(Yucatan peninsula was not anexxed from Guatemala, was never part of Guatemala. Was the independent republic of Yucatan. Only Chiapas was part of Guatemala.)
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{{about|the country in North America}}
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{{Use mdy dates|date=May 2012}}
{{Infobox country
|conventional_long_name = United Mexican States
|native_name = {{native name|es|{{nowrap|Estados Unidos Mexicanos}}|fontsize=68%}}{{smaller|<ref name="presidencia.gob.mx">{{cite web |url=http://www.presidencia.gob.mx/index.php?DNA=91 |publisher=Presidency of Mexico |title=Official name of the country |location=MX |date=March 31, 2005 |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref><ref name="cia.gov"/>}}
|common_name = Mexico
|image_flag = Flag of Mexico.svg
|alt_flag =
|image_coat = Coat of arms of Mexico.svg
|alt_coat =
|symbol_type = Coat of arms
|national_motto =
|national_anthem = ''[[Himno Nacional Mexicano]]''<br/>{{small|''Mexican National Anthem''}}
|other_symbol_type = National [[Seal (device)|seal]]:
|other_symbol = <div style="padding:0.3em;">[[File:Seal of the Government of Mexico.svg|80px|link=Seal of the United Mexican States]]</div>{{native phrase|es|[[Seal of the United Mexican States|Sello de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos]]|nolink=on}}<br/>{{small|Seal of the United Mexican States}}
|image_map = MEX orthographic.svg
|map_width = 220px
|alt_map =
|capital = [[Mexico City]]
|latd=19 |latm=03 |latNS=N |longd=99 |longm=22 |longEW=W
|largest_city = Mexico City
|languages_type = [[National language]]s
|languages = {{vlist |[[Spanish language|Spanish]] |[[Languages of Mexico|68 indigenous languages]]}}
|ethnic_groups =
{{unbulleted list
| {{nowrap|14.85% [[Indigenous peoples of the Americas|indigenous peoples]]<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www3.inegi.org.mx/sistemas/TabuladosBasicos/LeerArchivo.aspx?ct=27495&c=27303&s=est&f=2 |title=Población de 3 años y más en entidades federativas seleccionadas y su distribución porcentual según condición de autoadscripción étnica para cada entidad federativa, sexo y condición de habla indígena |work=Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010 — Cuestionario ampliado |publisher=INEGI |year=2011 |accessdate=2012-05-22 |language=Spanish}}</ref><!--end nowrap:-->}}
|ethnic_groups_year = 2010
|demonym = Mexican
|government_type = {{nowrap|[[Federalism|Federal]] [[Presidential system|presidential]]<br/>{{raise|0.3em|[[constitutional republic]]<ref>{{cite web |format=PDF |location=MX |url=http://www.scjn.gob.mx/SiteCollectionDocuments/PortalSCJN/RecJur/BibliotecaDigitalSCJN/PublicacionesSupremaCorte/Political_constitucion_of_the_united_Mexican_states_2008.pdf |title=Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, title 2, article 40 |publisher=SCJN |accessdate=August 14, 2010}}{{dead link|date=March 2012}}</ref><!--end raise:-->}}<!--end nowrap:-->}}
|leader_title1 = [[President of Mexico|President]]
|leader_name1 = [[Enrique Peña Nieto]]
|leader_title2 = [[Secretary of the Interior (Mexico)|Secretary of the Interior]]
|leader_name2 = [[Miguel Ángel Osorio Chong]]
|leader_title3 = [[Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation|Supreme Court President]]
|leader_name3 = [[Juan N. Silva Meza|Juan Silva Meza]]
|legislature = [[Congress of Mexico|Congress]]
|upper_house = [[Senate (Mexico)|Senate]]
|lower_house = [[Chamber of Deputies (Mexico)|Chamber of Deputies]]
|sovereignty_type = [[Mexican War of Independence|Independence]]
|sovereignty_note = from [[Spain]]
|established_event1 = Declared
|established_date1 = September 16, 1810
|established_event2 = Recognized
|established_date2 = September 27, 1821
|area_rank = 14th
|area_magnitude = 1 E12
|area =
|area_km2 = 1,972,550
|area_sq_mi = 761,606
|area_footnote =
|percent_water = 2.5
|population_estimate = 115,296,767<ref>{{cite web |title=INEGI |url=http://www.inegi.org.mx/Sistemas/temasV2/Default.aspx?s=est&c=25433&t=1 |accessdate=January 9, 2013}}</ref>
|population_estimate_year = 2012
|population_estimate_rank = 11th
