities for [[Becton Dickinson]], [[Ericsson]], [[Hewlett-Packard]], [[Hitachi]], [[IBM]], [[Kaiser Permanente]] and [[KLA Tencor]]. Other large companies based in San Jose include [[Altera]], [[Atmel]], [[CEVA, Inc.|CEVA]], [[Cypress Semiconductor]], [[Echelon Corporation|Echelon]], [[Integrated Device Technology]], [[Micrel]], [[Netgear]], [[Novellus Systems]], [[Oclaro]], [[Online Trading Academy]], [[Quantum Corporation|Quantum]], [[SunPower]], [[Supermicro]], [[Tessera Technologies]], [[TiVo, Inc.|TiVo]], [[Ultratech, Inc.|Ultratech]], and [[VeriFone]]. Sizable government employers include the city government, [[Santa Clara County, California|Santa Clara County]], and [[San Jose State University]].<ref>{{cite web
 
| title = Fact Sheet: Community Profile: Employment and Employers
 
| publisher = City of San Jose
 
| date = May 10, 2010
 
| url = http://www.sanjoseca.gov/planning/data/fact_sheet/FactSheet.pdf
 
| accessdate = March 14, 2011}}</ref> [[Acer Inc.|Acer]]'s United States division has its offices in San Jose.<ref>"[http://us.acer.com/acer/contact_us.do;jsessionid=A3BA4321A84CBBB329D46EBB990A86FA.public_a_us003?LanguageISOCtxParam=en&ctx2.c2att1=25&CountryISOCtxParam=US&ctx1g.c2att92=453&ctx1.att21k=1&CRC=3529792491 Contact Us]{{dead link|date=February 2012}}." [[Acer America]]. Retrieved on August 10, 2009.</ref> Prior to its closing, [[Netcom (United States)|Netcom]] had its headquarters in San Jose.<ref>Helm, Leslie. "[http://web.archive.org/web/19990427144831/www.netcom.com/netcom/contact.html contact netcom]." Netcom. Retrieved on September 7, 2010.</ref><ref>"[http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/11317269.html?dids=11317269:11317269&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Mar+25%2C+1997&author=LESLIE+HELM&pub=Los+Angeles+Times&desc=Netcom+to+Set+Time+Limits+on+Internet+Use%3B+Technology%3A+The+rule+will+apply+to+customers+with+current+services.+The+firm+offers+higher-priced+plans+with+an+access+guarantee.&pqatl=google Netcom to Set Time Limits on Internet Use; Technology: The rule will apply to customers with current services. The firm offers higher-priced plans with an access guarantee.]" ''[[Los Angeles Times]]''. March 25, 1997. Part D Financial Desk Start Page 1. Retrieved on September 7, 2010. "Charting a new direction for money-losing Internet service providers, San Jose- based Netcom On-Line Communications Services..."</ref>
 
 
The [[cost of living]] in San Jose and the surrounding areas is among the highest in California and the nation.<ref>[http://www.fedc.com/ACCRACostofLivingIndex2ndQuarter2004.htm fedc.com/ACCRACostofLivingIndex2ndQuarter2004.htm]{{Dead link|date=July 2010}}</ref> Housing costs are the primary reason for the high cost of living, although the costs in all areas tracked by the [[ACCRA Cost of Living Index]] are above the national average. Despite the high cost of living in San Jose, households in city limits have the highest [[disposable income]] of any city in the U.S. with over 500,000 residents.<ref>{{cite web
 
| title = San Jose – Accolades
 
| publisher = "America's Most Livable Communities" (Partners for Livable Communities, Washington, DC)
 
| url = http://www.mostlivable.org/general/san-jos-city-home.html
 
| accessdate = April 7, 2008 }}{{dead link|date=February 2012}}
 
</ref><ref>{{cite web
 
| title = San Jose, Capital of Silicon Valley: #1 Community for Innovators in U.S.
 
| publisher = City of San Jose
 
| date = March 27, 2008
 
| url = http://www.sjeconomy.com/aboutsj/communityinnovators.asp
 
| accessdate = April 7, 2008 }}{{dead link|date=February 2012}}</ref>
 
 
San Jose residents produce more U.S. patents than any other city.<ref name="autogenerated1">[http://www.mostlivable.org/cities/sanjose/home_accolades.html America's most livable:San Jose, California]{{Dead link|date=July 2010}}</ref> Thirty-five percent of all [[venture capital]] funds in the U.S. are invested in San Jose and Silicon Valley companies.<ref name="autogenerated1" />
 
 
===Top employers===
 
As of December 2011, the top employers in the city are:
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! #
 
! Employer
 
! # of Employees
 
|-
 
| 1
 
|[[Santa Clara County, California|County of Santa Clara]]
 
|15,360
 
|-
 
| 2
 
|[[Cisco Systems]]
 
|11,600
 
|-
 
| 3
 
|[[IBM]]
 
|7,460
 
|-
 
| 4
 
|City of San Jose
 
|6,620
 
|-
 
| 5
 
|[[San Jose State University]]
 
|3,100
 
|-
 
| 6
 
|[[Brocade Communications Systems]]
 
|3,000
 
|-
 
| 7
 
|[[eBay]]
 
|3,000
 
|-
 
| 8
 
|[[Hitachi]]
 
|2,900
 
|-
 
| 9
 
|[[San Jose Unified School District]]
 
|2,690
 
|-
 
| 10
 
|[[Xilinx]]
 
|2,340
 
|-
 
| 11
 
|[[Sanmina-SCI]]
 
|2,170
 
|-
 
| 12
 
|[[Kaiser Permanente]]
 
|2,120
 
|-
 
| 13
 
|[[Adobe Systems]]
 
|2,000
 
|-
 
| 14
 
|[[Good Samaritan Hospital (San Jose)|Good Samaritan Hospital]]
 
|1,850
 
|-
 
| 15
 
|[[KLA Tencor]]
 
|1,770
 
|-
 
| 16
 
|[[Comerica Bank]]
 
|820
 
|-
 
| 17
 
|[http://netscout.com NetScout Systems Inc.]
 
|800
 
|}
 
 
==Law and government==
 
{{See also|San Jose City Council|List of mayors of San Jose, California|List of city managers of San Jose, California}}
 
 
===Local===
 
[[File:Sanjosecityhall.jpg|thumb|[[San Jose City Hall]]]]
 
 
San Jose is a [[charter city]] under California law, giving it the power to enact local ordinances that may conflict with state law, within the limits provided by the charter.<ref name="LCCC">{{cite web | url=http://ceres.ca.gov/planning/bol/1999/charter.html | title=List of California Charter Cities | work=The California Planners' Book of Lists | year=1999 | accessdate=June 9, 2007 | publisher=California Governor's Office of Planning and Research }}</ref> The city has a [[council-manager government]] with a [[city manager]] nominated by the mayor and elected by the [[city council]].
 
 
The [[San Jose City Council]] is made up of ten council members elected by district, and a mayor elected by the entire city. During city council meetings, the mayor presides, and all eleven members can vote on any issue. The mayor has no veto powers. Council members and the mayor are elected to four-year terms; the even-numbered district council members beginning in 1994; the mayor and the odd-numbered district council members beginning in 1996.<ref name=Charter>{{cite web|url=http://www.sanjoseca.gov/clerk/Charter.htm |title=San Jose City Charter |publisher=Sanjoseca.gov |date= |accessdate=July 1, 2010}}</ref> Each council member represents approximately 100,000 constituents.
 
 
Council members and the mayor are limited to two successive terms in office, although a council member that has reached the term limit can be elected mayor, and vice versa. The council elects a vice-mayor from the members of the council at the second meeting of the year following a council election. This council member acts as mayor during the temporary absence of the mayor, but does not succeed to the mayor's office upon a vacancy.<ref name="Charter"/>
 
 
The City Manager is the chief administrative officer of the city, and must present an annual [[budget]] for approval by the city council. When the office is vacant, the Mayor proposes a candidate for City Manager, subject to council approval. The council appoints the Manager for an indefinite term, and may at any time remove the manager, or the electorate may remove the manager through a [[recall election]]. Other city officers directly appointed by the council include the City Attorney, City Auditor, City Clerk, and Independent Police Auditor.<ref name=Charter/> [[File:Santaclaracountygovernmentcenter.jpg|thumb|Santa Clara County Government Center]] Like all cities and counties in the state, San Jose has representation in the [[California State Legislature|state legislature]].
 
