|Established 1933 |
Play in Lincoln Financial Field
Headquartered in the NovaCare Training Complex
|Team colors|| Midnight Green, Black, Charcoal, Silver, White
|Fight song||Fly, Eagles Fly|
|Mascot||Swoop (changed from Blitz in 1988)|
|General manager||Howie Roseman|
|Head coach||Andy Reid|
|League championships (3)|
| Conference championships (3)
| Division championships (11)
The Philadelphia Eagles are a professional American football team based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They are members of the East Division of the National Football Conference (NFC) in the National Football League (NFL). The Eagles have won three NFL titles and made two Super Bowl appearances, losing both (in 1980 to the Oakland Raiders and in 2005 to the New England Patriots).
The club was established in 1933 as a replacement for the bankrupt Frankford Yellow Jackets after a syndicate led by future NFL commissioner Bert Bell purchased the rights to a Philadelphia franchise from the league. The Eagles were named after the Blue Eagle, a symbol used for the New Deal stimulus programs initiated during the Great Depression.
Eagles players who have been inducted to the Pro Football Hall of Fame include Chuck Bednarik, Bob Brown, Reggie White, Steve Van Buren, Tommy McDonald, Earle "Greasy" Neale, Pete Pihos, Sonny Jurgensen and Norm Van Brocklin. Bell was also inducted as a contributor. In November, 2010, the Philadelphia Eagles announced their plan to take Lincoln Financial Field off the power grid by converting all of their power to solar energy.
Half-way through the 1931 season, the Frankford Yellow Jackets went bankrupt and ceased operations. After more than a year of searching for a suitable replacement, the NFL awarded the dormant franchise to a syndicate headed by Bert Bell and Lud Wray, in exchange for an entry fee of $2,500 (equal to $36,064 today) and with a guarantee that they assume a total debt of $11,000 that was owed to three other NFL franchises. Drawing inspiration from the Blue Eagle insignia of the National Recovery Act—the centerpiece of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal—Bell and Wray named the new franchise the Philadelphia Eagles. (Neither the Eagles nor the NFL officially regard the two franchises as the same, citing the afore-mentioned period of dormancy. Furthermore, almost no Yellow Jackets players were on the Eagles' first roster.) The Eagles, along with the Pittsburgh Steelers and the now-defunct Cincinnati Reds, joined the NFL as expansion teams.
In 1940, the Eagles moved to Shibe Park and played their home games at the stadium through 1957, except for the 1941 season, which was played at Municipal Stadium, where they had played from 1936 to 1939. (Shibe Park was re-named Connie Mack Stadium in 1953.)
To accommodate football at Shibe Park during the winter, management set up stands in right field, parallel to Twentieth Street. Some twenty feet high, these "east stands" had twenty-two rows of seats. The goalposts stood along the first base line and in left field. The uncovered east stands enlarged capacity of Shibe Park to over thirty-nine thousand, but the Eagles rarely drew more than twenty-five to thirty thousand.
The Eagles struggled over the course of their first decade, enduring repeated losing seasons. In 1943, when manpower shortages stemming from World War II made it impossible to fill the roster, the team merged with the Pittsburgh Steelers forming the "Phil-Pitt Eagles" and were known as the "Steagles." (The merger, never intended as a permanent arrangement, was dissolved at the end of the 1943 season.) By the late 1940s, head coach Earle "Greasy" Neale and running back Steve Van Buren led the team to three consecutive NFL Championship Games, winning two of them in 1948 and 1949. Those two championships mark the Eagles as the only NFL team ever to win back-to-back championships by shutouts, defeating the Chicago Cardinals, 7–0, in 1948—in a blizzard—and the Los Angeles Rams, 14–0, in 1949.
After the 1957 season, the Eagles moved from Connie Mack Stadium to Franklin Field at the University of Pennsylvania. Franklin Field would seat over 60,000 for the Eagles, whereas Connie Mack had a capacity of 39,000. The stadium switched from grass to AstroTurf in 1969. It was the first NFL stadium to use artificial turf.
In 1960, the Eagles won their third NFL championship, under the leadership of future Pro Football Hall of Famers Norm Van Brocklin and Chuck Bednarik; the head coach was Buck Shaw. The 1960 Eagles, by a score of 17–13, became the only team to defeat Vince Lombardi and his Packers in the playoffs.