|population_density_km2 = 57
|population_density_sq_mi = 142
|population_density_rank = 142nd
|GDP_PPP = {{nowrap|$1.743 trillion<ref name="imf-mx">{{cite web |url=http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=68&pr.y=3&sy=2009&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=273&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a= |title=Mexico |publisher=International Monetary Fund |accessdate=April 18, 2012}}</ref><!--end nowrap:-->}}
|GDP_PPP_rank =
|GDP_PPP_year = 2012
|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $15,177<ref name="imf-mx"/>
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank =
|GDP_nominal = {{nowrap|$1.207 trillion<ref name="imf-mx"/>}}
|GDP_nominal_rank =
|GDP_nominal_year = 2012
|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $10,514<ref name="imf-mx"/>
|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank =
|Gini_year = 2008
|Gini_change = <!--increase/decrease/steady-->
|Gini = 48.3 <!--number only-->
|Gini_ref = <ref name="wb-gini">{{cite web |url=http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.GINI/ |title=Gini Index |publisher=[[World Bank]] |accessdate=2012-05-23}}</ref>
|Gini_rank =
|HDI_year = 2011
|HDI_change = <!--increase/decrease/steady-->
|HDI = 0.770 <!--number only-->
|HDI_ref = <ref name="UNDP">{{cite web |url=http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Tables.pdf |title=Human Development Report 2011 – Human development statistical annex |publisher=[[Human Development Report|HDRO (Human Development Report Office)]] [[United Nations Development Programme]] |pages=127–130 |accessdate=November 2, 2011}}</ref>
|HDI_rank = 57th
|currency = [[Mexican peso|Peso]]
|currency_code = MXN
|time_zone = ''See'' [[Time in Mexico]]
|utc_offset = −8 to −6
|time_zone_DST = varies
|DST_note =
|utc_offset_DST = −7 to −5
|antipodes =
|date_format =
|drives_on = right
|calling_code = [[+52]]
|iso3166code =
|cctld = [[.mx]]
'''Mexico''' ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Mexico.ogg|ˈ|m|ɛ|k|s|ɨ|k|oʊ}}; {{lang-es|México}}; {{IPA-es|ˈme.xi.ko|IPA|es-mx-México.ogg}}), officially the '''United Mexican States'''<ref>{{cite news|last=Romo|first=Rafael|title=After nearly 200 years, Mexico may make the name official|url=http://www.cnn.com/2012/11/22/world/americas/mexico-name-change/index.html?hpt=hp_t3|newspaper=CNN|date=November 23, 2012}}</ref><ref>[http://embamex.sre.gob.mx/eua/index.php/en/about-mexico ''About Mexico.''] Embajada de Mexico en Estados Unidos (Mexican Embassy in the United States), Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores (Ministry of Foreign Relations). Washington, D.C. Retrieved 21 June 2012.</ref>
({{Audio-es|Estados Unidos Mexicanos|Es-mx-Estados Unidos Mexicanos.ogg}}), is a [[Federation|federal]] constitutional republic in [[North America]]. [[Borders of Mexico|It is bordered]] on the north by the [[United States|United States of America]]; on the south and west by the [[Pacific Ocean]]; on the southeast by [[Guatemala]], [[Belize]], and the [[Caribbean Sea]]; and on the east by the [[Gulf of Mexico]].<ref>Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, 3rd {{dabbr|ed.|edition}}, Springfield, Massachusetts, [[USA]], Merriam-Webster; p. 733</ref> Covering almost two million square kilometres (over 760,000&nbsp;sq&nbsp;mi),<ref name="cia.gov">{{CIA World Factbook link|mx|Mexico}}</ref> Mexico is the fifth largest country in the [[Americas]] by total area and the [[List of countries by area|13th largest independent nation in the world]]. With an estimated population of over 113 million,<ref name="INEGI 2010 Census Statistics">{{cite web|url=http://www.inegi.org.mx/inegi/contenidos/espanol/prensa/comunicados/rpcpyv10.asp |title=INEGI 2010 Census Statistics|publisher=www.inegi.org.mx |accessdate=November 25, 2010}}</ref> it is the world's [[List of countries by population|eleventh most populous country]] and the [[Hispanophone#Hispanosphere|most populous Spanish-speaking]] country. Mexico is a federation comprising [[Administrative divisions of Mexico|thirty-one states]] and a [[Mexico City|Federal District]], the capital city.
