The run and shoot offense is an offensive system for American football which emphasizes receiver motion and on-the-fly adjustments of receivers' routes in response to different defenses. It was conceived by former Middletown, Ohio, High School football coach Glenn "Tiger" Ellison and refined and popularized by former Portland State Offensive Coordinator Darell "Mouse" Davis.

The Run & Shoot system uses a formation consisting of one running back and between two and four wide receivers. This system makes extensive use of receiver motion (having a receiver suddenly change position by running left or right, parallel to the line of scrimmage, just before the ball is snapped), both to create advantageous mismatches with the opposing defensive players and to help reveal what coverage the defense is using.

The basic idea behind the Run & Shoot is a flexible offense that adjusts "on the fly," as the receivers are free to adjust their routes as they are running them in response to the defensive coverage employed. The quarterback, as a result, also has to read and react to the defense's coverages in a more improvised manner than with other offensive systems.

In the purest form of the offense, the proper complement would consist of two wide receivers lined up on the outside edges of the formation and two "slotbacks" (running backs who are capable of catching the ball as well as running with it, e.g. Ricky Sanders and Richard Johnson of the USFL's Houston Gamblers) lined up just outside and behind the two offensive tackles.

Many of the National Football League teams that used the Run & Shoot in the early 1990s used true wide receivers in all four receiving positions. The types of running backs used varied from smaller backs who could catch passes to big, bruising running backs who could run with power. The frequent passing plays run out of this formation tend to spread out the defense's players. If repeated pass plays work, the defense is not as prepared for running plays; running the ball between the offensive tackles, or just off-tackle, is now possible and more likely to succeed.

At the Collegiate level, the 1989 Houston Cougars football team demonstrated the scoring potential of the run and shoot offense as quarterback Andre Ware set 26 NCAA records and won the Heisman Trophy while the #14 ranked Cougars finished the season 9-2. The Cougars were disallowed from having its football games televised or playing in a Bowl Game that season due to NCAA sanctions imposed some years earlier. The following two seasons Houston quarterback David Klingler continued the success of the run and shoot throwing for 9,430 yards and 91 touchdowns, including 716 yards and 11 touchdown passes in a single game which were all records. Quarterbacks Ware and Klingler were both drafted in the NFL first round. The success of Houston's run and shoot offense and the inability of its record setting quarterbacks to translate their success into the NFL lead to the label of being a "system quarterback".

Formation HistoryEdit

The original inventor of the Run & Shoot, Tiger Ellison, first started out with a formation that overloaded the left side of the offensive line for his scrambling quarterback. He called it "The Lonesome Polecat."

A year later, he came back with a more balanced formation that is similar to the diagram below. The formation bears a strong resemblance to the Flexbone offense.

  • WR................LT.LG.C.RG.RT...............WR
  • ...........SB................QB................SB
  • .................................FB

Other variations of the above formation are similar to the way spread offenses like to set up their systems. Originally, the run and shoot was set up so that the quarterback would be positioned behind the center in a single back position, with the single running back lined up a few yards back. Later, during his tenure with the University of Hawaii, June Jones used quarterback Colt Brennan out of the shotgun. In this case the running back is offset to the right of the quarterback (as in the formation below).

  • X.........LT.LG.C.RG.RT...........Z
  • ......W................................Y
  • ......................QB...SB

Another formation that can often be seen with the run and shoot is the "trips" formation, where three wide receivers are situated to the right or left side of the line of scrimmage. Most of the time, this formation will be created out of motion when the W or Y receiver moves to the opposite side of the formation.

  • X........LT.LG.C.RG.RT..................Z
  • .........................................W.....Y
  • .....................QB..SB

Running the Run & ShootEdit

Player and motion namesEdit

Every team has its own specific naming conventions, but they all have the same basic principles. To make diagramming plays easier, the receivers used in the Run & Shoot are often given standardized names depending on their position. One way to do this is to label the receivers, from left to right, X, W (for "Wing"), Y, and Z, with the running back being called an S-Back (for Singleback or Superback).

The initial movements of the receivers can also be labelled by using code names for "left" and "right" such as "Lil and Rob," "Liz and Rip," or "Lion and Ram." As an example, a quarterback may call an "X Liz, W Liz, Y Go, Z Rip, SB flat", which tells the X and W receivers to run to their left, the Y receiver to run a go (or fly) route, the Z receiver to run to his right, and the S-Back to run to the flat (close to the line of scrimmage and toward the sideline).