The Eagles had a good 1961 season and then fell on hard times in 1962. Jerry Wolman bought the franchise in 1963.
In 1969, Leonard Tose bought the Philadelphia Eagles from Wolman for $16,155,000 (equal to $96,782,869 today), then a record for a professional sports franchise. Tose's first official act was to fire Coach Joe Kuharich after a disappointing 24–41–1 record during his five year reign. He followed this by naming former Eagles receiving great Pete Retzlaff as General Manager and Jerry Williams as coach.
With the merger of the NFL and AFL in 1970, the Eagles were placed in the NFC East Division with their archrivals the New York Giants, the Washington Redskins, and the Dallas Cowboys. Their heated rivalry with the Giants is the oldest of the NFC East rivalries, dating all the way back to 1933 and has been considered the best rivalry in the NFL in the 21st century.
In 1976, Dick Vermeil was hired from UCLA to coach the Eagles, who had only one winning season from 1962–1975. Starting in 1978, head coach Dick Vermeil and quarterback Ron Jaworski led the team to four consecutive playoff appearances.
Vermeil's 1980 team won their first NFC East title but lost to Oakland in the Super Bowl in 1981. In January 1983, Tose announced that his daughter, Susan Fletcher, the Eagles' vice president and legal counsel, would eventually succeed him as primary owner of the Eagles.
In 1985, Tose was forced to sell the Eagles to Norman Braman and Ed Leibowitz, highly successful automobile dealers from Florida, for a reported $65 million (equal to $132,703,290 today) to pay off his more than $25 million (equal to $51,039,727 today) in gambling debts at Atlantic City casinos.
Philadelphia football struggled through the Marion Campbell years of the mid-1980s and was marked by a malaise in fan participation. In 1986, the arrival of head coach Buddy Ryan and his fiery attitude rejuvenated team performance and ignited the fan base, but the Eagles failed to win a playoff game during Ryan's tenure. Ryan was fired on January 7, 1991 after an upset home playoff loss to the Redskins. Offensive coordinator Rich Kotite was promoted to head coach three days later. Though Kotite did lead the Eagles to one playoff victory against the New Orleans Saints during the 1992 season, his contract was not renewed after a disastrous 1994 season in which the Eagles went 7–9, losing their last seven games after starting the season 7–2. From 1988 to 1996, the Eagles qualified for the playoffs during 6 out of those 9 seasons, but they won the NFC East only once, in 1988. Among the team's offensive stars during that period were quarterback Randall Cunningham, tight end Keith Jackson, and running back Herschel Walker. But the "Gang Green" defense is what defined the team, led by Reggie White, Jerome Brown, Clyde Simmons, Seth Joyner, Wes Hopkins, Mike Golic, Byron Evans, Eric Allen, and Andre Waters.
Lurie era (1994–present)Edit
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (December 2010)|
On August 13, 2009 the Eagles signed quarterback Michael Vick. On December 6, 2009, Andy Reid became only the 5th coach in NFL history to win 100 or more games with a single team in a single decade. The other four are Tom Landry, Don Shula, Tony Dungy, and Bill Belichick. With a record of 11–5 in 2009, the Eagles landed the sixth seed for the NFC playoffs. In the wild-card playoffs, the Eagles played against the Dallas Cowboys for the second consecutive week and lost 34–14. On April 4, 2010, the team traded long-time starting quarterback Donovan McNabb to the Washington Redskins in exchange for draft picks. Kevin Kolb was immediately named the starter, but after suffering a concussion in week 1 against the Packers, Vick took over as the starter. Since that time, Vick has thrown 15 touchdowns and just 2 interceptions. Probably his best game came on a Monday Night Football game on November 15, where the Eagles routed the Washington Redskins 59–28. Vick became the first player in NFL history to throw for at least 300 yards, rush for at least 50 yards, 4 passing and 2 rushing touchdowns. Vick lead the Eagles to an NFC Eastern Division Championship. With a record of 10–6 the Eagles clinched the 3rd seed and had to play a wild-card playoff game. During the 2011 wild-card game the Eagles faced off against the eventual Super Bowl XLV champion Green Bay Packers and lost 21–16.