'''Take me to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexico {{pagename}}] article on Wikipedia'''.
In [[pre-Columbian Mexico]] many cultures matured into advanced civilizations such as the [[Olmec]], the [[Toltec]], the [[Teotihuacan]], the [[Zapotec civilization|Zapotec]], the [[Maya civilization|Maya]] and the [[Aztec]] before first contact with [[Europe]]ans. In 1521, Spain [[Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire|conquered]] and colonized the territory from its base in [[Tenochtitlan|México-Tenochtitlan]], which was administered as the Viceroyalty of [[New Spain]]. This territory would eventually become Mexico following recognition of the colony's [[Mexican War of Independence|independence]] in 1821. The post-independence period was characterized by [[Economic history of Mexico#Independence|economic instability]], the [[Mexican-American War]] and [[Territorial evolution of Mexico|territorial cession]] to the United States, a [[Reform War|civil war]], [[Emperor of Mexico|two empires]] and [[List of Presidents of Mexico|a domestic dictatorship]]. The latter led to the [[Mexican Revolution]] in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the [[Constitution of Mexico|1917 Constitution]] and the emergence of the country's current [[Politics of Mexico|political system]]. [[Mexican general election, 2000|Elections held in July 2000]] marked the first time that an opposition party won the presidency from the [[Institutional Revolutionary Party]]. Since 2006 the country has been in the midst of a [[Mexican Drug War|drug war]] which has caused 60,000 deaths.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.zetatijuana.com/2011/12/12/quinto-ano-de-gobierno-60-mil-420-ejecuciones/ | work=Semanario Zeta | date=2011-11-12}}</ref>
Mexico has one of the world's largest economies, and is considered both a [[regional power]] and [[middle power]].<ref>{{cite web|last=James Scott, Matthias vom Hau and David Hulme|title=Beyond the BICs: Strategies of influence|url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.escholar.manchester.ac.uk%2Fapi%2Fdatastream%3FpublicationPid%3Duk-ac-man-scw%3A105725%26datastreamId%3DSUPPLEMENTARY-1.DOC&ei=fMKFT7SMKIye8gS71NHACA&usg=AFQjCNHKPFxJk5bu6Qs5R2SKSUs8IwidWw&sig2=_lt4YNVT-1ECYQBh61EWgA|publisher=The University of Manchester|accessdate=April 11, 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=How to compare regional powers: analytical concepts and research topics|url=http://www.giga-hamburg.de/dl/download.php?d=/content/staff/nolte/publications/how_to_compare_nolte.pdf|publisher=British International Studies Association|accessdate=April 11, 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/other/bluebook/2006/05.pdf |title=Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2012-05-07}}</ref><ref>[http://www.oxanstore.com/displayfree.php?NewsItemID=130098 Oxford Analytica]{{dead link|date=May 2012}}</ref> In addition, Mexico was the first [[Latin America]]n member of the [[Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development]] OECD (since 1994), and considered an upper-middle income country by the World Bank.<ref name="wb-upper-middle">{{cite web |url=http://data.worldbank.org/about/country-classifications/country-and-lending-groups#Upper_middle_income |title=Country and Lending Groups |publisher=World Bank |accessdate=March 5, 2011|quote=Uppermiddle Income defined as a per capita income between $3,976 – $12,275}}</ref> Mexico is considered a [[newly industrialized country]]<ref name=Globalization>{{Cite book|title=Globalization and the Transformation of Foreign Economic Policy|author=Paweł Bożyk|chapter=Newly Industrialized Countries|publisher=Ashgate Publishing|year=2006|isbn=0-7546-4638-6|page=164}}</ref><ref name=Limits>{{Cite book|title=The Limits of Convergence|author=Mauro F. Guillén|chapter=Multinationals, Ideology, and