American Football Database
Princeton–Yale football rivalry
First contestedNovember 15, 1873
Princeton 3, Yale 0
Number of meetings141
Most recent meetingNovember 10, 2018
Princeton 59, Yale 43
Next meetingNovember 16, 2019
All-time seriesYale leads, 77–54–10
Largest victoryYale, 51–14 (1931)
Longest win streakYale, 14 (1967–1980)
Current streakPrinceton, 1 (2018–present)

The Princeton–Yale football rivalry is an American college football rivalry between the Princeton Tigers of Princeton University and the Yale Bulldogs of Yale University.[1] The football rivalry is among the oldest in American sports.[2][3]


The rivalry is one of the oldest continuous rivalries in American sports, the oldest continuing rivalry in the history of American football, and is constituent to the Big Three academic, athletic and social rivalry among alumni and students associated with Harvard, Yale and Princeton universities.

The Kentucky Derby and Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show example American sporting events that are older or have been engaged continuously longer than this contest.

Princeton claims 28 collegiate football national championships. Yale claims 27 collegiate national football championship. And the rivalry has been played seriously beyond the gridiron, sometimes for future undergraduate matriculants. Princeton's Undergraduate Dean of Admissions in 2002 was charged with hacking the Yale undergraduate admissions website.[4]

Princeton and Yale first met on the gridiron in 1873 and soon dominated the sport.[5] Princeton has been considered the best football program of the nineteenth century. Princeton played the University of Virginia in 1890, a contest considered the first major NorthSouth intersectional football matchup. Princeton won, 116–0.[6] Yale's record was 100–4–5 in the 1900s.[7][8][9]

In the mid to late 20th century a saying regarding the fortunes of the Yale football program gained currency among different constituencies. As reported in the November 9, 1970 issue of Sports Illustrated, the saying offered that the alumni would rather beat Harvard, the coaches would rather beat Dartmouth, and "the players would rather beat Princeton".[10]

File:Yale at Princton football ticket stub 1953.jpg

Ticket stub from the 1953 game between the schools

Some past teams and participants have been noteworthy:

During the 25 seasons spanning 1869 through 1894 the consensus collegiate national champion was either Princeton (16 titles) or Yale (13 titles);[11]

Three of four Heisman Trophy winners affiliated with Ivy League football programs participated in the rivalry: Clint Frank and Larry Kelley for Yale, and Dick Kazmaier for Princeton. Frank won the first Maxwell Award in 1937 and Kazmaier won the Award in 1951;

Twenty nine members of the College Football Hall of Fame have been associated with Yale's football program. Twenty six members of the Hall of Fame have been associated with Princeton's football program;[12]

Princeton won the 1950 and 1951 Lambert Trophy. Princeton last claimed a collegiate national championship in 1950. Yale shared the Lambert in 1960 with the Navy team;

The first time a movie camera recorded a football game was the November 15, 1902 Princeton–Yale contest. Thomas Alva Edison manned the camera;[13][14]

Twenty-five teams, eleven representing Princeton and fourteen representing Yale, have won outright or shared the Ivy League football title;

Only The Rivalry, between Lafayette and Lehigh, has been contested more often in football.

The Princeton–Yale football rivalry, many contests scheduled on Thanksgiving at the Polo Grounds or in the New York metropolitan area during the late nineteenth century,[15][16] is older and has been played more often than the Harvard–Yale, Army–Navy, Penn State–Pitt, Amherst–Williams, Minnesota–Wisconsin, Indiana–Purdue, UNC–UVA, Auburn–Georgia, Cal–Stanford, or Andover–Exeter football rivalries.

Yale leads the series, 76–54–10.

Notable contests


College of New Jersey captain Cyrus Dershimer led the Tigers to victory, 3–0, November 15, 1873, in the inaugural contest. "A leather covered, egg-shaped projectile was tossed and kicked on a field that measured 120 yards in length and 75 yards in width."[17] The College of New Jersey's trustees adopted the current name in 1896, announced during the school's sesquicentennial celebration.[18][19]


Yale won, 2–0, on Thanksgiving Day in Hoboken, New Jersey. The contest was the first football game of any type played on Thanksgiving Day.