Route conceptsEdit

There are several kinds of routes a receiver can run, depending on the specific type of run and shoot offense that is being used:

  • The Choice Route is probably the most recognizable element of the run and shoot. This route gives the receiver the option of which direction to run depending on the play of the opposing defensive back. If the DB is playing inside of the receiver, then the receiver can run an out route that is essentially an L-shape toward the sideline. If the DB is playing outside of the receiver, then the receiver can run an inside route that's essentially an L shape toward the middle of the field. This is one technique that defenses use to try to dictate how receivers run their routes. A smart receiver will see where there is an open area and run there using a designed route.
  • The Switch Route allows for the receivers to "switch" as they run their routes. This often entails the X (or Z) receiver running to the inside while the W (or Y) runs to the outside so that the two receivers cross paths with the intention of confusing the defenders as to whom they should cover.
  • The Slide Route often employs motion from the W receiver or the Y receiver to form a trips formation, where one side of the offense has three wide receivers on one side of the field.
  • The Go Route gives the receiver the option of running a go route (also known as a fly route).
  • The Hook Route gives the receiver the option of running a hook route (also known as a button hook or curl route).
  • The Streak Route gives the receiver the option of running a streak route (also known as a go/fly route).

Another important concept to the run and shoot is the ability to improvise depending on defensive coverage. One aspect is generally what is called MOFO or MOFC. Those two acronyms stand for: Middle of Field Open or Middle of Field Closed. This relies on the play of the free safety and where he is lined up in the defense and often is mentioned in relation to the W or Y receiver.

One example is to have the W receiver be told: If it's MOFO, run an inside post route. Upon lining up at the line of scrimmage, the QB can see that the FS is moved to the left to help double-team the X receiver. As a result, the W receiver will have a MOFO situation. Upon the snap, the W receiver would then run an inside post route to where the open area is, that was normally covered by the FS.

A second example is to have the Y receiver be told: If it's MOFC, run a hook route. So the QB sees that the FS is in his general spot and the middle of the field will be "closed" (or covered by the FS). Upon the snap, the Y receiver will run up and then hook or curl back towards the QB in the open area beneath the FS. The Y receiver may also curl to the left or right opposite of the FS depending on how his DB is playing him as well.

Key conceptsEdit

The following concepts are key to understanding the Run & Shoot:

  • Throw to the open receiver. This is fairly obvious but if the receiver is open, the quarterback must recognize the coverage and find him in time to get him the ball.
  • If the QB reads 5 or less in the box, run the football. This means that traditional defensive formations using a 3-4 or 4-3 front will have moved 2 defenders outside of the "box" for coverage help. The "box" is the area about a yard outside of the tight end or offensive tackle on one side of the line to the other offensive tackle/tight end on the other side of the line and about 5 yards beyond the line of scrimmage.
  • Use motion and formations to spread the defense out and anticipate what the defense is going to do. If one uses motion and the defensive back follows the motioning receiver, they are probably playing man coverage or blitzing. If no defensive back follows the motion receiver, then they are probably playing zone defense.

Advantages of the Run & ShootEdit

  • Forces the defense to switch to Nickel or Dime formations, often substituting shorter and thinner DBs in favor of taller and thicker LBs. This allows the offense an advantage in the running game as it often employs a bigger RB to help block. By incorporating inside running plays, the much bigger RB (usually 220-240 pounds) would be able to get more yards after going up against DBs who are usually 180-200 pounds in weight.
  • By reading the DB, the WRs are able to run routes to uncovered areas in zone coverage or simply beat their defender in coverage. This allows the QB to go down the field vertically or take what the defense gives him and go underneath to let his WR get yards after the catch. Since a lot of the routes are downfield to vertically challenge the outside and seems, successful QBs can not only put up staggering numbers but it also allows them to put up very high yard per completion numbers.
  • Personnel never needs to be changed because it is not dictated by the defensive coverage. As a result, a team can go down the field using the same personnel without having to change from say I Formation to a Split Back formation because the defense chose a certain coverage scheme.
  • It not only is a very friendly offense to quarterbacks and receivers but since it allows such wide open lanes in the running game, talented running backs are able to get much higher yards per carry than they may have in an ordinary pro offense. Chuck Weatherspoon was able to average a ridiculously high YPC despite not getting 200+ carries a season in part because he was able to maximize his carries with defenses so focused on stopping the passing game.