Organized Labor|pages=126 (table 5.1)|publisher=Princeton University Press|year=2003|isbn=0-691-11633-4}}</ref><ref name=AIA>{{Cite book|title=Geography, An Integrated Approach|author=David Waugh|chapter=Manufacturing industries (chapter 19), World development (chapter 22)|pages=563, 576–579, 633, and 640|publisher=Nelson Thornes|year=3rd edition, 2000|isbn=0-17-444706-X}}</ref><ref name=Principles>{{Cite book|title=Principles of Economics|author=N. Gregory Mankiw|year=4th edition, 2007|isbn=0-324-22472-9|publisher=Thomson/South-Western|location=Mason, Ohio}}</ref> and an [[Emerging Powers|emerging power]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=38056 |title=G8: Despite Differences, Mexico Comfortable as Emerging Power |publisher=ipsnews.net |date=June 5, 2007 |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref> It has the [[List of countries by GDP (nominal)|thirteenth largest]] nominal GDP and the [[List of countries by GDP (PPP)|eleventh largest]] GDP by [[purchasing power parity]]. The [[Economy of Mexico|economy]] is strongly linked to those of its [[North American Free Trade Agreement]] (NAFTA) partners, especially the United States of America.<ref>[http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35749.htm Mexico (05/09)]. US Department of State. Accessed on: 2009-11-25.</ref><ref>[http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34733.pdf CRS Report for Congress]. Congressional Research Service. November 4, 2008.</ref> Mexico ranks sixth in the world and first in the Americas by number of [[UNESCO]] [[World Heritage Sites]] with [[List of World Heritage Sites in the Americas#Mexico (31)|31]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://whc.unesco.org/en/list |title=UNESCO World Heritage Centre - World Heritage List |publisher=UNESCO |accessdate=May 25, 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://whc.unesco.org/en/events/295 |title=Mexico's World Heritage Sites Photographic Exhibition at UN Headquarters |publisher=whc.unesco.org |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref><ref>[[Table of World Heritage Sites by country]]</ref> and in 2007 was the tenth most visited country in the world with 21.4 million international arrivals per year.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unwto.org/facts/eng/pdf/highlights/UNWTO_Highlights08_en_HR.pdf |title=Tourism |format=PDF |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref>
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== Etymology ==<!--linked-->
{{Main|Name of Mexico}}
[[File:CodexMendoza01.jpg|thumb|Image of Mexico-[[Tenochtitlan]] from the [[Codex Mendoza]]]]
These Redirect pages should be eliminated in either of two ways.
* #1 Create a article of our own for this page.
* #2 On every page a {{Pagename}} link exists make a direct link to the original Wikipedia article.
Things to think about:
After New Spain won independence from Spain, it was decided that the new country would be named after its capital, [[Mexico City]], which was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Aztec capital of [[Tenochtitlan|México-Tenochtitlan]]. The name comes from the [[Nahuatl language]], but its meaning is unknown.
* #1 Creating our own page for this article may add a superfluous amount of pages.
* #2 Some of these article links may be on hundreds of pages that would need direct links.
''[[Name of Mexico|Mēxihco]]'' was the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the [[Aztec Empire]], namely, the [[Valley of Mexico]], and its people, the [[Mexica]], and surrounding territories which became the future [[State of Mexico]] as a division of [[New Spain]] prior to independence (compare ''[[Latium]]''). It is generally considered to be a [[toponym]] for the valley which became the primary [[ethnonym]] for the [[Aztec Triple Alliance]] as a result, or vice versa.