 
Like all California cities except [[San Francisco]], both the levels and the boundaries of what the city government controls are determined by the [[Local Agency Formation Commission]] (LAFCO).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.santaclara.lafco.ca.gov |title=Local Agency Formation Commission |publisher=Santaclara.lafco.ca.gov |date= |accessdate=July 1, 2010}}</ref> The goal of a LAFCO is to try to avoid uncontrolled [[urban sprawl]]. The Santa Clara County LAFCO has set boundaries of San Jose's "Sphere of Influence" (indicated by the blue line in the map near the top of the page) as a superset of the actual city limits (the yellow area in the map), plus parts of the surrounding unincorporated county land, where San Jose can, for example, prevent development of fringe areas to concentrate city growth closer to the city's core. The LAFCO also defines a subset of the Sphere as an 'Urban Service Area' (indicated by the red line in the map), effectively limiting development to areas where urban infrastructure (sewers, electrical service, etc.) already exists.
 
 
San Jose is the [[county seat]] of [[Santa Clara County, California|Santa Clara County]].<ref name="county charter">{{cite web | url=http://www.sccgov.org/SCC/docs%2FSCC%20Public%20Portal%2Fattachments%2F628168County_Charter.pdf | title=Charter of the County of Santa Clara, Article 101 | publisher=Santa Clara County | accessdate=February 16, 2008}}</ref> Accordingly, many county government facilities are located in the city, including the office of the County Executive, the Board of Supervisors, the District Attorney's Office, eight courthouses of the Superior Court, the Sheriff's Office, and the County Clerk.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.sccgov.org/portal/site/scc/contacts | title=County of Santa Clara Contacts | accessdate=February 16, 2008}}</ref>
 
 
===State and federal===
 
San Jose is located in the 13th, 15th, and 17th [[California State Senate|Senate]] Districts, represented by [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democrats]] [[Jerry Hill (politician)|Jerry Hill]], [[Jim Beall (California politician)|Jim Beall]], and [[Bill Monning]] respectively, and in the 24th, 25h, 27th, and 28th [[California State Assembly|Assembly]] districts, represented by Democrats [[Rich Gordon]], [[Bob Wieckowski]], [[Nora Campos]], and [[Paul Fong]] respectively. Federally, San Jose is located in California's [[California's 14th congressional district|14th]], [[California's 15th congressional district|15th]], and [[California's 16th congressional district|16th]] congressional districts, which have [[Cook Partisan Voting Index|Cook PVIs]] of D +18, D +14, and D +16 respectively,<ref>{{cite web | title = Will Gerrymandered Districts Stem the Wave of Voter Unrest? | publisher = Campaign Legal Center Blog | url=http://www.clcblog.org/blog_item-85.html | accessdate = February 10, 2008}}</ref> and are represented by Democrats [[Anna Eshoo]], [[Mike Honda]], and [[Zoe Lofgren]] respectively.
 
 
Several state and federal agencies maintain offices in San Jose. The city is the location of the Sixth District of the [[California Courts of Appeal]].<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/courts/courtsofappeal/6thDistrict/ | title=Courts of Appeal: Sixth District San Jose | publisher=California State Courts | accessdate=February 16, 2008}}</ref> It is also home to one of three courthouses of the [[United States District Court for the Northern District of California]], the other two being in Oakland and [[San Francisco]].<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.cand.uscourts.gov/CAND/FAQ.nsf/840afa494a77a59388256d4e007d54ff/de9a30b748bc1e5388256ebc0055acf4?OpenDocument | title=Court Info: San Jose | publisher=United States District Court for the Northern California District | accessdate=February 16, 2008}}{{dead link|date=February 2012}}</ref>
 
 
===Crime===
 
Crime in San Jose has been, and continues to be lower than in other large American cities.<ref name="FBI Uniform Crime Reports, 2010">{{cite web|title=FBI Uniform Crime Reports|url=http://www.ucrdatatool.gov/Search/Crime/Local/RunCrimeTrendsInOneVarLarge.cfm}}</ref> Like most large cities crime levels have fallen significantly after rising in the 1980s.<ref name="FBI Uniform Crime Reports, 2010"/> Today it is ranked as one of the safest cities in the country with a population over 500,000 people.<ref>Males, Mike. ''Scapegoat Generation''</ref><ref name="Morgan_Quitno_07">[http://www.morganquitno.com/cit07pop.htm#500,000+ 2007 Morgan Quitno and Khoa Le Award City Crime Rankings by Population Group] (To verify the "Since 2002" claim, change the '''07''' in the URL to see previous year's results.)</ref><ref name="http://www.statestats.com/cit07pop.htm#1,000,000+">City Crime rankings by Population group</ref> The designation is based on crime statistics reported to the [[Federal Bureau of Investigation]] in six categories: murder, rape, robbery, [[aggravated assault]], burglary, and [[auto theft]]. As of 2009, the city had the second lowest violent crime rate of any city with 500,000 or more residents, second only to Honolulu.<ref name="FBI Uniform Crime Reports, 2010"/> However in 2011, homicides have surged surpassing 2010's number of homicides which was 20 and in 2011 was 39.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2012/01/06/BAJ11MLQ1Q.DTL&tsp=1 |title=Man shot, killed in San Jose's first 2012 homicide |publisher=Sfgate.com |date=2012-01-07 |accessdate=2012-02-13}}</ref>
 
 
Current mayor [[Chuck Reed]] is a member of the [[Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition]],<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.mayorsagainstillegalguns.org/html/about/members.shtml| title=Mayors Against Illegal Guns: Coalition Members}}{{dead link|date=February 2012}}</ref> an organization formed in 2006 and co-chaired by New York City mayor [[Michael Bloomberg]] and [[Boston]] mayor [[Thomas Menino]].
 
 
===Sister cities===
 
The Office of Economic Development coordinates the San Jose Sister City Program which is part of [[Sister Cities International]]. As of 2008, there are seven [[sister cities]]:<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.sjeconomy.com/sistercities/ | title=Sister City Program | publisher=The City of San Jose | accessdate=May 8, 2009 }}</ref>
 
<div style="-moz-column-count:2; column-count:2;">
 
* {{flagicon|Japan}} [[Okayama, Okayama|Okayama]], Japan (established in 1957)
 
* {{flagicon|Costa Rica}} [[San José, Costa Rica|San José]], Costa Rica (1961)
 
* {{flagicon|Mexico}} [[Veracruz, Veracruz|Veracruz]], Mexico (1975)
 
* {{flagicon|Taiwan}} [[Tainan City|Tainan]], [[Republic of China|Taiwan]] (1977)
 
* {{flagicon|Ireland}} [[Dublin]], [[Republic of Ireland|Ireland]] (1986)
 
* {{flagicon|Russia}} [[Yekaterinburg]], Russia (1992)
 
* {{flagicon|India}} [[Kanpur]], India (1992)
 
* {{flagicon|India}} [[Pune]], India (1992)<ref name="Sister City, Pune, India - San Jose, CA">{{cite web|title=Sister City, Pune, India - San Jose, CA|url=http://www.waymarking.com/waymarks/WM9NYW_Sister_City_Pune_India_San_Jose_CA|accessdate=17 February 2013}}</ref><ref name="San Jose and Pune Celebrate Sister City Relationship With India National Independence Day Flag Raising">{{cite web|title=San Jose and Pune Celebrate Sister City Relationship With India National Independence Day Flag Raising|url=http://www.marketwire.com/press-release/san-jose-pune-celebrate-sister-city-relationship-with-india-national-independence-day-887744.htm|accessdate=17 February 2013}}</ref><ref name="San Jose Sister Cities">{{cite web|title=San Jose Sister Cities|url=http://www.sanjosesistercities.org/sister-cities/pune-india/|accessdate=17 February 2013}}</ref>
 
* {{flagicon|Portugal}} [[Oeiras Municipality, Portugal|Oeiras]], Portugal (1997)<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.cm-oeiras.pt/municipio/RelIns/Geminacoes/PlanoInternacional/Documents/AcordoCooperacaoCalifornia.pdf | title=Acordo de Cooperação entre San José, California e Oeiras, Portugal | publisher=CM Oeiras | accessdate=August 31, 2012 }}</ref>
 
* {{flagicon|Indonesia}} [[Pekanbaru]], Indonesia (2003)
 
</div>
 
 
==Arts and architecture==
 
 
[[File:San Jose Center for Performing Arts.jpg|thumb|250px|The San Jose Center for the Performing Arts is a general purpose venue for several performing arts organizations in San Jose.]]
 