Disadvantages of the Run & ShootEdit

There are several potential disadvantages to using a Run & Shoot offense:

  • Since the formation does not use any tight ends or fullbacks, the quarterback is at increased risk for being hit or sacked since there are fewer players available to block a defense's blitz.
  • Teams often use a strong running game to keep possession of the football, especially at times when it would be advantageous for them to run out the clock. A criticism of the Run & Shoot offense is that teams would often continue to rely upon the pass rather than establish the run to finish off a game. One example of this is the 1992 AFC Wild Card game where the Houston Oilers, after earning a 35-3 lead against the Buffalo Bills, rather than winding the clock down with the running game and preserving the lead for the victory, called 22 pass plays against only four runs in the second half and eventually lost the game by a score of 41-38. Alternatives like the Spread offense have been preferred over the Run & Shoot in part because they place more emphasis on the running game.
  • Many commentators noted that the Run & Shoot is less effective in the "Red Zone," when the offense is less than 20 yards from the goal line. In this area the offense has less room to move around and cannot spread the defense out as in other areas of the field.

Roster Positions for the Run and ShootEdit

  • Quarterbacks often have to be either mobile or have a very quick release if they are not mobile. Having a lot of arm strength is not a requirement but they need to have enough to make various throws. Jim Kelly was 6'3" and around 215 pounds. Andre Ware was 6'2" and around 200 pounds. David Klingler was 6'3" and around 210 pounds. Colt Brennan was 6'2" and around 205 pounds. Warren Moon was 6'3" and around 215 pounds.
  • SuperBacks need to be built much like fullbacks as they often have to deal with no lead blocker and are often the only defense to blitzers for the QB's protection. Chuck Weatherspoon was 5'7" and around 230 pounds. Craig Heyward was 5'11" and around 240 pounds. Dorsey Levens was 6'1" and around 230 pounds. Kimble Anders was 5'11" and around 230 pounds. Lamar Smith was 5'11" and around 230 pounds. Gary Brown was 5'11" and around 230 pounds.
  • Wide Receivers can vary although Mouse Davis was prone to opting for shorter receivers who were more explosive due to their smaller size. Andre Rison was 6'1" and around 190 pounds. Sterling Sharpe was 6'0" and around 210 pounds. Drew Hill was 5'9" and around 170 pounds. Ernest Givins was 5'9" and around 180 pounds. Haywood Jeffires was 6'2" and around 200 pounds. Eric Metcalf was 5'10" and around 190 pounds. Michael Haynes was 6'0" and around 190 pounds. Jason Phillips was 5'7" and around 170 pounds. Davone Bess was 5'10" and around 190 pounds.
  • Offensive Linemen need to be stout in pass protection and fast/agile enough to drop back constantly. Jamie Dukes was 6'1" and around 290 pounds. Bill Fralic was 6'5" and around 280 pounds. Chris Hinton was 6'4" and around 300 pounds. Bob Whitfield was 6'5" and around 310 pounds. Lomas Brown was 6'4" and around 280 pounds. Bruce Matthews was 6'5" and around 300 pounds. Mike Munchak was 6'3" and around 280 pounds. Don Maggs was 6'5" and around 290 pounds.

Notable Coaches of the Run and Shoot OffenseEdit

Notable Teams that Used the Run & Shoot OffenseEdit

  • Portland State University from 1974 - 1980: 47-30 record. Put up 424, 416, and 541 points in 1976, 1977, and 1980 seasons. The first introduction of the offense to college football.
  • University of South Carolina from 1986 - 1988: 19-18-2 record. Put up 341 points in 1987 season.
  • University of Houston from 1988 - 1992: 36-20 record. Put up 589 and 511 points in 1989 and 1990 seasons.
  • Houston Oilers from 1990 - 1993: 42-22 record. Put up 405 and 386 points in 1990 and 1991 seasons.
  • Atlanta Falcons from 1990 - 1996: 46-66 record. Put up 361 and 362 points in 1991 and 1995 seasons. 1995 season was first in NFL history to have a 4,000 yard passer, 1,000 yard rusher, and 3 receivers over 1,000 yards on the same team.
  • Hawaii Warriors from 1999 - 2011: 105-66 record. Put up 502, 656, 564, and 519 points in 2002, 2006, 2007, and 2010 seasons.