The suffix ''-co'' is the Nahuatl [[locative]], making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain. It has been suggested that it is derived from [[Mextli]] or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Aztecs, [[Huitzilopochtli]], in which case Mēxihco means "Place where Huitzilopochtli lives".<ref>{{Cite book|last=Aguilar-Moreno|first=Manuel|title=Handbook to Life in the Aztec World|year=2006|publisher=Facts of Life|isbn=0-8160-5673-0|page=19}}</ref> Another hypothesis<ref name=edomex/> suggests that ''Mēxihco'' derives from a [[portmanteau]] of the Nahuatl words for "Moon" (''Mētztli'') and navel (''xīctli''). This meaning ("Place at the Center of the Moon") might then refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of [[Lake Texcoco]]. The system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans [[pareidolia|pareidolically]] associated with the [[moon rabbit|Moon]]. Still another hypothesis suggests that it is derived from Mēctli, the goddess of [[Agave americana|maguey]].<ref name="edomex">{{cite web|title={{lang|es|Nombre del Estado de México}}|publisher=Government of the State of Mexico|url=http://www.edomexico.gob.mx/identidad/civica/htm/NomMexico.htm|accessdate=October 3, 2007 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070427111842/http://www.edomexico.gob.mx/identidad/civica/htm/NomMexico.htm |archivedate = April 27, 2007}} {{es icon}}</ref>
The name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter <x> in Medieval Spanish, which represented the [[voiceless postalveolar fricative]] {{IPA|[ʃ]}}. This sound, as well as the [[voiced postalveolar fricative]] {{IPA|[ʒ]}}, represented by a <j>, evolved into a [[voiceless velar fricative]] {{IPA|[x]}} during the 16th century. This led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries México was the preferred spelling. In recent years the [[Real Academia Española]], which regulates the Spanish language, determined that both variants are acceptable in Spanish but that the normative recommended [[spelling]] is México.<ref>http://buscon.rae.es/dpdI/SrvltConsulta?lema=méxico</ref> The majority of publications in all Spanish-speaking countries now adhere to the new norm, even though the alternative variant is still occasionally used.{{Citation needed|date=July 2011|reason=Source cited formerly does not support the assertion}} In [[english language|English]], the <x> in Mexico represents neither the original nor the current sound, but the consonant cluster {{IPA|[ks]}}.
The official name of the country has changed as the [[form of government]] has changed. On two occasions (1821–1823 and 1863–1867), the country was known as {{lang|es|Imperio Mexicano}} ([[Mexican Empire]]). All three federal constitutions (1824, 1857 and 1917, the current constitution) used the name {{lang|es|Estados Unidos Mexicanos}}<ref>{{cite web|url=http://ierd.prd.org.mx/coy128/hlb.htm |title={{lang|es|El cambio de la denominación de "Estados Unidos Mexicanos" por la de "México" en la Constitución Federal}} |publisher=ierd.prd.org.mx |accessdate=November 4, 2009}}</ref>—or the variants Estados Unidos mexicanos<ref>{{cite web|url=http://tarlton.law.utexas.edu/constitutions/text/image/A02.html |title={{lang|es|Constitucion Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos}} (1824) |publisher=tarlton.law.utexas.edu |date=September 2, 2009 |accessdate=October 30, 2010}}</ref> and {{lang|es|Estados-Unidos Mexicanos}},<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.tlahui.com/politic/politi99/politi8/con1857.htm |title={{lang|es|Constitución Mexicana de 1857}} |publisher=www.tlahui.com |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref> all of which have been translated as "United Mexican States". The phrase {{lang|es|República Mexicana}}, "Mexican Republic", was used in the 1836 Constitutional Laws.<ref>[http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/01361697524573725088802/p0000001.htm {{lang|es|Leyes Constitucionales de 1836}}]. Cervantes Virtual.</ref> On 22 November 2012, president [[Felipe Calderón]] sent to the Mexican Congress a piece of legislation to change the country's name officially to simply Mexico. To go into effect, the bill would need to be passed by [[Congress of Mexico|both houses of Congress]], as well as a majority of Mexico's 31 State legislatures. As this legislation was proposed just a week before [[Felipe Calderón|Calderón]] turned power over to [[Enrique Peña Nieto]], Calderón's critics saw this as a symbolic gesture.<ref>[http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-20457443 Mexico's President Calderon seeks to change country's name]</ref>
== History ==
{{Main|History of Mexico}}
[[File:El Castillo Stitch 2008 Edit 2.jpg|thumb|right|[[Chichen Itza]]]]
[[File:Piramide de la Luna 072006.jpg|thumb|right|View of the Pyramid of the Moon in [[Teotihuacan]], a large pre-Columbian city, which had as many as 150,000 inhabitants at its height in the 5th century.]]