Because the downtown area is in the flight path to nearby [[Mineta San Jose International Airport]] (also evidenced in the above panoramic), there is a height limit for buildings in the downtown area, which is under the final approach corridor to the airport. The height limit is dictated by local ordinances, driven by the distance from the runway and a slope defined by Federal Aviation Administration regulations. Core downtown buildings are limited to approximately {{convert|300|ft|m}} but can get taller farther from the airport.<ref>{{cite web|title=Staff Review Agenda|url=http://www.sanjoseca.gov/planning/pdf/recent/111507.pdf|publisher=City of San Jose|date=November 15, 2007|accessdate=May 5, 2008}}</ref>
 
 
There has been broad criticism over the past few decades of the city's architecture.<ref>{{cite web|title=Development Services|url=http://www.sanjoseca.gov/development/developmentcenter/second_floor.asp|publisher=City of San Jose|date=February 6, 2006|accessdate=May 5, 2008}}</ref> Citizens have complained that San Jose is lacking in aesthetically pleasing architectural styles. Blame for this lack of architectural "beauty" can be assigned to the re-development of the downtown area from the 1950s onward, in which whole blocks of historic commercial and residential structures were demolished.<ref>{{cite web|title=San Jose Downtown Historic District|url=http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/santaclara/shd.htm|publisher=National Parks Service|accessdate=May 5, 2008}}</ref> Exceptions to this include the [[Downtown Historic District (San Jose, California)|Downtown Historic District]], the [[De Anza Hotel]], and the [[Hotel Sainte Claire]], both of which are listed in the [[National Register of Historic Places]] for their architectural and historical significance.
 
 
Municipal building projects have experimented more with architectural styles than have most private enterprises.<ref>{{cite web|title=Green Building Policy|url=http://www.sanjoseca.gov/ESD/natural-energy-resources/gb-policy.htm|date=April 10, 2007|accessdate=May 5, 2008}}</ref> The Children's Discovery Museum, Tech Museum of Innovation, and the San Jose Repertory Theater building have experimented with bold colors and unusual exteriors. The new City Hall, designed by Richard Meier & Partners opened in 2005 and is a notable addition to the growing collection of municipal building projects.<ref>{{cite news|last=Yoders|first=Jeff|title=San Jose's Richard Meier-designed city hall: To Leed, or Not to Leed|url=http://www.bdcnetwork.com/article/CA6281251.html|work=Building Design and Construction|date=November 1, 2005|accessdate=May 5, 2008}} {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref>
 
 
Public art is an evolving attraction in the city. The city was one of the first to adopt a public art ordinance at 2% of capital improvement building project budgets,<ref>{{cite journal|title=2006–2007 Proposed Capital Budget|url=http://www.sanjoseca.gov/budget/FY0607/ProposedCapital/28.pdf|publisher=City of San Jose}}</ref> and the results of this commitment are beginning to have an impact on the visual landscape of the city. There are a considerable number of public art projects throughout the downtown area, and a growing collection in the newer civic locations in neighborhoods including libraries, parks, and fire stations. Of particular note, the Mineta Airport expansion is incorporating a program of Art & Technology into its development.
 
 
Within the early efforts at public art, there are notable controversies. Two examples include the statue of [[Quetzalcoatl]] (the plumed serpent) in downtown which was controversial in its planning because some religious groups felt that it was pagan, and controversial in its implementation because many felt that the final statue by [[Robert Graham (sculptor)|Robert Graham]] did not closely resemble a winged serpent, and was more noted for its expense than its aesthetics. This has resulted in locals joking that the statue resembles a pile of [[feces]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Herhold: I'll miss the red eyes of San Jose's plumed serpent
 
|url=http://www.mercurynews.com/scott-herhold/ci_17274049?nclick_check=1|publisher=San Jose Mercury News|accessdate=April 15, 2011}}</ref>
 
 
The statue of Thomas Fallon also met strong resistance from those who felt that people like him were largely responsible for the decimation of early native populations and [[Chicano]]/Latino activists protested he captured San Jose by violent force in the [[Mexican-American war]] (1846) as well "repressed" historic documents of Fallon ordered the expulsion of most of the city's [[Californio]] (early Spanish or Mexican) residents. In October 1991 after protests in part of [[Columbus Day]] and [[Dia de la Raza]] celebrations, the Fallon statue plan was scrapped and the statue was stored in a warehouse in [[Oakland, California|Oakland]] for more than a decade. The statue was returned to public display in 2002, albeit in a less conspicuous location: Pellier Park, a small triangular patch formed by the merge of West Julian and West St. James streets.<ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.bizjournals.com/sanjose/stories/2002/09/16/daily78.html | title=Fallon statue unveiled | work=Silicon Valley/San Jose Business Journal | date=September 20, 2002 | accessdate=June 18, 2007 }}</ref>
 
 
In 2001, the city sponsored SharkByte, an exhibit of decorated [[shark]]s, based on the mascot of the hockey team, the San Jose Sharks, and modeled after Chicago's display of decorated cows.<ref>{{cite web|author=Jim LaFrenere |url=http://www.chicagotraveler.com/cows_on_parade.htm |title=Chicago cows on parade exhibit |publisher=Chicagotraveler.com |date= |accessdate=July 1, 2010}}</ref> Large models of sharks were decorated in a variety of clever, colorful, or creative ways by local artists and were then displayed for months at dozens of locations around the city. Many displays were removed early because of vandalism. After the exhibition, the sharks were auctioned off and the proceeds donated to charity. The sharks can still be found in their new owners' homes and businesses.
 
 
In 2006, [[Adobe Systems]] commissioned an art installation titled San Jose Semaphore by Ben Rubin,<ref>{{cite book|url=http://books.google.com/?id=ZBJbIP0fMr0C&pg=PA342&dq=San+Jose+Semaphore+Ben+Rubin#v=onepage&q=San%20Jose%20Semaphore%20Ben%20Rubin&f=false|title=Entangled: Technology and the Transformation of Performance|author=Chris Salter|coauthors=Peter Sellars|year=2010|page=342|isbn=978-0-262-19588-1|publisher=The MIT Press}}</ref> which is located at the top of its headquarters building. Semaphore is composed of four LED discs which "rotate" to transmit a message. The content of the San Jose Semaphore's message remained a mystery until it was deciphered in August 2007.<ref name=semaphore>{{cite web|url=http://www.earstudio.com/sanjosesemaphore/decoding.pdf |title=Decoding the San Jose Semaphore|publisher=Ear Studio|accessdate=March 6, 2010}}</ref> The visual art installation is supplemented with an audio track, transmitted from the building on a low-power AM station. The audio track provides clues to decode the message being transmitted.
 
 
The city is home to many performing arts companies, including [[Opera San Jose]], [[Symphony Silicon Valley]], [[Ballet San Jose Silicon Valley]], [[Children's Musical Theater of San Jose]] (recognized as the largest and most talented youth theatre company in the nation), the [[San Jose Youth Symphony]], the [[San Jose Repertory Theatre]], [[City Lights Theatre Company]], [[The Tabard Theatre Company]], [[San Jose Stage Company]], and the now-defunct [[American Musical Theatre of San Jose]] which was replaced by [[Broadway San Jose]] in partnership with [[Team San Jose]]. San Jose also is home to the [[San Jose Museum of Art]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.sanjosemuseumofart.org |title=San Jose Museum of Art |publisher=San Jose Museum of Art |date= |accessdate=July 1, 2010}}</ref> one of the nation's premiere Modern Art museums. The annual [[Cinequest Film Festival]] in downtown has grown to over 60,000 attendees per year, becoming an important festival for independent films. The [[San Francisco Asian American Film Festival]] is an annual event, which is hosted in [[San Francisco]], [[Berkeley, California|Berkeley]], and [[Downtown San Jose]]. Approximately 30 to 40 films are screened in San Jose each year at the Camera 12 Downtown Cinemas. The [[San Jose Jazz Festival]] is another of many great events hosted throughout the year.
 