Notable Passing StatisticsEdit

Notable Running StatisticsEdit

Notable Receiving StatisticsEdit

Notable Statistical GamesEdit

  • 1989-12-03 (New Orleans Saints @ Detroit Lions): QBs Rodney Peete & Bob Gagliano were 14/31 for 343 yards with 1 TD vs 1 INT.
  • 1990-10-07 (New Orleans Saints @ Atlanta Falcons): QB Chris Miller was 23/44 for 366 yards with 3 TD vs 1 INT. WR Andre Rison had 10 catches for 154 yards with 2 TD.
  • 1990-10-14 (Cincinnati Bengals @ Houston Oilers): QBs Warren Moon & Cody Carlson were 24/40 for 401 yards with 5 TD vs 1 INT. 5 different players had a TD catch.
  • 1990-12-16 (Houston Oilers @ Kansas City Chiefs): QB Warren Moon was 27/45 for 527 yards with 3 TD. WR Haywood Jeffires had 9 catches for 245 yards with 1 TD.
  • 1990-12-16 (Chicago Bears @ Detroit Lions): QB Rodney Peete was 18/27 for 316 yards with 4 TD vs 2 INT.
  • 1991-10-13 (Houston Oilers @ New York Jets): QB Warren Moon was 35/50 for 423 yards with 2 TD vs 2 INT. WR Haywood Jeffires had 13 catches for 186 yards.
  • 1991-11-10 (Dallas Cowboys @ Houston Oilers): QB Warren Moon was 41/56 for 432 yards. RBs Lorenzo White & Allen Pinkett combined for 132 yards & 2 TD on 25 carries.
  • 1991-11-17 (Cleveland Browns @ Houston Oilers): QB Warren Moon was 31/44 for 399 yards with 3 TD vs 1 INT. WR Drew Hill had 11 catches for 144 yards with 2 TD.
  • 1992-10-11 (Houston Oilers @ Cincinnati Bengals): RB Lorenzo White ran for 149 yards on 25 carries.
  • 1993-11-14 (Houston Oilers @ Cincinnati Bengals): QB Warren Moon was 23/31 for 225 yards with 4 TD. RB Gary Brown ran for 166 yards & 1 TD on 26 carries.
  • 1993-11-21 (Houston Oilers @ Cleveland Browns): RB Gary Brown ran for 194 yards & 1 TD on 34 carries.

Teams that considered using the Run & Shoot but decided against itEdit

  • Bruce Coslet has a working knowledge of the Oilers' offense because he studied the run-and-shoot offense last year, thinking that he might want to install it for the Jets. He decided against it, because it didn't fit his personnel. (1991)[1]
  • The Redskins' head coach, Joe Gibbs, said that his offense has adopted some run-and-shoot principles, but that his organization has never considered using that offense because it prefers power football. (1992)[2]
  • Kevin Gilbride was a HC finalist along with Joe Greene, Dave Wannstedt, and Bill Cowher for the Pittsburgh Steelers. (1992)[3]
  • "I wanted the option of the two-back or the power game with fullback and tight ends. I didn't feel the run-and-shoot was flexible enough with what we wanted to do with our offense." - Jimmy Johnson (1993)[4]
  • "We do have some of the run-and-shoot principles, but we're not rolling out as much,' he said, adding that the Jets would not often go to four wide receivers in a run and shoot." - Boomer Esiason (1993)[5]