The 1879 game, a season-ending scoreless tie in Hoboken, was Frederic Remington's last game at Yale.[20] Walter Camp captained the Yale team.[21] The programs, College of New Jersey 4–0–1 and Yale 3–0–2, were named consensus co-national champions.

Remington, reputed to dunk his uniform in animal blood "to look more businesslike on the field,"[22] removed from New Haven to take care of his ailing father, then headed to the American frontier. Remington's illustrations of cowboys there became iconic images of the mythic West.

The contest has been considered the first in the series "played off school grounds" on a Thanksgiving.[23]


The 1884 contest ends in a scoreless tie in front of a noteworthy 15,000 spectators in New York City.[24]


Yale outscores opponents 698–0 during the season. Defeats College of New Jersey 10–0 to end season with 13–0 record.[19]


Yale won, 32–0, on Thanksgiving Day, in Brooklyn, New York. The victory is first of 37 consecutive wins, with 36 shutouts.[19] Yale football letterwinner Federic Remington depicts on canvas a Yale athlete scoring a touchdown that is displayed prominently in Ray Tompkins House, the administrative headquarters for Yale athletics.[25]


Yale won, 19–0, at the Polo Grounds. Yale swept its 13-game schedule and held scoreless all thirteen opponents; in turn, Yale scored 488 points.


The College of New Jersey's best team in the nineteenth century was the 1893 team.[26] The squad defeated Yale, 6–0, on Thanksgiving Day in New York City. Princeton's victory was the only loss suffered by four time consensus All-American and College Football Hall of Famer Frank Hinkey during his Yale career.[27] The victory ended Yale's thirty-seven game win streak.


The Yale Banner 1956 opens its feature END OF AN ERA, reporting Yale's football history up to the impending start of round-robin play among the appointed eight Ivy League programs in a few months, with the following quote, supposedly "from a father of a former player":

"And those girls in Blue! Mothers, sisters, sweethearts, their radiance is over you now. The loving worship of fair women for brave men, which preserves the courage of the human race is yours now.One and all of them would tear out their heart strings to bring you victory. Yale calls you. Where Yale calls there is no such thing as fail. Now go. Do or die like heroes and gentlemen and may the God of Battles crown the Blue with victory!" Yale won the game, 6–0.[28]

Charles Ives, a composer who championed American vernacular stylings in American classical music, spectated the contest on November 20. The victory inspired the composer's Yale–Princeton Game.[29][30]

Ives proposed successfully to Harmony Twichell after the 1905 contest in New Haven.[31] Rev. Joseph Twichell, Ives's father-in-law, was a member of an investigative committee, convened at the behest of the Harvard Board of Overseers, to determine the extent of brutality, as well as character-building, on college and prep school gridirons post the notorious 1894 Harvard–Yale game. Groton founder Endicott Peabody was a committee member.[32]

1906 Scoreless tie nets undefeated season for both programs and co-national championship. The season is first played under auspices of the NCAA's forerunner, the IAAUS, formed to reform unsportsmanlike play in the sport. The forward pass is now legal.


Yale, by 19–14, won its debut at Palmer Stadium on November 14, 1914. Palmer Stadium is the second largest stadium in the country. Yale Bowl is the largest.


Grantland Rice's Team of Destiny, the 1922 Princeton Tigers football team, completed an undefeated season with 6–0 victory. Bill Roper's squad is acknowledged as national champions for the season.


November 17 was the last time eleven football athletes, future Downtown Athletic Club trophy winner Larry Kelley among them, as a unit played without substitutes to the final whistle from the opening kickoff in a major college football game. Yale defeated Princeton, 7–0, in front of 53,000 fans at Palmer Stadium.