 
The [[HP Pavilion (sports arena)|HP Pavilion at San Jose]] is one of the most active venues for events in the world. According to [[Billboard Magazine]] and Pollstar, the arena sold the most tickets to non-sporting events of any venue in the United States, and third in the world after the [[Manchester Evening News Arena]] in [[Manchester]], England, and the [[Bell Centre]] in [[Montreal, Quebec]], Canada, for the period from January 1{{spaced ndash}}September 30, 2004. <!--Broken link<ref>[http://www.siliconvalley.com/mld/mercurynews/news/columnists/leigh_weimers/10045287.htm?template=contentModules/printstory.jsp]</ref>--> Including sporting events, the HP Pavilion averages 184 events a year, or roughly one event for every two days, which is significantly higher than the average for NHL arenas.<!--Broken link<ref>[http://www.sjredevelopment.org/101204/5-1DowntownTheaterUpdate.pdf]</ref>-->
 
 
==Sports==
 
{{See also|Sports in the San Francisco Bay Area}}
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
|-
 
! Club
 
! Sport
 
! Founded
 
! League
 
! Venue
 
|-
 
| [[San Jose Sharks]]
 
| [[Hockey]]
 
| 1991
 
| [[National Hockey League]]: [[Western Conference (NHL)|Western Conference]]
 
| [[HP Pavilion at San Jose]]
 
|-
 
| [[San Jose Earthquakes]]
 
| Soccer
 
| 1995
 
| [[Major League Soccer]]: [[Western Conference (MLS)|Western Conference]]
 
| [[Buck Shaw Stadium]]
 
|-
 
| [[San Jose Giants]]
 
| Baseball
 
| 1988
 
| [[California League]]
 
| [[San Jose Municipal Stadium]]
 
|-
 
| [[San Jose SaberCats]]
 
| [[Arena football]]
 
| 1995
 
| [[Arena Football League]] (West Division)
 
| [[HP Pavilion at San Jose]]
 
|-
 
| [[Real San Jose]]
 
| Soccer
 
| 2007
 
| [[National Premier Soccer League]]
 
| [[Yerba Buena High School]]
 
|}
 
[[File:San Jose Sharks v. Vancouver Canucks. (136300292).jpg|thumb|left|[[San Jose Sharks]] versus the [[Vancouver Canucks]] in the [[HP Pavilion (sports arena)|HP Pavilion at San Jose]], prior to the new scoreboard installation]].
 
[[File:HP Pavilion (angle).jpg|thumb|[[HP Pavilion (sports arena)|HP Pavilion at San Jose]]]]
 
[[File:HP Pavilion 06.jpg|thumb|right|220px|[[HP Pavilion (sports arena)|Inside view of HP Pavilion at San Jose prior to the new scoreboard installation]].]]
 
 
{{refimprove|date=April 2012}}
 
San Jose was able to have at least one major sports league franchise, the [[San Jose Sharks]] of the NHL, and will be home to the [[San Jose Earthquakes]] of MLS in 2014, but the city tried to obtain a [[NBA]] [[basketball]] and [[Major League Baseball]] team before. The [[United Football League (2009–)|UFL]] of [[American football]] held the San Jose/[[California Redwoods]] team in 2009-10, but has relocated to [[Sacramento]] to become the [[Sacramento Mountain Lions]] the following year. San Jose was a founding member of both the [[California League]] and [[Pacific Coast League]]s, in [[minor league baseball]], but currently the San Jose Giants of the class-A Cal League under the affiliation of the [[San Francisco Giants]] could move to the triple-A level PCL. The independent [[North American League (baseball)|North American League]] formerly the [[Golden Baseball League]] held an interest in the Santa Clara Valley, most notably to have a team in [[Santa Clara, California|Santa Clara]] where the city tried to catch the Giants and [[Oakland A's]], and the [[NFL]] [[San Francisco 49ers]] in a rejected major league sports stadium proposal.
 
 
In 2004, the San Jose Sports Authority hosted the [[United States Olympic Committee|U.S. Olympic team]] trials for [[judo]], [[taekwondo]], [[trampolining]] and [[rhythmic gymnastics]] at the [[San Jose State Event Center]]. In August 2004, the San Jose Seahawk Rugby Football Club hosted the USA All-Star [[Rugby Sevens|7-Aside Rugby]] Championships at Watson Bowl, east of Downtown. San Jose is also home to the [[St Joseph's Hurling Club]]. In 2008, around 90 percent of the members of the United States Olympic team were processed at San Jose State University prior to traveling to the [[2008 Summer Olympics]] in Beijing.<ref>{{cite news | url=http://origin.mercurynews.com/tv/ci_9980596 | title=Unseen Heros: Olympians in 'lockdown' at SJSU on way to Beijing | author=Bruce Newman | work=[[San Jose Mercury News]] | date=July 24, 2008 | accessdate=July 29, 2008}}</ref> The 2009 Junior Olympics for trampoline also were held here. In April 2009, it was announced San Jose State will host the 2011 [[American Collegiate Hockey Association]] (ACHA) national tournament.<ref>{{cite web |title=San Jose State Spartans Team History |url=http://www.sjsuhockey.net/NewHistory.html|publisher=sjsuhockey.net|location= |year=2010 |accessdate=May 4, 2010}}</ref>
 
 
==Transportation==
 
 
===Public transportation===
 
[[File:San Jose Freeway Interchange.jpg|thumb|left|200px|View of a major freeway interchange for [[Interstate 280 (California)|I-280]] connecting with [[California State Route 87|SR87]] downtown]]
 
[[File:VTA light rail san jose penitencia creek station.jpg|thumb|right|200px|[[Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority light rail|VTA light rail]] train running on the [[Alum Rock – Santa Teresa (VTA)|Alum-Rock–Santa-Teresa line]]]]
 
[[File:VTA Rapid Bus.JPG|thumb|right|200px|[[Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority|VTA]] Rapid Bus Route 522]]
 
[[File:Plane passing Bank of America building in SJ.jpg|thumb|right|200px|A FedEx plane approaches the [[San Jose International Airport|Mineta San Jose International Airport]].]]
 
{{see also|Bay Area Rapid Transit expansion}}
 
Rail service to and within San Jose is provided by [[Amtrak]] (the Sacramento–San-Jose [[Capitol Corridor]] and the [[Seattle]]–Los-Angeles [[Coast Starlight]]), [[Caltrain]] (commuter rail service between [[San Francisco]] and [[Gilroy, California|Gilroy]]), [[Altamont Commuter Express|ACE]] (commuter rail service to [[Pleasanton, California|Pleasanton]] and [[Stockton, California|Stockton]]), and a local light-rail system connecting downtown to [[Mountain View, California|Mountain View]], [[Milpitas, California|Milpitas]], [[Campbell, California|Campbell]], and [[Almaden Valley, San Jose, California|Almaden Valley]], operated by the [[Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority]] (VTA). Historic [[streetcar]]s from [[History Park at Kelley Park|History Park]] operate on the light rail lines in downtown during holidays. Long-term plans call for [[BART]] to be expanded to Santa Clara through Milpitas and San Jose from the current terminal in [[Fremont (BART station)|Fremont]]. Originally, the extension was to be built all at once, but due to the recession, sales tax revenue has dramatically decreased. Because of this, the extension will be built in two phases. Phase 1 will extend service to a temporary terminal in north-eastern San Jose in 2018 at [[Berryessa (BART station)|Berryessa station]]. Construction has been approved and funded and will begin in Summer 2012 and connect with the [[Warm Springs (BART station)|Warm Springs]] extension to southern Fremont. In addition, San Jose will be a major stop on the future [[California High Speed Rail]]
 
route between Los Angeles and [[San Francisco]].<ref>{{cite news |first= David |last=Goll |authorlink=|title=BART-San Jose planners in it for the long haul|url=http://sanjose.bizjournals.com/sanjose/stories/2009/03/16/story4.html|news=San Jose Business Journal |date=March 13, 2009|accessdate=March 13, 2009}}</ref> [[Diridon Station]] (formerly Cahill Depot, 65 Cahill Street) is the meeting point of all regional commuter rail service in the area. It was built in 1935 by the [[Southern Pacific Railroad]], and was refurbished in 1994.
 
 
[[Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority|VTA]] also operates many bus routes in San Jose and the surrounding communities, as well as offering [[paratransit]] services to local residents. Additionally, the [[Highway 17 Express]] bus line connects central San Jose with [[Santa Cruz, California|Santa Cruz]].
 