[[File:Xipe Totec mask Louvre MH 78-1-60.jpg|thumb|left|Aztec jade mask from the 14th century depicting the god [[Xipe Totec]].]]
=== Ancient cultures ===
==== Archaic period ====
The earliest [[human]] remains in Mexico are chips of [[stone tool]]s found near campfire remains in the Valley of Mexico and radiocarbon-dated to circa 23,000 years ago.<ref>{{cite web|title=Native Americans: Earliest Migrations|year=2009|publisher=MSN Encarta|url=http://uk.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761570777/Native_Americans.html#s76|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/query?id=1257037540134054|archivedate=November 1, 2009}}</ref> Mexico is the site of the domestication of maize and [[phaseolus|beans]] which caused a transition from [[Paleo-Indians|paleo-Indian]] hunter-gatherers to sedentary agricultural villages beginning around 7000 BCE.
==== Classic periods ====
In the subsequent formative areas maize cultivation and cultural traits such as a complex mythological and religious complex, a vigesimal numeric system, were diffused from the Mexican cultures to the rest of the [[Mesoamerica]]n culture area.<ref>Kirchhoff, Paul (1943). "Mesoamérica — Sus Límites Geográficos, Composición Étnica y Caracteres Culturales". Acta Americana 1 (1): 92–107.</ref> In this period villages began to become socially stratified and develop into [[chiefdom]]s, and the development of large ceremonial centers.<ref>Carmack, Robert; et al. (1996). The legacy of Mesoamerica: history and culture of a Native American civilization. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.</ref>
Among the earliest complex civilizations in Mexico was the [[Olmec]] culture which flourish on the Gulf Coast from around 1500 BCE. Olmec cultural traits diffused through Mexico into other formative era cultures in Chiapas, Oaxaca and the Valley of Mexico. The formative period saw the spread of distinct religious and symbolic traditions, as well as artistic and architectural complexes.<ref>Diehl, Richard A. (2004). The Olmecs : America's First Civilization. London: Thames and Hudson. pp. 9–25.</ref> In the subsequent [[Mesoamerican chronology|pre-classical period]], the [[Maya civilization|Maya]] and [[Zapotec civilization|Zapotec]] civilizations developed complex centers at [[Calakmul]] and [[Monte Albán]] respectively. During this period the first true [[Mesoamerican writing systems]] were developed in the [[Epi-Olmec culture|Epi-Olmec]] and the Zapotec cultures, and the Mesoamerican writing tradition reached its height in the Classic [[Maya Script|Maya Hieroglyphic script]].<ref>Sampson, Geoffrey; ''Writing Systems: A Linguistic Introduction'', Hutchinson (London), 1985.</ref>
In Central Mexico, the height of the classic period saw the ascendancy of [[Teotihuacan]], which formed a military and commercial empire whose political influence stretched south into the Maya area as well as north. At its peak, Teotihuacan, containing some of the largest [[Mesoamerican pyramid|pyramidal structures]] built in the pre-Columbian Americas, had a population of more than 150,000 people.<ref>{{cite journal |author={{aut|Cowgill, George}} |authorlink=George Cowgill |year=1997 |title=State and Society at Teotihuacan, Mexico |journal=[[Annual Review of Anthropology]] |url= |format=PDF online reproduction |volume=26 |issue=1 |pages=pp.129–161|location=Palo Alto, CA |publisher=[[Annual Reviews|Annual Reviews Inc]] |doi=10.1146/annurev.anthro.26.1.129 |issn=0084-6570 |oclc=202300854}}</ref> At the collapse of Teotihuacán around 600 CE, competition between several important political centers in central Mexico such as [[Xochicalco]] and [[Cholula (Mesoamerican site)|Cholula]] ensued. At this time during the Epi-Classic [[Nahua people]]s began moving south into Mesoamerica from the North, and became politically and culturally dominant in central Mexico, as they displaced speakers of [[Oto-Manguean languages]].