Larry Kelley scored on an 80+ yard pass play as Yale was an obvious underdog versus one of Princeton's all-time great teams.[33]

Princeton sought its sixteenth straight victory in a streak extending back to the 1933 season. Princeton coach Fritz Crisler, the acknowledged father of two-platoon football, guided the Tigers to a 7–1 record one year after an undefeated season and a national championship. The 1934 team outscored opponents 280–38.

The contest inspired two monographs. "Football's Last Iron Men: 1934, Yale vs. Princeton and One Stunning Upset" by Norman Macht, University of Nebraska Press, Bison Books, published in 2010, and "Yale's Ironmen: A Story of Football and Lives In The Decade of The Great Depression and Beyond" by New York Times sportswriter and Yale alumnus William N. Wallace, published by Iunverse Press in 2005.[34][35]


College Football Hall of Fame member Fritz Crisler coached his final game for Princeton versus Yale in 1937. Crisler's record was 2–3–1 versus his Yale counterparts (1–3 versus Ducky Pond) but he led Princeton to consensus national championships the two seasons he defeated Yale. Crisler coached against Yale's Downtown Athletic and Heisman Trophy winners Larry Kelley and Clint Frank, and he coached in the Ironmen game. He lost the 1937 contest, 26–0.


The 1949–1951 contests, each won by Princeton, featured Dick Kazmaier, the eventual winner of the 1951 Heisman Trophy, Maxwell Award, Walter Camp Award, and Associated Press Athlete of the Year. Kazmaier received 506 first place votes (first, second and third place votes are tallied) and 1,777 total points with the second-place finisher receiving, by contrast, 42 first place votes in the balloting. Kazmaier was a double threat—to run or to pass—in the single wing offense.

Princeton won 21–13, 47–12 in New Haven (most points ever scored by a visiting team at the Bowl) and 27–0. Kazmaier appeared on the cover of the November 19, 1951 issue of Time, two days after the 27–0 victory.

Kazmaier dominated the contests; he, for example, tossed three touchdown passes and ran for another touchdown in the 27–0 victory his senior season. (Earlier in the season Kazmaier and teammates crushed Harvard, 54–13.) Kazmaier won the coveted Heisman Trophy for the season.[36][37]


Princeton captain and future athletic director Royce Flippin led the Tigers to a 13–0 at packed and partisan Palmer Stadium. Over 46,000 spectators saw contest. "Overall, Yale is our biggest rival," Flippin remarked years later, "so we took the game seriously."

Yale defeated an able Army team the week before and was ranked nationally but Princeton provided unsolved problems for Yale. Flippin, who was later also athletic director at MIT, opened the scoring in the third quarter and Princeton won, 13–0, after Joe DiRenzo returned an interception for a touchdown late in the fourth quarter.[38][39] Robert Casciola, later a head coach the program, was on the field for Princeton.


The 1960 Ivy League football season ended with Yale 7–0 and Princeton 6-1. Yale, captained by Mike Pyle, who switched to offensive tackle from center for the season, won before 65,000 spectators at the Bowl. The 1960 Yale team is the program's sole undefeated, untied team since 1923. The team was ranked 14th in the season-ending AP poll, in front of 16th ranked Penn State and 19th ranked Syracuse.[40]

Pyle captained the Chicago Bears during its 1963 NFL Championship season until the end of the 1969 season.


Yale won 29–7 at Palmer Stadium, the first of fourteen consecutive victories versus Princeton. The Tigers had enjoyed a six-game winning streak versus the Bulldogs. Calvin Hill and Brian Dowling led the Bulldogs during the contest. Cheerleading captain George W. Bush lead Yalies post-contest. Bush was arrested by local police for attempting to tear down a goalpost.[41]


Yale won 35–10, led by future three time Super Bowl winner Ken Hill. The running back gained 129 yards on 19 carries. Yale was undefeated at 5–0 in the League and Princeton 4–1 before kickoff. Yale clinched sole possession of the football title with the lop-sided victory. The next day's Sunday New York Times game story headline announced "Yale Takes Game, Ivy Crown And Purloined Mascot Home".[42]

