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New York Post
200px
November 13, 2007 front page of
the New York Post
TypeDaily newspaper
FormatTabloid
OwnerNews Corporation
PublisherPaul Carlucci
EditorCol Allan
Founded1801
LanguageEnglish
Headquarters1211 Avenue of the Americas
New York, New York 10036
United States
Circulation555,327 weekdays
442,365 Saturdays
434,392 Sundays in 2012[1]
ISSN1090-3321
Official websitewww.nypost.com

The New York Post is an American daily newspaper, primarily distributed in New York City and its surrounding area. It is the 13th-oldest and seventh-most-widely circulated newspaper in the United States.[2] Since 1993, it has been owned by News Corporation, which had owned it previously from 1976 to 1988. Its editorial offices are located at 1211 Avenue of the Americas, in New York City, New York. The Post is known for its sensationalist headlines.

HistoryEdit

The New York Post, established on November 16, 1801 as the New-York Evening Post, describes itself as the nation's oldest continuously published daily newspaper. The Hartford Courant, believed to be the oldest continuously published newspaper, was founded in 1764 as a semi-weekly paper; it did not begin publishing daily until 1836. The New Hampshire Gazette, which has trademarked its claim of being The Nation's Oldest Newspaper, was founded in 1756, also as a weekly. Moreover, since the 1890s it has been published only for weekends.

19th CenturyEdit

File:AlexanderHamilton.jpg
File:WCBryant.jpg

The Post was founded by Alexander Hamilton with about US$10,000 from a group of investors in the autumn of 1801 as the New-York Evening Post,[3] a broadsheet. Hamilton's co-investors included other New York members of the Federalist Party, such as Robert Troup and Oliver Wolcott,[4] who were dismayed by the election of Thomas Jefferson as U.S. President and the rise in popularity of the Democratic-Republican Party.[5] The meeting at which Hamilton first recruited investors for the new paper took place in then-country weekend villa that is now Gracie Mansion.[6] Hamilton chose William Coleman as his first editor.[5]

The most famous 19th-century New-York Evening Post editor was the poet and abolitionist William Cullen Bryant.[7] So well respected was the New-York Evening Post under Bryant's editorship, it received praise from the English philosopher John Stuart Mill, in 1864.[8]

In the summer of 1829, Bryant invited William Leggett, the Locofoco Democrat, to write for the paper. There, in addition to literary and drama reviews, Leggett began to write political editorials. Leggett's classical liberal philosophy entailed a fierce opposition to central banking, a support for voluntary labor unions, and a dedication to laissez-faire economics. He was a member of the Equal Rights Party. Leggett became a co-owner and editor at the Post in 1831,[citation needed] eventually working as sole editor of the newspaper while Bryant traveled in Europe in 1834 through 1835.[citation needed]

Another co-owner of the paper was John Bigelow.[citation needed] Born in Malden-on-Hudson, New York, John Bigelow, Sr. graduated in 1835 from Union College, where he was a member of the Sigma Phi Society and the Philomathean Society, and was admitted to the bar in 1838.[citation needed] From 1849 to 1861, he was one of the editors and co-owners of the New York Evening Post.[citation needed]

In 1881 Henry Villard took control of the New-York Evening Post, as well as The Nation, which became the Post's weekly edition. With this acquisition, the paper was managed by the triumvirate of Carl Schurz, Horace White and Edwin L. Godkin.[9] When Schurz left the paper in 1883, Godkin became editor-in-chief.[10] White became editor-in-chief in 1899, and remained in that role until his retirement in 1903.[11][12] In 1897, both publications passed to the management of Villard's son, Oswald Garrison Villard,[13] a founding member of both the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People[14] and the American Civil Liberties Union.[15]

20th CenturyEdit

Villard sold the paper in 1918, after widespread allegations of pro-German sympathies during World War I hurt its circulation.

The new owner was Thomas Lamont, a senior partner in the Wall Street firm of J.P. Morgan & Co.. Unable to stem the paper's financial losses, he sold it to a consortium of 34 financial and reform political leaders, headed by Edwin Francis Gay, dean of the Harvard Business School, whose members included Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Conservative Cyrus H. K. Curtis[16]—publisher of the Ladies Home Journal—purchased the New-York Evening Post in 1924[17] and briefly turned it into a non-sensational tabloid in 1933.[17]

In 1934, J. David Stern purchased the paper, changed its name to the New York Post,[17] and restored its broadsheet size and liberal perspective.[18]

In 1939, Dorothy Schiff purchased the paper. Her husband, George Backer, was named editor and publisher.[19] Her second editor (and third husband) Ted Thackrey became co-publisher and co-editor with Schiff in 1942.[20] Together, they recast the newspaper into its current tabloid format.[21] In 1949, James Wechsler became editor of the paper, running both the news and the editorial pages. In 1961, he turned over the news section to Paul Sann and remained as editorial-page editor until 1980.