One of the NFL's oldest, this rivalry began on October 5, 1933 when the Giants defeated the newly-founded Eagles 56–0. The Giants lead the all-time series 80–70–2. Some notable moments in the rivalry include the first Miracle at the Meadowlands in 1978, the Eagles' defeat of New York in the 2008 playoffs, and the second Miracle at the Meadowlands in 2010.
The Eagles won the first game in this celebrated rivalry 25–27 on September 30, 1960. Dallas leads the all-time series 58–45. It has been particularly noted for the strong level of hostility between the two teams' fanbases, with incidents such as the 1989 Bounty Bowls and the booing of Michael Irvin when he suffered a career-ending injury in 1999.
Logo and uniformsEdit
For several decades, the Eagles' colors were Kelly green, silver, and white. Since the 1950s, the club's helmets have featured eagle wings, originally silver on a Kelly green helmet. In 1969, the team wore two helmet versions: Kelly green with white wings in road games, and white with Kelly green wings at home. From 1970 to '73, they wore the white helmets with Kelly green wings exclusively before switching back to Kelly green helmets with silver wings. By 1974 Joseph A. Scirrotto Jr. designed the silver wings took on a white outline, and this style on a Kelly green helmet became standard for over two decades.
From 1948–95, the team logo was an eagle in flight carrying a football in its claws, although from '69–72, the eagle took on a more stylized look. As the design was similar to the Apollo 11 emblem, and its moon-landing craft was dubbed Eagle, players wore the flight's mission patch on their jerseys during 1969.
In 1973, the team's name was added below the eagle, which returned to its pre-'69 look.
However, both the logo and uniforms were radically altered in 1996. The primary Kelly green color was changed to a darker shade, officially described as "midnight green." Silver was practically abandoned, as uniform pants moved to either white or midnight green. The traditional helmet wings were changed to a primarily white color, with silver and black accents. The team's logo combination (the eagle and club name lettering) also changed in 1996, with the eagle itself limited to a white (bald eagle) head, drawn in a less realistic, more cartoon-based style, and the lettering changing from calligraphic to block letters.
Since the 1996 alterations, the team has made only minor alterations, mostly relating to jersey/pant combinations worn during specific games. For example, in 1997, against the San Francisco 49ers, the team wore midnight green jerseys and pants for the first of only 2 occasions in team history. The second occasion was the final regular season game at Veterans Stadium, a win over the division-rival Washington Redskins. And in the first two games of the 2003 season (both home losses to Tampa Bay and New England), the Eagles wore white jerseys with white pants. The white jerseys along with white pants are worn during preseason games, since 2003. However, in every regular season game since the New England loss, when the team has worn the white jersey they have paired it with green pants. The Eagles though did wear the white jerseys with white pants in one regular season game on the road against the Green Bay Packers on September 9, 2007. That is the last time the Eagles wore the white jerseys and white pants together in the regular season, until September 26, 2010 in a 28–3 win at Jacksonville.
The 2003 season also saw the first (though only subtle) change to the 1996-style uniform. On both white and green jerseys, black shadows and silver trim were added to both the green and white numbering. The stripe on the pants changed from black-green-black to black-silver-green on the white pants, and from a solid black stripe to one stripe of black, another of silver, with one small white stripe in between for the midnight green pants. The 2003 season also saw the team debut black alternate jerseys, with a green (instead of black) shadow on white numbers, and silver trim. These black jerseys have been worn for two selected home games each season (usually the first home game after BYE week and season finale). In the 2003 and 2004 regular-season home finales, the team wore the green road pants with the black alternate jerseys, but lost each game. Since then, the Eagles have only worn the black jerseys with the white pants. However, due to the special 75th anniversary uniforms serving as the "alternates" for two games in 2007, the Eagles could not wear the alternate black jersey that season per league rules (alternate uniforms permitted twice per season). But the black jerseys with white pants re-appeared for the 2008 Thanksgiving night game against the Arizona Cardinals. The black jerseys were most recently used in a November 29, 2009 game against the Washington Redskins. Since 2006, the Eagles have only worn the alternate black jerseys once a season and for the last November home game. The team also started wearing black shoes exclusively in 2004.