At halftime Handsome Dan XII, named Bingo (and, in fact, a female pedigreed bulldog in the care of Yale professor Rollie Osterweiss), was returned to caregivers. Princeton undergrads Mark Hallam, Jamie Herbert, Rod Sheperd, and Scott Thompson posed as members of the Yale cheerleading squad and requested Bingo's appearance for publicity photographs. Osterweiss obliged the perpetrators. Bingo, adorned with an orange and black scarf, was handed off to actual Yale cheerleaders at halftime.[43]


Princeton, in Palmer Stadium, ended a fourteen-game loss streak to Yale, 35–31, November 14. Bob Holly, a future Super Bowl champion with the Washington Redskins, passed for 501 yards and wide receiver Derek Graham accounted for 278 yards, both Princeton records. Rich Diana ran for a Yale record 222 yards.

The Princeton Athletic News deemed the contest the Princeton game of the century.

Yale was 8–0 including a nationally televised "upset" victory versus Navy. Yale Head Coach Carm Cozza's record was 14–1 versus Princeton before the final whistle. Princeton had a 3–4–1 overall record, and had lost to Maine 55–44 the week before.

Holly, a right handed quarterback, scored the winning touchdown on a left roll out with four seconds remaining.[44]


Jason Garrett, captain of the 1988 Princeton team and Asa S. Bushnell Award winner as the Ivy League Player of the Year, quarterbacked a 24–7 victory over Yale in New Haven. Garrett, who played professionally in three leagues and won two Super Bowl rings with the Dallas Cowboys, is the current head coach of the Cowboys. Garrett was named NFL Coach of the Year for the 2016 season.


Princeton defeated Yale 9–0 in front of a little more than 6,000 spectators on a blustery and cloudy afternoon at the Meadowlands, home to the NFL New York Jets and New York Giants. The following day's New York Times game story, by William N. Wallace, began: "A century ago Princeton - Yale was the game, played at the Polo Grounds in New York from 1887 to 1896 before capacity crowds." That was not the case across the Hudson River just west of the mentioned Polo Grounds, now home to a rundown New York City Housing Authority development.

The Princeton Tigers football team spent the season on the road while Princeton Stadium was constructed. The Yale game was the sole game Princeton played in New Jersey in 1997. Palmer Stadium had been demolished for the construction of Princeton Stadium on the same site. William Powers, once an All Ivy punter for Princeton, contributed $10 million to the Princeton athletic department. Princeton Stadium's playing surface is named in honor of his family.[45]