Under Schiff's tenure the Post was devoted to liberalism, supporting trade unions and social welfare, and featured some of the most-popular columnists of the time, such as Joseph Cookman, Drew Pearson, Eleanor Roosevelt, Max Lerner, Murray Kempton, Pete Hamill, and Eric Sevareid, in addition to theatre critic Richard Watts, Jr. and Broadway columnist Earl Wilson.

Murdoch ownershipEdit

In 1976, Rupert Murdoch bought the Post for US$30 million.[22] The Post at this point was the only surviving afternoon daily in New York City and its circulation under Schiff had grown by two-thirds. However, the rising cost of operating an afternoon daily in a city with worsening daytime traffic congestion, combined with mounting competition from expanded local TV news rendered the Post unprofitable by 1974 (The paper has lost money ever since).[5] Historian/activist Howard Zinn's parents introduced him to literature by sending 25 cents plus a coupon to the Post for each of the 20 volumes of Charles Dickens' collected works.[23]

StyleEdit

File:NYPost.jpg
Murdoch imported the sensationalist "tabloid journalism" style of many of his Australian and British newspapers, such as The Sun (the highest selling daily newspaper in the UK). This style was typified by Post's famous headlines such as “Headless body in topless bar” (shown on the right). In its 35th-anniversary edition, New York Magazine listed this as one of the greatest headlines ever. It also has five other Post headlines in its "Greatest Tabloid Headlines" list.[24]

Because of the institution of federal regulations limiting media cross-ownership after Murdoch's purchase of WNEW-TV (Now WNYW-TV) and four other stations from Metromedia to launch the Fox Broadcasting Company, Murdoch was forced to sell the paper for US$37.6 million in 1988 to Peter S. Kalikow, a real-estate magnate with no news experience.[25] When Kalikow declared bankruptcy in 1993,[25] the paper was temporarily managed by Steven Hoffenberg,[25] a financier who later pleaded guilty to securities fraud;[26] and, for two weeks, by Abe Hirschfeld,[27] who made his fortune building parking garages. After a staff revolt against the Hoffenberg-Hirschfeld partnership—which included publication of an issue whose front page featured the iconic masthead photo of founder Alexander Hamilton with a single tear drop running down his cheek[28]—The Post was repurchased in 1993 by Murdoch's News Corporation. This came about after numerous political officials, including Democratic governor of New York Mario Cuomo, persuaded the Federal Communications Commission to grant Murdoch a permanent waiver from the cross-ownership rules that had forced him to sell the paper five years earlier.[29] Without that FCC ruling, the paper would have shut down. Under Murdoch's renewed direction, the paper continued its conservative editorial viewpoint.

CriticismEdit

Perhaps the most serious allegation against the Post is that it is willing to contort its news coverage to suit Murdoch's business needs, in particular that the paper has avoided reporting anything that is unflattering to the government of the People's Republic of China, where Murdoch has invested heavily in satellite television.[30]

Critics say that the Post allows its editorial positions to shape its story selection and news coverage. Post executive editor Steven D. Cuozzo, has responded that the Post "broke the elitist media stranglehold on the national agenda."

According to a survey conducted by Pace University in 2004, the Post was rated the least-credible major news outlet in New York, and the only news outlet to receive more responses calling it "not credible" than credible (44% not credible to 39% credible).[31]

The Public Enemy song "A Letter to the New York Post" from their album Apocalypse '91...The Enemy Strikes Black is a complaint about what they believed to be negative and inaccurate coverage African-Americans received from the paper.

ControversiesEdit

There have been numerous controversies surrounding the Post:

  • In 1997, a national news story concerning Rebecca Sealfon's victory in the Scripps National Spelling Bee circulated. Sealfon was sponsored by the Daily News. The Post published a picture of her but altered the photograph to remove the name of the Daily News as printed on a placard she was wearing.[32]
  • On November 8, 2000, the Post printed "BUSH WINS!" in a huge headline,[33] although the presidential election remained in doubt because of the recount needed in Florida. Like the Post, many other newspapers around the country published a similar headline after the four major TV networks called the election for George W. Bush.
  • On March 10, 2004, the Post re-ran as a full-color page one photograph,[34] a photograph that had already been run three days earlier in black and white on page 9, showing the 24-story suicide plunge of a New York University student, who had since been identified as 19-year-old Diana Chien, daughter of a prominent Silicon Valley, California, businessman. Among criticisms leveled at the Post [35] was their addition of a tightly cropped inset photograph of Chien, a former high-school track athlete, depicting her in mid-jump from an athletic meet, giving the false impression that it was taken during her fatal act, despite the fact that she had fallen face up.
  • On April 21, 2006, several Asian-American advocacy groups protested the use of the headline "Wok This Way" for a Post article about Bush's meeting with the Hu Jintao, President of the People's Republic of China.[37]
  • On February 18, 2009, the Post ran a cartoon by Sean Delonas that depicted a white police officer saying to another white police officer who has just shot a chimpanzee on the street: "They'll have to find someone else to write the next stimulus bill." The cartoon referred the recent rampage of Travis, a former chimpanzee actor, and was criticized as being in bad taste,[40] primarily by making a reference to the racist stereotype of African-Americans being portrayed as apes. Civil rights activist Al Sharpton called the cartoon "troubling at best given the historic racist attacks of African-Americans as being synonymous with monkeys."[41] The Post has defended itself by stating that the cartoon was deliberately misinterpreted by its critics.[42] The stimulus bill itself was first passed out of the House of Representatives, which Nancy Pelosi presided over, and later passed in Senate, which was led by Harry Reid, so, if it is viewed in a literal context, the cartoon itself is actually referring to Pelosi, Reid, and other Congressional leaders as monkeys.
  • On December 4, 2012, the Post used a picture taken by a freelance photographer, R. Umar Abbassi, of a 58-year-old man identified as Ki Suk Han struggling to climb back up onto the platform 49th Street Station in New York City as a subway train approached. The caption on the front read, "Pushed on the subway track, this man is about to die" on top, and "DOOMED" in large, boldface print on the bottom. The image caused outrage among many, as its use was viewed as exploiting a tragedy for commercial gain. Abbassi stated that he was not strong enough to pull the man up, and attempted to use the flash on his camera to alert the driver of the oncoming train.[43]

The Post and the Daily News often take potshots at each other's work and accuracy, particularly in their respective gossip-page items.

In certain editions of the February 14, 2007, newspaper, an article referring to then-Senator Hillary Clinton's support base for her 2008 presidential run referred to then-Senator Barack Obama as "Osama";[44] the paper realized its error and corrected it for the later editions and the website.[45] The Post noted the error and apologized in the February 15, 2007, edition.[46] Earlier, on January 20, 2007, the Post received some criticism[47] for running a potentially misleading headline, "'Osama' Mud Flies at Obama",[48] for a story that discussed rumors that Obama had been raised as a Muslim and concealed it.

WebsiteEdit

In 1996, the Post launched an Internet version of the paper nypost.com. The original site included color photos and sections broken down into News, Sports, Editorial, Gossip, Entertainment and Business. It also had an archive for the past seven days. Since then, it has been redesigned a number of times, with the latest incarnation launched on September 6, 2009. In 2005 the website implemented a registration requirement but removed it in July 2006.

The current website also features continually updated breaking news; entertainment, business, and sports blogs; links to Page Six Magazine; photo and video galleries; original Post videos; user-submitted photos and comments; and streaming video for live events.

File:NYPost 133 plant gate jeh.jpg

Highlights Edit

The paper is well known for its sports section, which has been praised for its comprehensiveness; it begins on the back page, and among other coverage, contains columns about sports in the media by Phil Mushnick.

The Post is also well known for its gossip columnist Cindy Adams.

The best-known gossip section is "Page Six", created by the late James Brady[49] and currently edited by Emily Smith. February 2006 saw the debut of Page Six Magazine, distributed free inside the paper. In September 2007, it started to be distributed weekly in the Sunday edition of the paper. In January 2009, circulation for Page Six Magazine was cut to four times a year.

SalesEdit

The daily circulation of the Post decreased in the final years of the Schiff era from 700,000 in the late 1960s[citation needed] to approximately 418,000 by the time she sold the paper to Murdoch in 1976.[citation needed] Under Murdoch's first reign as owner, circulation soared to a peak of 960,000 in 1978—the majority of the increase stemming from a morning edition of the Post that Murdoch launched that year (The paper ended afternoon publication in 1981). A resurgence during the 21st century increased circulation to 724,748 in April 2007,[1] achieved partly by lowering the price from 50 cents to 25 cents. During October 2006, the Post for the first time passed its rival, the Daily News, in circulation. The Daily News regained the lead over the Post in 2007 and the two rival tabloids have been locked in a virtual dead heat ever since.[50] As of April 2010, the Post's daily circulation is 525,004, just 10,000 behind the Daily News.[51]

Yet throughout Murdoch's years of ownership, the Post never made a profit, with at least one media report in 2012 indicating that the Post loses up to $70 million a year.[52] One commentator has suggested that the Post cannot become profitable as long as the competing Daily News survives, and that Murdoch may be trying to force the Daily News to fold or sell out.[53]

Recent headquartersEdit

The 1906 Old New York Evening Post Building is designated landmark.