To celebrate the team's 75th anniversary, the 2007 uniforms featured a 75th-season logo patch on the left shoulder. In addition, the team wore "throwback" jerseys in a 2007 game against the Detroit Lions. The yellow and blue jerseys, the same colors found on Philadelphia's city flag, are based on those worn by the Philadelphia Eagles in the team's inaugural season, and were the same colors used by the former Frankford Yellow Jackets franchise prior to their suspension of operations in 1931. The Eagles beat Detroit, 56–21.
The Philadelphia Eagles wear their white jerseys at home for preseason games and daytime games in the first half of the regular season from September to mid October when the temperature is warmer. In night contests in the first half of the regular season, the Eagles do not need to wear white at home since the temperature is cooler. However, there have been exceptions, such as the home opener against the Washington Redskins in 2007 and the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in 2003 that were played at night. Since moving to Lincoln Financial Field in 2003, the Eagles have worn white at home for at least their home opener. The Eagles have worn white for their home opener in every game since moving to Lincoln Financial Field in 2003 except for the 2010 home opener against the Green Bay Packers (wore kelly green throwback jersey). In late October or beginning in November, the Eagles start to wear their colors at home, be it the midnight green jerseys or a third jersey.
For their opening game of the 2010 season against the Green Bay Packers, on September 12, 2010, to honor the 50th anniversary of the 1960 NFL championship team, The Eagles wore uniforms similar to the ones that were worn by the 1960 championship team.
The Eagles hold their pre-season training camp from the end of July through mid-August each year at Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania in the Lehigh Valley. Their pre-season practices, usually held twice daily, typically draw thousands of spectators.
This fight song is heard during Eagles' home games after touchdowns and before the team is introduced prior to kickoff:
Fly, Eagles Fly, on The Road to Victory!
Fight, Eagles Fight, Score a Touchdown 1–2–3!
Hit 'em low, hit 'em high,
And watch our Eagles Fly!
Fly, Eagles fly, On The Road to Victory!
The American City Business Journals, which conducts a regular study to determine the most loyal fans in the NFL, evaluates fans based primarily on attendance-related factors, and ranked Eagles fans third in both 1999 and 2006. The 2006 study called the fans "incredibly loyal," noting that they filled 99.8 percent of the seats in the stadium over the previous decade. Forbes placed the Eagles fans first in its 2008 survey, which was based on the correlation between team performance and fan attendance. ESPN.com placed Eagles fans fourth in the league in its 2008 survey, citing the connection between the team's performance and the mood of the city.
The studies note that—win or lose—Eagles fans can be counted on to pack their stadium. As of August 2008, the team had sold out 71 consecutive games, and 70,000 were on the team's waiting list for season tickets. Despite finishing with a 6–10 record in the 2005–2006 season, the Eagles ranked second in the NFL in merchandise sales, and single-game tickets for the next season were sold out minutes after phone and Internet lines opened.
Eagles Fly for Leukemia, Ronald McDonald HousesEdit
In 1971, Kim Hill, the daughter of Eagles tight end Fred Hill, was diagnosed with leukemia. As Hill and his family dealt with this devastating blow, his teammates and owner Leonard Tose pledged their emotional support.
As Fred continued to research Kim's leukemia, the support of Leonard Tose and the Eagles continued to inspire him. The Eagles held fund-raising dinners, the team made individual contributions, and Fred and Kim continued to bravely battle this disease.
After Kim's successful treatment, Fred realized how powerful the spirit of solidarity that his teammates displayed truly was. Fred became committed to helping other families battle pediatric cancers. From helping them identify resources, to assisting financially, Fred and his teammates continued their fight against childhood cancers. In 1972, Philadelphia Eagles owner Leonard Tose officially recognized Eagles Fly for Leukemia as the official philanthropy of the Philadelphia Eagles Football Club.
The Philadelphia Eagles Helmet Cart sat at Joseph A. Scirrotto Jr.'s (Designer of the 74 Helmet) "Joe's Gulf Gas Station" at Rising Sun Ave & Van Kirk St. 1974 off season year to raise money for "The Eagles Fly for Leukemia," where every weekend Eagles NFL Team Members joined to help raise awareness and funds, including Harold Carmichael.