 
===Air transportation===
 
San Jose is served by [[San Jose International Airport|Norman Y. Mineta San Jose International Airport]] {{airport codes|SJC|KSJC|SJC}}, two miles (3&nbsp;km) northwest of downtown, and by [[Reid-Hillview Airport|Reid-Hillview Airport of Santa Clara County]] {{airport codes||KRHV|RHV}} a [[general aviation]] airport located in the eastern part of San Jose. San Jose residents also use [[San Francisco International Airport]] {{Airport codes|SFO|KSFO|SFO}}, a major international hub located 35&nbsp;miles (56&nbsp;km) to the northwest, and [[Oakland International Airport]] {{Airport codes|OAK|KOAK|OAK}}, another major international airport located 35&nbsp;miles (56&nbsp;km) to the north. The airport is also near the intersections of three major freeways, [[U.S. Route 101 in California|U.S. Route 101]], [[Interstate 880]], and [[California State Route 87|State Route 87]].
 
 
===Freeways and highways===
 
The San Jose area has a large freeway system, including three [[Interstate Highway System|Interstate freeways]] and one [[United States Numbered Highways|U.S. Route]]. It is, however, the largest city in the country not served by a primary Interstate; most of the Interstate Highway Network [[Interstate Highway System#Planning|was planned]] by the early 1950s well before San Jose's rapid growth decades later.
 
 
[[U.S. Route 101 in California|U.S. 101]] runs south to the [[California Central Coast]] and Los Angeles, and then runs north up near the eastern shore of the [[San Francisco Peninsula]] to [[San Francisco]]. [[Interstate 280 (California)|I-280]] also heads to San Francisco, but goes along just to the west of the cities of San Francisco Peninsula. [[Interstate 880|I-880]] heads north to [[Oakland, California|Oakland]], running parallel to the southeastern shore of [[San Francisco Bay]]. [[Interstate 680 (California)|I-680]] parallels I-880 to [[Fremont, California|Fremont]], but then cuts northeast to the eastern cities of the [[San Francisco Bay Area]].
 
 
Several state highways also serve San Jose: [[California State Route 17|SR 17]], [[California State Route 85|SR 85]], [[California State Route 87|SR 87]] and [[California State Route 237|SR 237]]. Additionally, San Jose is served by a system of county-wide expressways, which includes the [[Almaden Expressway]], [[Capitol Expressway]], [[San Tomas Expressway]], and [[Lawrence Expressway]].
 
 
Several regional transportation projects have been undertaken in recent years to deal with congestion on San Jose freeways. This includes expansion of [[California State Route 87|State Route 87]] including more lanes near the downtown San Jose area. The interchange for [[Interstate 280 (California)|I-280]] connecting with [[Interstate 680 (California)|I-680]] and [[U.S. Route 101 in California|US 101]], a rush-hour spot where the three freeways meet has been known to have high-density traffic similar to [[Los Angeles County]] interchanges.
 
 
====Major highways====
 
{{div col|3}}
 
*[[File:I-280 (CA).svg|20px]] [[Interstate 280 (California)|Interstate 280]]
 
*[[File:I-680 (CA).svg|20px]] [[Interstate 680 (California)|Interstate 680]]
 
*[[File:I-880 (CA).svg|20px]] [[Interstate 880]]
 
*[[File:US 101 (CA).svg|20px]] [[U.S. Route 101 in California|U.S. Route 101]]
 
*[[File:California 17.svg|20px]] [[California State Route 17|State Route 17]]
 
*[[File:California 82.svg|20px]] [[California State Route 82|State Route 82]]
 
*[[File:California 85.svg|20px]] [[California State Route 85|State Route 85]]
 
*[[File:California 87.svg|20px]] [[California State Route 87|State Route 87]]
 
*[[File:California 130.svg|20px]] [[California State Route 130|State Route 130]]
 
*[[File:California 237.svg|20px]] [[California State Route 237|State Route 237]]
 
{{div col end}}
 
 
===Walkability===
 
 
A 2011 study by [[Walk Score]] ranked San Jose the nineteenth most walkable of fifty largest cities in the United States.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.walkscore.com/rankings/cities/|title=2011 City and Neighborhood Rankings |publisher=Walk Score |year=2011 |accessdate=Aug 28, 2011}}</ref>
 
 
==Utilities==
 
[[File:USA-San Jose-San Jose Water Works-1.jpg|thumb|250px|San Jose Water Works at West Santa Clara St.]]
 
Potable water is provided primarily by the private-sector San Jose Water Company, with some by the Great Oaks Water Company, and ten percent by the public-sector San Jose Municipal Water System. Great Oaks provides exclusively well water{{Citation needed|date=June 2007}}, while the other two provide water from multiple sources{{Citation needed|date=June 2007}}, including well water, and surface water from the Los Gatos Creek watershed, Santa Clara Valley Water District, and the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission's [[Hetch Hetchy Reservoir]].
 
 
[[Waste|Garbage]], wastewater treatment, and [[recycling]] services are overseen by the city of San Jose's Environmental Services Department. San Jose recycles 64% of its waste, an exceptionally high percentage that is attributed to the recycling program's accepting an unusually long list of recyclable items without requiring that materials be sorted.<ref name=flatr>{{cite web|url=http://www.flatraterealtysanjose.com/html/areaInfo.htm |title=Flat Rate Reality San Jose Area Info}} {{Dead link|date=June 2010}}</ref> Among the items accepted are all types of plastic, aerosol cans and paint cans, foam packing materials, aluminum furniture, small metal appliances, pots and pans, and clean fabrics.
 
 
Wastewater treatment happens at the San Jose/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant, which treats and cleans the wastewater of more than 1,500,000 people that live and work in the 300+ square mile (780&nbsp;km²) area encompassing San Jose, [[Santa Clara, California|Santa Clara]], Milpitas, Campbell, Cupertino, [[Los Gatos, California|Los Gatos]], [[Saratoga, California|Saratoga]], and [[Monte Sereno, California|Monte Sereno]].<ref name="flatr"/>
 
 
About ten percent of the treated wastewater is sold for irrigation ("water recycling") in San Jose{{Citation needed|date=June 2007}}, Santa Clara, and Milpitas, through local water providers San Jose Municipal Water System, City of Milpitas Municipal Services, City of Santa Clara Water & Sewer Utility, Santa Clara Valley Water District, San Jose Water Company, and Great Oaks Water Company.
 
 
[[Pacific Gas and Electric Company|PG&E]] provides residents natural gas and electricity service. Telephone communications are provided primarily by [[AT&T Inc.|AT&T]], and [[cable television]] is provided by [[Comcast]]. Internet services are provided by several companies, but primarily by Comcast and AT&T.
 
 
==Education==
 
 
===Colleges and universities===
 
San Jose is home to several colleges and [[university|universities]]. The largest is [[San Jose State University]], which was founded by the California legislature in 1862 as the California State Normal School, and is the founding campus of the [[California State University]] (CSU) system. Located in downtown San Jose since 1870, the university enrolls approximately 30,000 students in over 130 different bachelor's and master's degree programs. The school enjoys a good academic reputation, especially in the fields of engineering, business, art and design, and journalism, and consistently ranks among the top public universities in the western region of the United States.<ref>{{cite web | title = Best Colleges 2010 | work = | publisher = U.S. News and World Report | date = | url = http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/masters-west-top-public | doi = | accessdate = February 19, 2010}}</ref> San Jose State is one of only three Bay Area schools that fields a [[Football Bowl Subdivision]] (FBS) [[Division I (NCAA)|Division I]] college football team; [[Stanford University]] and [[U.C. Berkeley]] are the other two.
 
 
[[National Hispanic University]], with an enrollment of 600, offers associate and bachelor's degrees and teaching credentials to its students, focusing on Hispanic students.
 
 
[[California University of Management and Technology]] (CALMAT) offers many degree programs, including MBA, Computer Science, Information Technology. Most classes are offered both online and in the downtown campus. Many of the students are working professionals in the Silicon Valley.
 
 
[[Lincoln Law School of San Jose]] and [[University of Silicon Valley Law School]] offer law degrees, catering to working professionals.
 
 
[[National University (California)|National University]] maintains a campus in San Jose.
 
 
The San Jose campus of [[Golden Gate University]] offers business bachelor and [[Master of Business Administration|MBA]] degrees.
 
 
San Jose's [[community college]]s, [[San Jose City College]], [[West Valley College]], [[Mission College (Santa Clara, California)|Mission College]] and [[Evergreen Valley College]], offer associate degrees, general education units to transfer to CSU and UC schools, and adult and continuing education programs. The West campus of [[Palmer College of Chiropractic]] is also located in San Jose.
 