Game results

Princeton victoriesYale victoriesTie games
1 November 15, 1873 New Haven, CT Princeton 3–0
2 November 30, 1876 Hoboken, NJ Yale 2–0
3 December 8, 1877 Hoboken, NJ Tie0–0
4 November 28, 1878 Hoboken, NJ Princeton 1–0
5 November 27, 1879 Hoboken, NJ Tie0–0
6 November 25, 1880 New York, NY Tie0–0
7 November 24, 1881 New York, NY Tie0–0
8 November 30, 1882 New York, NY Yale 2–1
9 November 24, 1883 New York, NY Yale 6–0
10 November 27, 1884 New York, NY Tie0–0
11 November 21, 1885 New Haven, CT Princeton 6–5
12 November 25, 1886 Princeton, NJ Tie0–0
13 November 19, 1887 New York, NY Yale 12–0
14 November 24, 1888 New York, NY Yale 10–0
15 November 28, 1889 New York, NY Princeton 10–0
16 November 27, 1890 Brooklyn, NY Yale 32–0
17 November 26, 1891 New York, NY Yale 19–0
18 November 24, 1892 New York, NY Yale 12–0
19 November 30, 1893 New York, NY Princeton 6–0
20 December 1, 1894 New York, NY Yale 24–0
21 November 23, 1895 New York, NY Yale 20–10
22 November 21, 1896 New York, NY Princeton 24–6
23 November 20, 1897 New Haven, CT Yale 6–0
24 November 12, 1898 Princeton, NJ Princeton 6–0
25 November 25, 1899 New Haven, CT Princeton 11–10
26 November 17, 1900 Princeton, NJ Yale 29–5
27 November 16, 1901 New Haven, CT Yale 12–0
28 November 15, 1902 Princeton, NJ Yale 12–5
29 November 14, 1903 New Haven, CT Princeton 11–6
30 November 12, 1904 Princeton, NJ Yale 12–0
31 November 18, 1905 New Haven, CT Yale 23–4
32 November 17, 1906 Princeton, NJ Tie0–0
33 November 16, 1907 New Haven, CT Yale 12–10
34 November 14, 1908 Princeton, NJ Yale 11–6
35 November 13, 1909 New Haven, CT Yale 17–0
36 November 12, 1910 Princeton, NJ Yale 5–3
37 November 18, 1911 New Haven, CT Princeton 6–3
38 November 16, 1912 Princeton, NJ Tie6–6
39 November 15, 1913 New Haven, CT Tie3–3
40 November 14, 1914 Princeton, NJ Yale 19–14
41 November 13, 1915 New Haven, CT Yale 13–7
42 November 18, 1916 Princeton, NJ Yale 10–0
43 November 15, 1919 New Haven, CT Princeton 13–6
44 November 13, 1920 Princeton, NJ Princeton 20–0
45 November 12, 1921 New Haven, CT Yale 13–7
46 November 18, 1922 Princeton, NJ Princeton 3–0
47 November 17, 1923 New Haven, CT Yale 27–0
48 November 15, 1924 Princeton, NJ Yale 10–0
49 November 14, 1925 New Haven, CT Princeton 25–12
50 November 13, 1926 Princeton, NJ Princeton 10–7
51 November 12, 1927 New Haven, CT Yale 14–6
52 November 17, 1928 Princeton, NJ Princeton 12–2
53 November 16, 1929 New Haven, CT Yale 13–0
54 November 15, 1930 Princeton, NJ Yale 10–7
55 November 21, 1931 New Haven, CT Yale 51–14
56 November 12, 1932 Princeton, NJ Tie7–7
57 December 2, 1933 New Haven, CT Princeton 27–2
58 November 17, 1934 Princeton, NJ Yale 7–0
59 November 30, 1935 New Haven, CT Princeton 38–7
60 November 14, 1936 Princeton, NJ Yale 26–23
61 November 13, 1937 New Haven, CT Yale 26–0
62 November 12, 1938 Princeton, NJ Princeton 20–7
63 November 18, 1939 New Haven, CT Princeton 13–7
64 November 16, 1940 Princeton, NJ Princeton 10–7
65 November 15, 1941 New Haven, CT Princeton 20–6
66 November 14, 1942 New York, NY Yale 13–6
67 November 13, 1943 New Haven, CT Yale 27–6
68 November 24, 1945 Princeton, NJ Yale 20–14
69 November 16, 1946 New Haven, CT Yale 30–2
70 November 15, 1947 Princeton, NJ Princeton 17–0
71 November 13, 1948 New Haven, CT Princeton 20–14
72 November 12, 1949 Princeton, NJ Princeton 21–13