The spirit of the Eagles and Leonard Tose led to the establishment of the first Ronald McDonald House, a place for families to find shelter when their children are sick. Now, over 200 Ronald McDonald houses shelter thousands of families around the world.
The spirit continued, and over the last 30 years Eagles Fly for Leukemia has raised over $10 million towards pediatric cancer research and family support.
In 1991, Eagles Fly for Leukemia soared higher and became established as a free-standing non-profit organization, outside of the Eagles Football Club. However, the spirit remains, with the Eagles continuing to support and encourage Eagles Fly for Leukemia initiatives.
Eagles Youth PartnershipEdit
In 1995, in an effort to better give back to the community, Eagles Youth Partnership (EYP) was formed as a 501(c)(3) public charity in the emerging field of sports philanthropy.
Eagles Youth Partnership (EYP) serves over 50,000 low income children in the Greater Philadelphia region every year via two mobile units, the Eagles Eye Mobile, which gives eye examinations, and the Eagles Book Mobile, a literacy program. EYP is also known for annual playground builds in underserved neighborhoods, an annual chess tournament, and a variety of other programs and events. Since 2009 EYP has also staged a fan appreciation night entitled Eagles Flight Night. The night marks the Eagles first appearance of the season at Lincoln Financial Field, and is held in the form of a public practice.
The Philadelphia Eagles Football Club is the EYP's largest funder. The Eagles also donate free office space, staff support and other resources in support of the organization. Corporate, foundation and individual donors join to support Eagles Youth Partnership's efforts.
List of Philadelphia Eagles players (past and present)Edit
Awards and honorsEdit
Pro Football Hall of FamersEdit
Despite the numbers not being retired, no one has ever worn Donovan McNabb's 5, Randall Cunningham's 12, Brian Dawkins's 20, Brian Westbrook's 36 or Jon Runyan's 69 since those players have left the Eagles. Owner Jeffrey Lurie stated during the Eagles' 2009 training camp that Dawkins's 20 will not be re-issued to another player as long as he is the owner.
Eagles Honor RollEdit
In 1987, the Eagles Honor Roll was established. Each Eagle player who had by then been elected into the Pro Football Hall of Fame was among the inaugural induction class.
75th anniversary teamEdit
Philadelphia Sports Hall of FameEdit
Coaches of noteEdit
Philadelphia Eagles staff
<tr><td style="text-align:center;border:2px solid silver" colspan="7">AFC East: BUF · MIA · NE · NYJ • North: BAL · CIN · CLE · PIT • South: HOU · IND · JAC · TEN • West: DEN · KC · OAK · SD
Radio and televisionEdit
Beginning with the 2008 season, Eagles games will now be broadcast on both 94.1 WYSP-FM and Sports Radio 610 WIP-AM, as both stations are owned and operated by CBS Radio. Merrill Reese, who joined the Eagles in the mid-1970s, is the play-by-play announcer, and former Eagles wide receiver Mike Quick is the color analyst. Former Eagles linebacker Bill Bergey is among several Eagles post-game commentators on WYSP.
Notes and referencesEdit
- ↑ Lyons, 2010 pg. 81
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Lyons, 2010 pg. 82
- ↑ Kuklick, Bruce (1993). To Every Thing a Season: Shibe Park and Urban Philadelphia, 1909–1976. Princeton University Press. p. 86. ISBN 0-691021-04X. http://books.google.com/books?id=1mN2Ejq-5VMC&pg=PA86&lpg=PA86&dq=%22Shibe+Park%22+Philadelphia+Eagles&source=bl&ots=UN5CSpNC5y&sig=V16zr8_Y3P94xFA5HpqMh5yStzg&hl=en&ei=uUwdSruMKaWmNfbNmI8P&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8. Retrieved May 27, 2009.
- ↑ Didinger, Ray; Robert S. Lyons (2005). The Eagles Encyclopedia. Temple University Press. ISBN 1-592134-491.
- ↑ "Year-by-Year History". Archived from the original on January 29, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060129104352/http://www.philadelphiaeagles.com/pdf/Y_B_YHISTORY.pdf. Retrieved December 20, 2010.