 
WestMed College is headquartered in San Jose and offers paramedic training, emergency medical technician training, and licensed vocational nursing programs.
 
 
The [[University of California, Santa Cruz]] operates [[Lick Observatory]] atop [[Mount Hamilton (California)|Mount Hamilton]].
 
 
Additionally, San Jose residents attend several other area universities, including [[Santa Clara University]], [[Stanford University]] in [[Palo Alto, California|Palo Alto]], [[Carnegie Mellon Silicon Valley]] in [[Mountain View, California|Mountain View]] and the [[University of California, Berkeley]]. San Jose and South Bay residents also comprise large proportions of the student bodies at major California public universities, including [[UC Santa Cruz]], [[UC Davis]], [[UC San Diego]], and [[UC Riverside]].
 
 
===Primary and secondary education===
 
Up until the opening of [[Abraham Lincoln High School (San Jose, California)|Lincoln High School]] in 1943, San Jose students only attended [[San Jose High Academy|San Jose High School]]. Some of the city's history is embedded within these two high schools, which hold a [[Thanksgiving Day]] high school football game, called the "Big Bone." As of 2010, there are 127 elementary, 47 middle, and 44 high schools, of which are all public. Public education in the city is provided by four high school districts, fourteen [[elementary education|elementary]] districts, and four [[unified school district]]s (which provide both elementary and high schools).
 
 
In addition to the main [[San Jose Unified School District]] (SJUSD), other nearby unified school districts of nearby cities are [[Milpitas Unified School District]], [[Morgan Hill Unified School District]], and [[Santa Clara Unified School District]].
 
 
Districts using the "feeder" system:
 
*[[Campbell Union High School District]] receives students from:
 
**[[Cambrian School District|Cambrian]]
 
**[[Campbell Union School District|Campbell Union]]
 
**[[Luther Burbank School District|Luther Burbank]]
 
**[[Moreland School District|Moreland]]
 
**[[Union School District, San Jose|Union School District]].
 
*[[East Side Union High School District]] receives students from:
 
**[[Alum Rock Union School District|Alum Rock Union]]
 
**[[Berryessa Union School District|Berryessa Union]]
 
**[[Evergreen Elementary School District|Evergreen Elementary]]
 
**[[Franklin-McKinley School District|Franklin-McKinley]]
 
**[[Mount Pleasant Elementary School District|Mount Pleasant Elementary]]
 
**[[Oak Grove School District (San Jose, California)|Oak Grove]]
 
**[[Orchard Elementary School District|Orchard Elementary]]
 
*[[Fremont Union High School District]] receives students from:
 
**[[Cupertino Union School District]].
 
*[[Los Gatos-Saratoga Joint Union High School District]] receives students from
 
**[[Los Gatos Union School District]].
 
**[[Stratford Middle School]]
 
**[[Saratoga Union School District]]
 
 
====Annexation issue====
 
Prior to 1954, California law required cities and [[school district]]s to have the same boundaries. When San Jose began expanding, rural school districts became one of the major opponents, as their territory and tax base was taken by the city. The city's legislators pushed a bill through the [[California Legislature]], removing that requirement, and ending much of the opposition. The result is a patchwork of local school districts in the areas annexed after 1954.<ref name="PolHist"/>
 
 
===Private education===
 
[[File:2008-0817-SJSU-MLKlib.jpg|right|200px|thumb|Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library]]
 
Private schools in San Jose are primarily run by religious groups. The [[Roman Catholic Diocese of San Jose in California|Catholic Diocese of San Jose]] has the second largest student population in the Santa Clara County, behind only SJUSD; the diocese and its parishes operate several schools in the city, including six high schools: [[Archbishop Mitty High School]], [[Bellarmine College Preparatory]], [[Notre Dame High School, San Jose, California|Notre Dame High School]], [[Saint Francis High School (Mountain View)|Saint Francis High School]], [[Saint Lawrence Academy|St. Lawrence High School]], and [[Presentation High School]].<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.dsj.org/dsj/schools_results.asp?show=all |title=Schools | publisher=[[Roman Catholic Diocese of San Jose in California]] | accessdate=June 18, 2007 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070927173701/http://www.dsj.org/dsj/schools_results.asp?show=all <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = September 27, 2007}}</ref> Other private high schools not run by the Diocese include two [[Baptist]] high schools, [[Private schools in San Jose, California|Liberty Baptist School]] and [[Private schools in San Jose, California|White Road Baptist Academy]], one [[Non-denominational Christianity|Non-Denominational Protestant]] high school, [[Valley Christian High School (San Jose, California)]], one [[University-preparatory school]], [[Cambrian Academy]], and a nonsectarian K-12 [[The Harker School|Harker School]] west of the city in the Blackford neighborhood.
 
 
===San Jose library system===
 
The San Jose Public Library system is unique in that the [[Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library]] combines the collections of the city's system with the San Jose State University main library. In 2003, construction of the library, which now holds more than 1.6&nbsp;million items, was the largest single library construction project west of the Mississippi, with eight floors that result in more than {{convert|475000|sqft|m2}} of space with a capacity for 2&nbsp;million volumes.<ref>[http://www.sjlibrary.org/about/locations/king/fastfacts.htm SJ Library MLK Fast Facts page]{{dead link|date=February 2012}} (Mentions joint university/city status, collection size and size of construction project.)</ref>
 
 
The city has 21 neighborhood branches (17 of them open and not currently undergoing renovation or reconstruction) including the [[Biblioteca Latinoamericana]] which specializes in Spanish language works.<ref>[http://www.sjlibrary.org/about/locations/index.htm Locations page at SJ Library site]{{dead link|date=February 2012}}(See BL article for its references.)</ref> The [[East San Jose Carnegie Branch Library]], a [[Carnegie library]] opened in 1908, is the last Carnegie library in Santa Clara County still operating as a public library and is listed in the [[National Register of Historic Places]]. As the result of a bond measure passed in November 2000, a number of brand new or completely reconstructed branches have been completed and opened. The four branches currently undergoing construction are the Calabazas Branch, the Educational Park Branch, the Seventrees Branch, and the Bascom Branch and Community Center. The yet-to-be-named brand new Southeast Branch is also planned, bringing the bond library project to its completion.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.sjlibrary.org/about/sjpl/bond/index.htm |title=Bond Projects for Branch Libraries page at the SJ Library site |publisher=Sjlibrary.org |date= |accessdate=July 1, 2010}}</ref>
 
 
The San Jose system (along with the University system) were jointly named as "Library of the Year" by the Library Journal in 2004.<ref>[http://www.sanjoseca.gov/cityManager/pdf/AnnualReport03-04.pdf San Jose 2003–2004 Annual Report] "In 2004, San José Public Library and San José State University Library were jointly named Library of the Year by the Library Journal."</ref>
 
 
==Attractions==
 
{{Main|List of attractions in Silicon Valley}}
 
[[File:San Jose California aerial view south.jpg|thumb|Aerial view of San Jose. The intersection of [[Interstate 280 (California)|I-280]] and Guadalupe Parkway is shown at bottom. View is to the south.]]
 
[[File:Kluft-photo-Circle-of-Palms-San-Jose-April-2008-Img 0778.jpg|thumb|View of [[Circle of Palms Plaza]]]]
 
[[File:San Jose Museum of Art.jpg|thumb|Front of the San Jose Museum of Art, the remaining façade of San Jose's first [[post office]]]]
 
[[File:SAN JOSE CALIFORNIA PALM TREE 2010.jpg|thumb|The Market in [[Downtown San Jose]] as seen with uplit [[Arecaceae|palms]]]]
 
[[File:Egyptianmuseum-front-tourists.mbp.1024x768.jpg|thumb|The Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum at [[Rosicrucian Park]]]]
 
[[File:San Jose Basilica.jpg|thumb|[[Cathedral Basilica of St. Joseph (San Jose)|Cathedral Basilica of St. Joseph]]]]
 
[[File:USA-San Jose-Church of the Five Wounds-1.jpg|thumb|Church of the Five Wounds on East Santa Clara St.]]
 