73 November 18, 1950 New Haven, CT Princeton 47–12
74 November 17, 1951 Princeton, NJ Princeton 27–0
75 November 15, 1952 New Haven, CT Princeton 27–21
76 November 14, 1953 Princeton, NJ Yale 26–24
77 November 13, 1954 New Haven, CT Princeton 21–14
78 November 12, 1955 Princeton, NJ Princeton 13–0
79 November 17, 1956 New Haven, CT Yale 42–20
80 November 16, 1957 Princeton, NJ Yale 20–13
81 November 15, 1958 New Haven, CT Princeton 50–14
82 November 14, 1959 Princeton, NJ Yale 38–20
83 November 12, 1960 New Haven, CT Yale 43–22
84 November 18, 1961 Princeton, NJ Princeton 26–16
85 November 17, 1962 New Haven, CT Princeton 14–10
86 November 16, 1963 Princeton, NJ Princeton 27–7
87 November 14, 1964 New Haven, CT Princeton 35–14
88 November 13, 1965 Princeton, NJ Princeton 31–6
89 November 12, 1966 New Haven, CT Princeton 13–7
90 November 18, 1967 Princeton, NJ Yale 29–7
91 November 16, 1968 New Haven, CT Yale 42–17
92 November 15, 1969 Princeton, NJ Yale 17–14
93 November 14, 1970 New Haven, CT Yale 27–22
94 November 13, 1971 Princeton, NJ Yale 10–6
95 November 18, 1972 New Haven, CT Yale 31–7
96 November 17, 1973 Princeton, NJ Yale 30–13
97 November 16, 1974 New Haven, CT Yale 19–6
98 November 15, 1975 Princeton, NJ Yale 24–13
99 November 6, 1976 New Haven, CT Yale 39–7
100 November 5, 1977 Princeton, NJ Yale 44–8
101 November 11, 1978 New Haven, CT Yale 23–7
102 November 10, 1979 Princeton, NJ Yale 35–10
103 November 15, 1980 New Haven, CT Yale 25–13
104 November 14, 1981 Princeton, NJ Princeton 35–31
105 November 13, 1982 New Haven, CT Yale 37–19
106 November 12, 1983 Princeton, NJ Yale 28–21
107 November 10, 1984 New Haven, CT Yale 27–24
108 November 16, 1985 Princeton, NJ Princeton 21–12
109 November 15, 1986 New Haven, CT Yale 14–13
110 November 14, 1987 Princeton, NJ Yale 34–19
111 November 12, 1988 New Haven, CT Princeton 24–7
112 November 11, 1989 Princeton, NJ Yale 14–7
113 November 10, 1990 New Haven, CT Yale 34–7
114 November 16, 1991 Princeton, NJ Princeton 22–16
115 November 14, 1992 New Haven, CT Princeton 36–7
116 November 13, 1993 Princeton, NJ Princeton 28–7
117 November 12, 1994 New Haven, CT Princeton 19–6
118 November 11, 1995 Princeton, NJ Yale 21–13
119 November 16, 1996 New Haven, CT Princeton 17–13
120 November 15, 1997 East Rutherford, NJ Princeton 9–0
121 November 14, 1998 New Haven, CT Yale 31–28
122 November 13, 1999 Princeton, NJ Yale 23–21
123 November 11, 2000 New Haven, CT Princeton 19–14
124 November 10, 2001 Princeton, NJ Princeton 34–14
125 November 16, 2002 New Haven, CT Yale 7–3
126 November 15, 2003 Princeton, NJ Yale 27–24
127 November 13, 2004 New Haven, CT Yale 21–9
128 November 12, 2005 Princeton, NJ Yale 21–14
129 November 11, 2006 New Haven, CT Princeton 34–31
130 November 10, 2007 Princeton, NJ Yale 27–6
131 November 15, 2008 New Haven, CT Yale 14–0
132 November 14, 2009 Princeton, NJ Princeton 24–17
133 November 13, 2010 New Haven, CT Yale 14–13
134 November 12, 2011 Princeton, NJ Yale 33–24
135 November 10, 2012 New Haven, CT Princeton 29–7
136 November 16, 2013 Princeton, NJ Princeton 59–23
137 November 15, 2014 New Haven, CT Yale 44–30
138 November 14, 2015 Princeton, NJ Yale 35–28
139 November 12, 2016 New Haven, CT Princeton 31–3
140 November 11, 2017 Princeton, NJ Yale 35–31
141 November 10, 2018 New Haven, CT Princeton 59–43
Series: Yale leads 77–54–10