From 1926, the newspaper's main office was at 75 West Street. In 1967, Schiff bought 210 South Street, the former headquarters of the New York Journal American, which closed a year earlier. The building became an instantly recognizable symbol for the Post. In 1995, owner Rupert Murdoch relocated the Post's news and business offices to the News Corporation headquarters tower at 1211 Avenue of the Americas (Sixth Avenue) in midtown Manhattan. The Post shares this building with Fox News Channel and The Wall Street Journal, both of which are also owned by Murdoch. The Post and the New York City edition of the Journal are printed at a state-of-the-art printing plant in the borough of The Bronx.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 "FAS-FAX Report: Circulation Averages for the Six Months Ended March 31, 2012". Arlington Heights, Ill.: Audit Bureau of Circulations. http://abcas3.accessabc.com/ecirc/newsform.asp. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
  2. Burrellesluce.com
  3. Allan Nevins, The Evening Post: Century of Journalism, Boni and Liveright, 1922, page 17.
  4. Nevins, page 14.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Emery & Emery, page 74.
  6. Nevins, pages 17–18.
  7. Emery & Emery, page 90.
  8. Nevins, page 341.
  9. Nevins, page 438.
  10. Nevins, page 458.
  11. Horace White Dies,” The New York Times, September 17, 1916.
  12. Nevins, pp. 440-441.
  13. Webster's Biographical Dictionary, G. & C. Miriam Co., 1964, page 1522.
  14. Christopher Robert Reed, The Chicago NAACP and the Rise of Black Professional Leadership, 1910–1966, Indiana University Press, 1997, page 10.
  15. Emery & Emery, page 257.
  16. "New York Newspapers and Editors". http://www.bklyn-genealogy-info.com/Newspaper/NYNewspapers.html. Retrieved June 7, 2007.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 "ketupa.net media profiles: curtis". http://www.ketupa.net/curtis.htm. Retrieved June 7, 2007.
  18. Emery & Emery, page 292.
  19. Deborah G. Felder & Diana L. Rosen, Fifty Jewish Women Who Changed the World, Citadel Press, 2003, page 164.
  20. "Dolly's Goodbye". Time. January 31, 1949. http://jcgi.pathfinder.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,794542,00.html. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  21. Emery & Emery, page 556.
  22. "News Corp: Historical Overview". The Hollywood Reporter. November 14, 2005. Archived from the original on December 8, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061208130444/http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/thr/film/feature_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1001479107. Retrieved June 7, 2007.
  23. Zinn, Howard (1994). You Can't Be Neutral on a Moving Train. Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-7058-0.
  24. Published Mar 31, 2003 (2003-03-31). "Greatest Tabloid Headlines". Nymag.com. http://nymag.com/nymetro/news/anniversary/35th/n_8568/. Retrieved February 11, 2009.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Neil Hickey (January/February 2004). "Moment of Truth". Columbia Journalism Review. Archived from the original on April 23, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070423111034/http://www.cjr.org/issues/2004/1/gangs-hickey.asp. Retrieved June 7, 2007.
  26. "ABS Credit Migrations" (PDF). Nomura Fixed Income Research. March 5, 2002. pp. 20. http://www.securitization.net/pdf/nomura_abs_030502.pdf. Retrieved June 7, 2007.
  27. Bob Fenster, Duh! The Stupid History of the Human Race, McMeel, 2000, page 13.
  28. Glaberson, William (March 16, 1993). "Fight for New York Post Heats Up In Court, in Newsroom and in Prin". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE1DD113CF935A25750C0A965958260&scp=7&sq=new+york+post&st=nyt. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  29. Hickey, "Moment of Truth".
  30. James Barron and Campbell Robertson (2007-05-19). "Page Six, Staple of Gossip, Reports on Its Own Tale". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/19/nyregion/19six.html?_r=1&pagewanted=1&ref=nyregion&oref=slogin. Retrieved May 19, 2007.
  31. Jonathan Trichter (June 16, 2004). "Tabloids, Broadsheets, and Broadcast News" (PDF). Pace Poll Survey Research Study. http://appserv.pace.edu/emplibrary/pace_poll_061604.pdf. Retrieved June 7, 2007.