Quotes about the Run & ShootEdit

  • It basically is a 'read' offense with everything done on timing." - Conredge Holloway (1982-11-25) [6]
  • "What the fuck is the run & shoot?" John Brodie, NFL All-Pro quarterback and NBC TV analyst (1982-26-9)[7]
  • "That's what the Run-and-Shoot is all about. Going out there, having fun, and watching those little guys run all over the field." - Jim Kelly (1985-03-04)[8]
  • "It's an offense that obviously favors a wide-open passing game. It's a big play offense. It's not one where you're going to line up and whittle away two or three yards at a time." - Dave Wannstedt (1986-08-26)[9]
  • "I guess I'm in love with this offense. There's no one else in the country that runs the run-and-shoot the way we ran it." - Andre Ware (1988-12-23)[10]
  • "He doesn't need a whole lot of hole, and that stretched-out offense can create holes." - Bill Belichick (1989)[11]
  • "I kept getting caught up watching their offense. It's interesting. I've never seen it run quite like that." - Steve DeBerg (1990-08-26)[12]
  • "When the league switches totally to the run-and-shoot, I'm gone. Retiring. I can't tell you what a nightmare it is." - Howie Long (1991)[13]
  • "It was "like walking through a minefield. We could play them again next week and give up 500 yards. If everything's clicking in that thing, it's hard to stop." - Richie Petitbon (1991)[14]
  • "I don't think anybody stops it. They always make their yardage. What you hope to do is keep the scoring down the best you can to give yourself a chance to be successful." - Marty Schottenheimer (1992-09-20)[15]
  • "I asked this guy, this NFL scout, 'How do you stop this thing?' He told me, 'You don't." - Bruce Keidan (1992-01-06)[16]
  • "You have to play a lot of different stuff against them. If you confine yourself to one coverage, they'll find the answer." - Richie Petitbon (1992-01-11)[17]
  • "It's not a coincidence we've been in this offense for seven years and we've been to the playoffs seven years. To me, somebody has to strike the correlation there and recognize it has to be a contributing factor, no matter how grudgingly people want to admit that." - Kevin Gilbride (1994-01-16)[18]
  • "You know, with their chuck and duck offense, they're usually going to get 400 yards or something, even if they don't score much." - Buddy Ryan (1994-12-26)[19]
  • "The way they throw, I think they can hold up. I know from a defensive standpoint, the run-and-shoot gives me nightmares." - Rusty Tillman (1994)
  • "The run-and-shoot got the Oilers where they are. I think defenses all over the league are going to be very relieved." - Rod Woodson (1994)
  • "I've seen them beat everyone on their schedule. Look at the numbers they've posted. They've won more games than a lot of conventional offenses. I just don't see how you can change something that works." - Derrick Thomas (1994)
  • "Their offense always puts a lot of pressure on any defense." - Rich Kotite (1994)[20]
  • "The biggest misconception about the run- and-shoot is that it's a totally passing offense. It's really not. It's a one-back, spread offense, but it's not a passing offense completely." - Bill Parcells (1995)[21]
  • "As a matter of fact, we use some the exact routes from the run-and-shoot scheme in our offense. And just about everybody does. That's just the truth." - Chan Gailey (2001)[22]
  • "People couldn't stop the run-and-shoot and then they figured out that you better just find ways to get to the quarterback." - Cam Cameron (2001)
  • "Originally, there was no tight end, four wides, a lot of motion, a lot of trips (formation), sometimes five-receiver sets. But our connotation of it involved the reading of coverages and varying routes accordingly." - Mouse Davis (2004)[23]
  • "It's just evolved to where everybody in the United States now runs it, including everyone in the NFL. A portion of all packages has been developed out of it. You don't see the pure Run 'n' Shoot much anymore. It's been incorporated into other offenses." - Mouse Davis (2004)
  • "Sometimes, we'll do some run-and-shoot. We'll sit back with one back and four wide receivers and do that. I remember the run-and-shoot in Atlanta. We always had a 1,000-yard rusher every year. We had a 1,000-yard rusher because we spread the field." - Robbie Tobeck (2006)[24]
  • "Yeah. The offense makes average quarterbacks a whole lot better than they would be in another scheme. But when we have a great one, they’re better in what we do. . . . All the quarterbacks I’ve worked with had their best seasons in this offense." - June Jones (2006)[25]
  • "I always used to think the Run-and-Shoot was one of the toughest offenses to stop." - Jim Johnson (2006)[26]
  • "I just feel that you can’t play without a tight end. At times, when the situation presents itself, I would use four wide receivers and take out the tight end. But certainly not on a regular basis." - Sid Gillman (2007)[27]
  • "It’s really a fun offense to watch and very difficult to defend. The different situations they can put you in based on down and distance really can raise havoc with a defense." - Chris Ault (2007)[28]
  • "As far as read routes and timing and leverage, all those things he teaches, it’s all very current. His systems are simple, yet very complicated to the defensive side. And Mouse started the whole thing right there at Portland State." - Marty Mornhinweg (2008)
  • "Now I look around, and the Patriots and the Colts and people like that are running what we ran and saying, 'That's how you play the game.' Knowing I was a part of that with Jerry and Mouse (Davis) gives me a lot of satisfaction. Now everybody in the National Football League does what we do now. It just so happens that New England does it every play." - June Jones (2008)[29]
  • "It's fairly simple conceptually. But within the play, there are a lot of multi-reads, depending on how the defense is playing you. Then, if you get too soft on routes, they'll kill you in the screen and draw department." - Paul Wulff (2009-09-11)[30]