See also


  1. "Princeton-Yale football game as big as ever".
  2. "Yale and Princeton share storied history, rivalry".
  3. "The 10 Most Intense College Football Rivalries".
  5. Travers, Steven. Pigskin Warriors: 140 Years of College Football's Greatest Traditions, Games, and Stars. The Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Group, Lanham, MD, 2009. pg. 4
  6. Wall Street Journal, Wednesday, December 21, 2016, pg. A14, by line Andrew Beaton
  7. Pigskin Warriors: 140 Years of CollegeFootball's Greatest Traditions, Games, and Stars, by Steven Travers, The Rowman + Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc., Taylor Trade Publishing, Lanham, MD, 2009, pg. 4
  8. Travers, pg. 273
  9. Travers, pg 274
  10. "Just ask the tailgate set who is No. 1".
  12. http://www.College
  13. Yale Alumni Magazine, March 2001- Special Tercentennial Issue, Greatest Moments in Yale Sports History
  14. LibraryOfCongress (15 April 2010). "Princeton and Yale football game".
  15. Yale Alumni Magazine, October 1998, "Artist in the Backfield", by line Judith Ann Schiff
  16. New York Times, "COLLEGE FOOTBALL: A Woeful Yale Loses to Princeton," November 16, 1997, by line William N. Wallace
  17. "Yale and Princeton share storied history, rivalry", Yale Daily News, November 16, 2004, bylined Zack O'Malley Greenburg and Rawan Huang
  18. Princeton Alumni Weekly, Volume 27, Friday, October 29, 1926, pg. 149
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Inc., Yale Alumni Publications,. "Yale Alumni Magazine: Great Moments in Yale Sports (March 2001)".
  20. Schiff, Yale Alumni Magazine, October 1998
  21. The Harvard Crimson, "Former Football Captains, Complete List of Rival Leadership Given Since 1872", November 24, 1916, without by line
  22. Walter Camp: Football and Modern Man, Oxford Press, 2015, Julie Des Jardins, pg. 101
  23. Walter Camp: Football and the Modern Man, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pg. 92, Julie Des Jardins
  24. The Big Scrum: How Teddy Roosevelt Saved Football, pg. 121, Harper Collins, New York, NY, Miller, John J.
  25. Yale Alumni Magazine, "The New A.D.", November 1994, by line Tom Verde
  26. Travers, pg. 268
  27. Yale Alumni Magazine, November/December 2004, "When Men Were Men and Football Was Brutal", by line Bernard Corbett and Paul Simpson, adapted from The Only Game That Matters, by Bernard M. Corbett and Paul Simpson, Crown Publishers, division of Random House
  28. The Yale Banner 1956, pg. 129, "END OF AN ERA" by Leo Maurice Bearcat
  29. The Life of Charles Ives, by Stuart Feder, Cambridge University Press, 1999, pgs. 83–84, ISBN 978-0-521-59072-3 and ISBN 978-0-52159931-3
  30. Raúl (16 February 2015). "Charles Ives - Yale Princeton Football Game (1898)".
  31. From the Steeples and Mountains: A Study of Charles Ives, by David Wooldridge, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc, a Borzoi Book, New York, NY, 1974, pgs. 131-2
  32. Walter Camp: Football and the Modern Man, Oxford University Press, Julie Des Jardins, pgs. 114–115
  33. The Yale Banner, pg. 139
  34. "William N. Wallace, Former Times Reporter, Dies at 88," New York Times obituary, August 14, 2012, by line Daniel E. Slotnick
  35. Yale Alumni Magazine, November/December 2005
  36. "The Heisman Trophy".
  38. The Yale Banner 1956, pg. 150
  40. [1]
  42. New York Times, Sunday, Nov. 11, 1979, pg. 44, Special to the New York Times
  44. Princeton Alumni Weekly, December 1, 1981
  46. "Princeton vs Yale (CT)". College Football Data Warehouse. Retrieved 12 May 2016.