  32. David, Shenk (1997-10-20). "Every Picture Can Tell a Lie". Wired. http://www.wired.com/culture/lifestyle/news/1997/10/7815. Retrieved March 22, 2008.
  33. "Bush wins!". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/pictures/image/0,8543,-10104103692,00.html. Retrieved July 5, 2008.
  34. David Nolan, "New York Post Blasted for running suicide shot on cover", Media Ethics, Texas State University-San Marcos, School of Journalism & Mass Communication. Accessed June 5, 2008.
  35. "From The 'If It Bleeds It Leads Department' — Death Jump Photo Ran Because That's What We Do", Plastic(.com). Accessed June 5, 2008.
  36. "Post Tabs Wrong Horse", thesmokinggun.com. Accessed June 5, 2008.
  37. Paul H.B. Shin (April 22, 2006). "Post's 'Wok' Head No Joke to Asians". New York Daily News. http://www.nydailynews.com/04-22-2006/front/story/411080p-347724c.html. Retrieved June 7, 2007.
  38. "Powder Puff Spooks Keith", New York Post, September 27, 2006. Accessed June 5, 2008.
  39. Dumenco, Simon (2007-07-23). "Call Me a Surrender Monkey, but I (Heart) the New York Post — Advertising Age — The Media Guy". Adage.com. http://adage.com/mediaworks/article?article_id=119404. Retrieved February 11, 2009.
  40. Roland S. Martin, Commentary: NY Post cartoon is racist and careless, CNN, February 18, 2009, Accessed February 19, 2009.
  41. Associated Press (February 18, 2009). "NY Post cartoon of dead chimpanzee stirs outrage". http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090218/ap_en_ot/ny_post_cartoon. Retrieved February 19, 2009.[dead link]
  42. NY Post (February 19, 2009). "That cartoon". New York Post. http://www.nypost.com/seven/02192009/postopinion/editorials/that_cartoon_155984.htm. Retrieved February 2, 2009.
  43. Curtis Rush (December 4, 2012). "Furor over NY Post photo of doomed man". Thespec.com. http://www.thespec.com/news/ontario/article/848198--furor-over-ny-post-photo-of-doomed-man. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
  44. The Empire Zone (February 14, 2007,). "Bill Snares Osama Guy". New York Times Blog. http://empirezone.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/02/14/bill-snares-osama-guy-2/. Retrieved June 7, 2007.
  45. Maggie Haberman (February 14, 2007). "Bill snares Obama guy". New York Post. http://www.nypost.com/seven/02142007/news/nationalnews/bill_snares_obama_guy_nationalnews_maggie_haberman.htm. Retrieved June 7, 2007.
  46. "CORRECTION", New York Post, February 15, 2007. Accessed June 5, 2008. "Due to an editing mistake, a small number of copies of yesterday's Post carried a headline referring to 'Osama' over a story about Sen. Barack Obama on Page 2. The Post regrets the error."
  47. "Presidential Candidate Barack Obama Educated At Radical Islamist School, Oh, Wait. No, That's Not True... But Let's Pretend He Was Anyway". Your New Reality. January 23, 2007. http://yournewreality.blogspot.com/2007/01/fox-news-presidential-candidate-barack.html. Retrieved June 7, 2007.
  48. Maggie Haberman (January 20, 2007). "'Osama' Mud Flies at Obama". New York Post. http://www.nypost.com/seven/01202007/news/nationalnews/osama_mud_flies_at_obama_nationalnews_maggie_haberman.htm. Retrieved June 7, 2007.
  49. "Obituaries in the news". The Associated Press. 27 January 2009. http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/D/DEATHS?SITE=AP&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT. Retrieved January 28, 2009.[dead link]
  50. Associated Press, "Newspaper circulation off 2.6%; some count Web readers", November 5, 2007. Accessed June 5, 2008.
  51. Audit Bureau of Circulation
  52. Michael Calderone (June 28, 2012). "Rupert Murdoch Suggests Wall Street Journal Won't Face Cuts In News Corp. Split". Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/06/28/rupert-murdoch-wall-street-journal-news-corp_n_1635680.html.
  53. Anthony Bianco (February 21, 2005). "Profitless Paper in Relentless Pursuit". Business Week. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_08/b3921114_mz016.htm. Retrieved June 7, 2007.

Further readingEdit

External links Edit

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