==== Post-classic period ====
During the early post-classic Central Mexico was dominated by the [[Toltec]] culture, Oaxaca by the [[Mixtec civilization|Mixtec]] and the lowland Maya area had important centers at [[Chichén Itzá]] and [[Mayapán]]. Towards the end of the post-Classic period the [[Aztec]]s of Central Mexico built a tributary empire covering most of central Mexico.<ref>{{cite book |author={{aut|Coe, Michael D.}} |authorlink=Michael D. Coe |coauthors=with {{aut|Rex Koontz}}|year=2002|origyear= |title=Mexico: from the Olmecs to the Aztecs |edition=5th edition, revised and enlarged |publisher=[[Thames & Hudson]] |location=London and New York |isbn=0-500-28346-X |oclc=50131575}}</ref> The Aztecs were noted for practicing [[Human sacrifice in Aztec culture|human sacrifice]] on a large scale.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/aztecs/sacrifice.htm|title=The Enigma of Aztec Sacrifice|accessdate=December 16, 2011 |publisher=[[Natural History (magazine)|Natural History]]}}</ref> The distinct Mesoamerican cultural tradition ended with the Spanish conquest in the 16th century, and over the next centuries Mexican indigenous cultures were gradually subjected to Spanish colonial rule.<ref>{{cite book |author={{aut|Weaver, Muriel Porter}} |year=1993 |title=The Aztecs, Maya, and Their Predecessors: Archaeology of Mesoamerica |edition=3rd |location=San Diego, CA |publisher=[[Academic Press]] |isbn=0-12-739065-0 |oclc=25832740}}</ref>
=== Conquest ===
[[File:Xicotencatl-Cortes.jpg|thumb|200px|[[Hernán Cortés]] and [[Xicotencatl II]] as depicted in the ''[[History of Tlaxcala]]'']]
The [[Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire]] began in February 1519 when [[Hernán Cortés]] arrived at the port in [[Veracruz, Veracruz|Veracruz]] with ca. 500 [[conquistador]]es, and later moved on to the Aztec capital. On his search for gold and other riches, Cortés decided to invade and conquer the Aztec empire.<ref>{{cite book |author={{aut|Hassig, Ross}} |authorlink=Ross Hassig |year=2006 |title=Mexico and the Spanish Conquest |edition=2nd |location=Norman |publisher=[[University of Oklahoma Press]] |isbn=978-0-8061-3793-3 |oclc=64594483}}</ref>
The ruler of the Aztec empire upon the arrival of the Spaniards was [[Moctezuma II]], who was later killed; his successor and brother [[Cuitláhuac]] took control of the Aztec empire, but was among the first to fall from the smallpox epidemic a short time later.<ref>{{cite book|last=True Peters|first=Stephanie|title=Smallpox in the New World|year=2004|publisher=Marshall Cavendish|isbn=978-0-7614-1637-1|url=http://books.google.com.mx/books?id=v0zEiM_hijsC&pg=PA18&lpg=PA18&dq=small+pox+killing+aztecs&source=bl&ots=z4mrxE0Pdo&sig=9Ugb5VPtgITdHXy9aU7p8b-FvmQ&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ty3-TsGeN4rO2AX639WUAQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=small%20pox%20killing%20aztecs&f=false}}</ref> Unintentionally introduced by Spanish conquerors, [[smallpox]] ravaged Mesoamerica in the 1520s, killing more than 3 million Aztecs.<ref>{{cite news|last=Flight|first=Colette|title=Smallpox: Eradicating the Scourge|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/smallpox_01.shtml|accessdate=December 30, 2011|newspaper=BBC News {{!}} History|date=February 17, 2011}}</ref> Other sources, however, mentioned that the death toll of the Aztecs might have reached up to 15 million (out of a population of less than 30 million).<ref>{{cite book|last=Koplow|first=David A.