[[File:San Jose Palm Trees 02.jpg|thumb|upright|Palm trees on Almaden Boulevard]]
 
 
=== Parks, gardens, and other outdoor recreational sites ===
 
*[[Almaden Quicksilver County Park]], {{convert|4,147|acre|km2}} of former mercury mines in South San Jose (operated and maintained by the County of Santa Clara, Parks and Recreation Department).
 
*[[Alum Rock Park]], {{convert|718|acre|km2}} in East San Jose, the oldest municipal park in California and one of the largest municipal parks in the United States.
 
*[[Emma Prusch Farm Park]], 43.5&nbsp;acres (176,000&nbsp;m²) in East San Jose. Donated by Emma Prusch to demonstrate the valley's agricultural past, it includes a [[4-H]] barn (the largest in San Jose), community gardens, a rare-fruit orchard, demonstration gardens, picnic areas, and expanses of lawn.<ref>[http://www.sanjoseca.gov/prns/regionalparks/pfp/] {{dead link|date= April 2011}}</ref>
 
*[[Circle of Palms Plaza]], a ring of palm trees surrounding a California state seal and historical landmark at the site of the first state capitol
 
*[[Kelley Park]], including diverse facilities such as [[Happy Hollow Park & Zoo]] (a child-centric amusement park), the [[Japanese Friendship Garden (Kelley Park)]], [[History Park at Kelley Park]], and the [[Portuguese Historical Museum]] within the history park
 
*[[Overfelt Gardens]], including the [[Chinese Cultural Garden]]
 
*[[Plaza de César Chávez]], a small park in Downtown, hosts outdoor concerts and the [[Christmas in the Park (San Jose)|Christmas in the Park]] display
 
*[[Raging Waters]], [[water park]] with [[water slide]]s and other water attractions. This sits within [[Lake Cunningham]] Park
 
*[[Rosicrucian Park]], nearly an entire city block in the Rose Garden neighborhood; the Park offers a setting of Egyptian and Moorish architecture set among lawns, rose gardens, statuary, and fountains, and includes the [[Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum]], Planetarium, Research Library, Peace Garden and Visitors Center
 
*[[San Jose Flea Market]]
 
*[[San Jose Municipal Rose Garden]], 5½&nbsp;acre (22,000&nbsp;m²) park in the Rose Garden neighborhood, featuring over 4,000 rose bushes
 
*[[Winchester Mystery House]] in San Jose.
 
 
===Habitat and Wildlife===
 
Early written documents record the local presence of migrating salmon in the Rio Guadalupe dating as far back as the 18th century.<ref>{{cite web |title=Historical distribution and current status of steelhead/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in streams of the San Francisco Estuary, California. |author=Leidy, R.A., G.S. Becker, B.N. Harvey |url=http://www.cemar.org/pdf/santaclara.pdf |publisher=Center for Ecosystem Management and Restoration, Oakland, CA. |year=2005 |accessdate=2012-10-21 }}</ref> Both [[steelhead trout]] (''Oncorhynchus mykiss'') and [[Chinook salmon|King salmon]] are extant in the [[Guadalupe River (California)|Guadalupe River]], making San Jose the southernmost major U. S. city with known salmon spawning runs, the other cities being [[Anchorage, Alaska]]; [[Seattle, Washington]]; [[Portland, Oregon]] and [[Sacramento, California]].<ref>{{cite web |title=Chinook Salmon |publisher= NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service |url= http://www.nwr.noaa.gov/ESA-Salmon-Listings/Salmon-Populations/Chinook/Index.cfm |accessdate=Sept. 13, 2010 }}</ref> Runs of up to 1,000 [[Chinook Salmon|Chinook or King Salmon]] (''Oncorhynchus tshawytscha'') swam up the Guadalupe River each fall in the 1990s, but have all but vanished in the current decade apparently blocked from access to breeding grounds by impassable culverts, weirs and wide, exposed and flat concrete paved channels installed by the [[Santa Clara Valley Water District]].<ref>{{cite web |title=Sensitive Fish Species in the Santa Cruz Mountains Bioregion |publisher=Santa Cruz Mountains Bioregional Council |year=2004 |url=http://www.scmbc.net/sensitivefish.htm |accessdate=2012-10-21 }}</ref> In 2011 a small number of Chinook salmon were filmed spawning under the Julian Street bridge.<ref>{{cite web |title=Guadalupe River King Salmon Spawn under Julian Street bridge, Fall, 2011 |author=Greg Kerekes |date=2011-11-14 |url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SNMrODZ_Hgk |accessdate=2012-10-21 }}</ref>
 
 
===Trails===
 
San Jose's trail network offers over {{convert|53|mi|km|-1}} of recreational and commute trails throughout the City.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sjparks.org/trails/doc/TrailStatus1-30-08.pdf |title=Network Status Table |date=January 30, 2008 |accessdate=March 31, 2008 |publisher=City of San Jose}}</ref> The major trails in the network include:
 
*[[Coyote Creek Trail]]
 
*[[Guadalupe River Trail]]
 
*[[Los Gatos Creek Trail]]
 
*[[Los Alamitos Creek Trail]]
 
*[[Penitencia Creek Trail]]
 
*[[Silver Creek Valley Trail]]
 
 
This large urban trail network, recognized by Prevention Magazine as the nation's largest, is linked to trails in surrounding jurisdictions and many rural trails in surrounding open space and foothills.
 
 
=== Museums, libraries, and other cultural collections ===
 
*[[Children's Discovery Museum of San Jose]]
 
*[[History Park at Kelley Park]]
 
*[[Ira F. Brilliant Center for Beethoven Studies]], home of the largest [[Ludwig van Beethoven|Beethoven]] collection outside Europe
 
*[[Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library]], the largest U.S. public library west of Mississippi River
 
*[[Mexican Heritage Plaza]], a museum and cultural center for Mexican Americans in the area
 
*[[Portuguese Historical Museum]]
 
*[[Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum]], the largest collection of Egyptian artifacts on display in the western United States, located at [[Rosicrucian Park]]
 
*[[San Jose Museum of Art]]
 
*[[The Tech Museum of Innovation]]
 
*[[San Jose Steam Railroad Museum]], proposed, artifacts and rolling stock are kept at the fairgrounds and Kelley Park
 
*[[History San José]]
 
*[[Bank of America Building (San Jose, California)|Old Bank of America Building]] a historic landmark
 
 
===Sports and event venues===
 
*[[HP Pavilion (sports arena)|HP Pavilion at San Jose]]—home of the [[National Hockey League|NHL]]'s [[San Jose Sharks]], and the [[Arena Football League (1987–2008)|AFL]]'s [[San Jose SaberCats]]
 
*[[San Jose Municipal Stadium]], home of the minor league [[San Jose Giants]].
 
*[[Spartan Stadium (San Jose)|Spartan Stadium]], home of San Jose State University football, [[Major League Lacrosse|MLL]]'s [[San Francisco Dragons]], and the previous home of [[Major League Soccer]]'s [[San Jose Earthquakes]].
 
*[[San Jose Convention Center]]—home of the [[Continental Basketball Association|CBA]]'s [[San Jose Sky Rockets]] until the team's departure in 2006 to [[North Dakota]].
 
*[[San Jose Jazz Festival]], held annually in downtown San Jose
 
*[[San Jose Improv]], San Jose's oldest theater, home for the [[San Jose Improv|San Jose Improv Comedy Club]].
 
 
===Other structures===
 
*[[Cathedral Basilica of St. Joseph (San Jose)|Cathedral Basilica of St. Joseph]], the oldest parish in California
 
*[[Lick Observatory]], home of what was once the largest [[telescope]] in the world
 
*[[Sikh Gurdwara - San Jose]], the largest [[Gurdwara]] (a [[Sikh]] temple) in the United States
 
*[[Peralta Adobe]], a restored [[adobe]] home showing the lifestyle of Spanish and Mexican California
 
*[[Winchester Mystery House]], a sprawling, 160-room Victorian mansion built by [[Sarah Winchester]]
 
*[[Raging Waters]], the largest water park in Northern California with {{convert|23|acre|m2}} and millions of gallons of water
 
 
{{See also|Santa Clara County, California#Cities.2C towns.2C and neighborhoods}}
 
 
==Media==
 
{{Main|Media in San Jose, California}}
 
 
San Jose is served by Greater Bay Area media. Print media outlets in San Jose include the ''[[San Jose Mercury News]],'' the weekly ''[[Metro Silicon Valley]]'', ''El Observador'' and the ''Silicon Valley / San Jose Business Journal''. Broadcasters include 34 television stations, 25 AM radio stations, and 55 FM radio stations.<ref>[http://www.choisser.com/channels.html Digital/HDTV Television Channel List – SF Bay Area]. Choisser.com. Retrieved on 2011-04-14.</ref>
 
 
In April 1909, [[Charles David Herrold]], an electronics instructor in San Jose, constructed a radio station to broadcast the human voice. The station "San Jose Calling" (call letters FN, later FQW), was the world's first radio station with scheduled programming targeted at a general audience. The station became the first to broadcast music in 1910. Herrold's wife Sybil became the first female "disk jockey" in 1912. The station changed hands a number of times before eventually becoming today's [[KCBS (AM)|KCBS]] in [[San Francisco]].<ref name="KQW">{{cite web | title=KQW Radio, San Jose | url=http://www.bayarearadio.org/audio/kqw/kqw_30th-anniv_nov-10-1945.shtml | publisher=Bay Area Radio Museum | author=Marty Cheek | accessdate=June 18, 2007 }}</ref> Therefore KCBS technically is the oldest radio station in the United States, and celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2009 with much fanfare.
 