Run & Shoot News and HighlightsEdit

Run & Shoot playbooksEdit

Videogames that featured a Run and Shoot Formation or OffenseEdit


  1. [Smith, Timothy W.], "[PRO FOOTBALL; Jets Won't Run and Hide From the Run-and-Shoot]", [1], [1991-10-11], [Retrieved on 2008-08-09]
  2. [George, Thomas], "[Conference Championships -- IN A WORD: DEFENSE; Redskins Counting on the Big 'D']", [2], [1992-01-12], [Retrieved on 2008-08-09]
  3. [Bouchette, Ed], "[Steelers pare list to 4 candidates]", [3], [1992-01-14], [Retrieved on 2009-01-08]
  4. [George, Thomas], "[Super Bowl XXVII; Big Moves for Large-Size Receivers]", [4], [1993-01-28], [Retrieved on 2008-08-09]
  5. [Smith, Timothy W.], "[PRO FOOTBALL; Jets to Add Offense's Missing Link]", [5], [1993-08-27], [Retrieved on 2008-08-09]
  6. [AP], "[Argos Fired for Upset]", [6], (Retrieved on 2011-12-01)]
  7. John Brodie, quoted in a CBC feature on the National News about the American network NBC covering CFL football games during the 1982 NFL players' strike. The game on September 26, 1992 was a 46-14 British Columbia Lions victory over the home field Toronto Argonauts, see [7] Nobody likes sad endings.
  8. [Keidan, Bruce], "[Kelly finds heaven in Run-and-Shoot]", [8], [1985-03-04], [Retrieved on 2011-03-27]
  10. [AP], "[Defensive coaches run from 'run-and-shoot']", [9], [1988-12-23], [Retrieved on 2011-04-01]
  11. [Litsky, Frank], "[PRO FOOTBALL; Giants' Defense Set For Run and Shoot]", [10], [1989-09-17], [Retrieved on 2009-06-29]
  12. [AP], "[Run-and-shoot offense leaves Chiefs bewildered]", [11], [1990-08-26], [Retrieved on 2011-04-01]
  13. [King, Peter], "[The Nfl]", [12], [1991-09-16], [Retrieved on 2009-06-29]
  14. [Justice, Richard], "[Oilers Toss Redskins Change of Pace;Moon-Operated, 7-1 Run-and-Shoot Has Petitbon Digging Deep]", [13], [1991-10-31], [Retrieved on 2009-06-29]
  15. [AP], "[KC looking to slow Oilers' run-and-shoot offense]", [14], [1992-09-20]. [Retrieved on 2011-04-01]
  16. [Keidan, Bruce], "[Run-and-shoot misfires in end]", [15], [1992-01-06], [Retrieved on 2011-03-27]
  17. (AP), "[Run-and-shoot can be stopped]", [16], [1992-01-11], [Retrieved on 2011-03-27]
  18. [AP], "[Playoff loss could kill Oilers' run-and-shoot]", [17], [1994-01-16], [Retrieved on 2011-03-27]
  19. [AP], "[Ryan Still Hates THAT Offense]", [18], [1994-12-26], [Retrieved on 2011-03-27]
  20. [George, Thomas], "[PRO FOOTBALL; Run-and-Shoot Falcons Find Better Way to Win]", [19], [1994-11-28], [Retrieved on 2008-08-12]
  21. [Price, Terry], "[FIRST THING IS THE RUN PATRIOTS WILL FOCUS ON THAT HALF OF RUN AND SHOOT]", [20], [1995-09-29], [Retrieved on 2009-06-29]
  22. [George, Thomas], "[PRO FOOTBALL; To Juice the Offense, Teams Turn to the Slot]", [21], [2001-09-01], [Retrieved on 2008-08-07]
  23. [Canepa, Nick], "[Forget his age; Riptide hires perfect Mouse]", [22], [2004-01-22], [Retrieved on 2008-08-13]
  24. [Clayton, John], "[Spreading field creates running room for Alexander]", [23], [2006-01-18], [Retrieved on 2008-08-08]
  25. [Zeiger, Dan], "[Hawaii QB filling up stat sheets]", [24], [2006-11-11], [Retrieved on 2008-08-08]
  26. [Gosselin, Rick], "[Around the NFL]", [25], [2006-11-24], [Retrieved on 2008-08-08]
  27. [Stoltz, Jeremy], "[Chalk Talk: the Run-and-Shoot]", [26], [2007-05-31], [Retrieved on 2008-08-09]
  28. [Kendall, Josh], "[Hawaii's offense may look familiar]", [27], [2007-12-20], [Retrieved on 2008-08-09]
  29. [Clarkson, Roger], "[Offense is finally in favor]", [28], [2008-01-02], [Retrieved on 2009-01-05]
  30. [Withers, Bud], "Scheduling change means Cougars will face Hawaii's run-and-shoot offense at QWest Field", [29], [2009-09-11], [Retrieved on 2011-03-27]
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