- ↑ Brookover, Bob (September 17, 2006). "The Birds' Biggest Rival—In a division of fierce foes, the Giants have battled the Eagles as tough as anyone". Philadelphia Inquirer: p. D1.
- ↑ Brookover, Bob (November 6, 2008). "Eagles—Giants among top rivalries". Philadelphia Inquirer: p. D6.
- ↑ Maese, Rick (April 5, 2010). "Washington Redskins acquire quarterback Donovan McNabb from Philadelphia Eagles". The Washington Post (Washington, DC: The Washington Post Company). http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/04/04/AR2010040403253.html?hpid=artslot. Retrieved April 5, 2010.
- ↑ Aldrin, Buzz (August 2007). Comments at Spacefest signing (video clip). Mesa, Arizona: YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/user/RevBonnieAnn#p/a/u/2/f8XHARY_Rto.
- ↑ "Eagles Unveil 75th Anniversary Plans". Philadelphia Eagles. April 25, 2007. http://www.philadelphiaeagles.com/news/Story.asp?story_id=12323. Retrieved December 20, 2010.
- ↑ "Eagles Announce Plans to Honor 1960 Title Team". Csnphilly.com. May 3, 2010. http://www.csnphilly.com/05/03/10/Eagles-Announce-Plans-to-Honor-1960-Titl/landing.html?blockID=227998&feedID=704. Retrieved December 20, 2010.
- ↑ "Training Camp,". Philadelphiaeagles.com. http://www.philadelphiaeagles.com/news/TrainingCamp.html. Retrieved December 20, 2010.[dead link]
- ↑ Woolsey, Matt (September 1, 2008). "In Depth: America's Most Die-Hard Football Fans". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/2008/08/29/fans-football-loyal-forbeslife-cx_mw_0901sports_slide_11.html. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
- ↑ Thomas, G. Scott (September 4, 2006). "NFL Fan Loyalty: Methodology". Bizjournals. Archived from the original on May 26, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080526091257/http://www.bizjournals.com/specials/pages/31.html. Retrieved February 6, 2009.
- ↑ George, John (February 5, 1999). "Proven: Eagles' fans are fanatics". Philadelphia Business Journal (Philadelphia; Pennsylvania): p. 3.
- ↑ Thomas, G. Scott (September 4, 2006). "Full fan loyalty rankings". Bizjournals. http://www.bizjournals.com/specials/pages/35.html. Retrieved February 6, 2009.[dead link]
- ↑ Thomas, G. Scott (September 4, 2006). "NFL Fan Support Rankings". Bizjournals. http://www.bizjournals.com/specials/slideshow/13.html?page=21. Retrieved February 6, 2009.[dead link]
- ↑ Woolsey, Matt (September 1, 2008). "America's Most Die-Hard Football Fans". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/2008/08/29/fans-football-loyal-forbeslife-cx_mw_0901sports.html. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
- ↑ Woolsey, Matt (September 1, 2008). "America's Most Die-Hard Football Fans: Methodology". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/2008/08/29/fans-football-loyal-forbeslife-cx_mw_0901sports_2.html. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 Mosley, Matt (August 29, 2008). "NFL's best fans? We gotta hand it to Steelers (barely". ESPN.com. http://sports.espn.go.com/nfl/preview08/columns/story?id=3530077. Retrieved August 30, 2008.
- ↑ Berman, Zack (June 14, 2006). "Single Game Tickets Sold Out!". PhiladelphiaEagles.com. http://www.philadelphiaeagles.com/news/Story.asp?story_id=8517. Retrieved June 22, 2006.
- ↑ Winer, Adam (April 2011). "The Worst Sports Fans in America". GQ Magazine. http://www.gq.com/sports/lists/201104/worst-sports-fans-in-america?slide=14#slide=14. Retrieved 2011-03-18.
- ↑ Brookover, Bob (September 15, 2009). "Eagles end Shawn Andrews' season, place him on injured reserve". The Philadelphia Inquirer. http://www.victoriaadvocate.com/news/2009/sep/15/bc-fbn-eaglesph-_-sports-700-words/?sports&nfl. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Lyons, Robert S. (2010). On Any Given Sunday, A Life of Bert Bell. Philadelphia:Temple University Press. ISBN ISBN 978-1-59213-731-2