 
==Cultural references to San Jose==
 
<!--Please add cultural references from the movies, in music or on TV to San Jose here.-->
 
* It is referenced in "[[Do You Know the Way to San Jose]]", with lyrics by [[Hal David]] and music by [[Burt Bacharach]]. It became a Grammy-winning 1968 hit single (Pop #10, R&B #23) for [[Dionne Warwick]], her version categorized [[Scepter Records]] 12216; more than 100 other known recordings exist.
 
* [[Michaela Roessner]]'s ''Vanishing Point'', (Tor, New York, 1993, ISBN 0-312-85213-4) a post-apocalyptic novel, is largely set in San Jose. In the book, many [[San Francisco Bay Area#San Jose and Silicon Valley|South Bay]] survivors have gathered to live in the [[Winchester Mystery House]] and the nearby [[Century Theatres]] dome.
 
* British studio quartet [[The First Class]] had a 1974 Billboard #4 hit "Beach Baby", containing the lyric "We couldn't wait for graduation day, we took the car and drove to San Jose. That's where you told me that you'd wear my ring, I guess you don't remember anything."
 
*A chapter in the book ''[[White Fang]]'' has some references to San Jose.
 
*Artist [[Jeremy Blake]] referenced San Jose's [[Winchester Mystery House]] in his Winchester series.
 
*A chapter in the book ''[[The Kite Runner]]'' mentions San Jose and the San Jose Flea Market.
 
*The 2006 independent film ''Valley Of The Heart's Delight'', featuring [[Pete Postlethwaite]] as a scheming newspaper publisher, is based on an actual kidnapping, murder, cover up, and mob lynching which took place in San Jose in 1933.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.metroactive.com/metro/10.03.07/cover-0740.html|publisher=[[Metro Silicon Valley]]|title='Valley of the Heart's Delight' asks new questions about San Jose's crime of the century—and whether a lynch mob murdered two innocent men in St. James Park|author=Richard von Busack |date=Octorber 3, 2007|accessdate=2011-10-30}}</ref>
 
*[[Train (band)|Train's]] song "Half Moon Bay" from the album [[Save Me, San Francisco]] has the lyrics, "By the beach north of San Jose..."
 
 
==See also==
 
{{portal|California|San Francisco Bay Area|New Spain}}
 
* [[Northern California|Largest cities in Northern California]]
 
* [[List of people from San Jose, California]]
 
* [[List of school districts in Santa Clara County, California]]
 
* [[List of streets in San Jose, California]], with name origins
 
* [[San Jose Police Department]]
 
{{clear}}
 
 
==Notes and references==
 
{{Reflist|colwidth=30em}}
 
{{Refbegin}}
 
*[http://www.weather.com/activities/other/other/weather/climo-monthly-graph.html?locid=USCA0993&from=search The Weather Channel data for San Jose]
 
<!--Telephony history references-->
 
* Peck, Willys I., "When Ma Bell Spoke With a Human Voice," ''Saratoga Stereopticon: A Magic Lantern of Memory'', Cupertino, California: California History Center and Foundation, 1998, pp.&nbsp;41–42.
 
* Map: ''Mobile Communications: Reaching the World by Mobile Telephone Service'', (San Francisco: Pacific Telephone Co., 1983.)
 
* Undated ''San Jose Mercury News'' article describing exchange names possibly written by Patricia Loomis or Clyde Arbuckle.
 
{{Refend}}
 
 
==Further reading==
 
*Beilharz, Edwin A.; and DeMers Jr., Donald O.; ''San Jose: California's First City''; 1980, ISBN 0-932986-13-7
 
* The [http://www.sjlibrary.org/research/special/ca/ California Room]{{dead link|date=February 2012}}, the San Jose Library's collection of research materials on the history of San Jose and Santa Clara Valley.
 
 
==External links==
 
<!--======================== {{No more links}} ============================
 
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| to the relevant category at the Open Directory Project (dmoz.org) |
 
| and link back to that category using the {{dmoz}} template. |
 
======================= {{No more links}} =============================-->
 
{{Sister project links|San Jose|voy=San Jose (California)}}
 
* [http://www.sanjoseca.gov/ City of San Jose Official Website]
 
* [http://www.sanjose.org/ Experience San Jose – Convention and Visitors Bureau]
 
* [[wikispot:sanjose|San Jose Wiki]]
 
* [http://sjlibrary.org/gateways/academic/ San Jose Library (partnership of the university and public libraries)]{{dead link|date=February 2012}}
 
* [http://www.sjredevelopment.org/PublicationsPlans/SanJose1975.pdf Photos of San Jose—1975 vs. 2005]
 
* [http://www.sjchamber.com/ San Jose Silicon Valley Chamber of Commerce]
 
* [http://www.hccsv.com/ Hispanic Chamber of Commerce Silicon Valley]
 
* [http://www.sanjosesistercities.org/ Pacific Neighbors San Jose Sister Cities Program]
 
* [http://www.sanjosedublin.org/ San-Jose–Dublin Sister City Program]
 
* [http://www.electionvolunteer.com/ San Jose and Santa Clara Election Information]
 
* [http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/santaclara/ Santa Clara County: California's Historic Silicon Valley, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary]
 
* [http://www.sanjoseca.gov/prns/tour/prnscomcentour/_flash/tour.html San Jose Community Center Tour]
 
* {{dmoz|Regional/North_America/United_States/California/Localities/S/San_Jose/|San Jose}}
 
* [http://www.sjparks.org/trails Trail network website]
 
 
{{Navboxes
 
|title = Articles Related to San Jose
 
|list =
 
{{Navboxes
 
|title = [[File:Gnome-globe.svg|25px]]{{nbsp}}Geographic locale
 
|list =
 
{{Geographic location
 
|Centre = San Jose
 
|North = [[Milpitas, California|Milpitas]]
 
|Northeast = [[Alum Rock, California|Alum Rock]]
 
|East = [[Mount Hamilton, California|Mount Hamilton]]
 
|Southeast = [[Morgan Hill, California|Morgan Hill]]
 
|South = [[Monterey Bay, California|Monterey Bay]]
 
|Southwest = [[Santa Cruz, California|Santa Cruz]]
 
|West = Pacific Ocean
 
|Northwest = [[San Francisco Bay]]
 
}}
 
'''[[Geographic coordinate system|Lat. <small>and</small> Long.]] {{Coord|37|18|15|N|121|52|22|W|display=inline}}'''
 
}}
 
{{San Jose, California}}
 
{{Neighborhoods of San Jose}}
 
{{San Jose and Silicon Valley attractions|nocat=1}}
 
{{Silicon Valley}}
 
{{SF Bay Area}}
 
{{Santa Clara County}}
 
{{California county seats}}
 
{{California}}
 
{{USLargestCities}}
 
{{USLargestMetros}}
 
{{World's most populated urban areas}}
 
{{California cities and mayors of 100,000 population}}
 
}}
 
   
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{{Stub}}
 
[[Category:San Jose, California| ]]
 
[[Category:San Jose, California| ]]
 
[[Category:Cities in Santa Clara County, California]]
 
[[Category:Cities in Santa Clara County, California]]

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Things to think about:

  • #1 Creating our own page for this article may add a superfluous amount of pages.
  • #2 Some of these article links may be on hundreds of pages that would need direct links.
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