|title=Smallpox: The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge|year=2003|publisher=University of California Press|isbn=978-0-520-23732-2|page=270|url=http://books.google.com.mx/books?id=nlQpbYPuTX0C&pg=PA13&lpg=PA13&dq=small+pox+killing+aztecs&source=bl&ots=GFvJ9Zq8dc&sig=wtCYmmf9t-Txz7jrjebjuObNAa0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=3TL-Tte2F6W42wWW9fSyCA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=small%20pox%20killing%20aztecs&f=false}}</ref> Severely weakened, the Aztec empire was easily defeated by Cortés and his forces on his second return.<ref>{{cite web|title=Smallpox: Conquered Killer|url=http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/human-diseases/smallpox-article/|publisher=National Geographic|accessdate=December 30, 2011}}</ref> Smallpox was a devastatingly selective disease—it generally only killed the Aztecs, while the Spaniards were immune to the disease.<ref>{{cite book|last=Sherman|first=Irwin W.|title=The power of plagues|year=2006|publisher=American Society for Microbiology|isbn=1-55581-356-9|page=431|url=http://books.google.com.mx/books?id=LOjqWL-u9VMC&pg=PA192&lpg=PA192&dq=small+pox+killing+aztecs&source=bl&ots=T8_SUFZDdM&sig=JWxo20cbxLaK_cy2wgM1hyjJYWg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=pDT-TsvyGOHq2wWd-YmMAg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=small%20pox%20killing%20aztecs&f=false}}</ref> The deaths caused by smallpox are believed to have triggered a rapid growth of Christianity in Mexico and the Americas. At first, the Aztecs believed the epidemic was a punishment from an angry god, but they later accepted their fate and no longer resisted the Spanish rule.<ref>{{cite book|last=Torrence|first=Paul F.|title=Antiviral drug discovery for emerging diseases and bioterrorism threats|year=2005|publisher=Wiley-Interscience|isbn=0-471-66827-3|page=428|url=http://books.google.com.mx/books?id=wHDj8Z0jqQwC&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&dq=smallpox+aztecs+and+christianity&source=bl&ots=k10d0YXm0E&sig=Q8p5A2tHb9zmJSh98Tn6Pmdtby0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=3jf-TtWTFtLs2AWe6Pi7Ag&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=smallpox%20aztecs%20and%20christianity&f=false}}</ref> Many of the surviving Aztecs blamed the cause of smallpox to the superiority of the Christian god, which resulted in the acceptance of Catholicism and yielding to the Spanish rule throughout Mexico.<ref>{{cite book|last=Robertson|first=Roland G.|title=Rotting face: smallpox and the American Indian|year=2001|publisher=Caxton Press|isbn=0-87004-419-2|page=329|url=http://books.google.com.mx/books?id=-EoEm_OO8RgC&pg=PA102&lpg=PA102&dq=smallpox+aztecs+and+christianity&source=bl&ots=GxbaQMRQSQ&sig=Kx1PAXa9nzIdUGL_OkPaQr_GPvc&hl=en&sa=X&ei=3jf-TtWTFtLs2AWe6Pi7Ag&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=smallpox%20aztecs%20and%20christianity&f=false}}</ref>
The territory became part of the [[Spanish Empire]] under the name of [[New Spain]]. [[Mexico City]] was systematically rebuilt by Cortés following the [[Fall of Tenochtitlan]] in 1521. Much of the identity, traditions and architecture of Mexico were created during the colonial period.<ref>{{cite book |author={{aut|Gibson, Charles}} |authorlink=Charles Gibson (historian) |year=1964 |title=The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule: A History of the Indians of the Valley of Mexico, 1519–1810 |edition=Reprinted 1976 |location=Stanford, CA |publisher=[[Stanford University Press]] |isbn=0-8047-0196-2 |oclc=190295}}</ref>
=== Independence ===
[[File:Mexico's Territorial Evolution.png|thumb|[[Territorial evolution of Mexico]] after independence, noting losses to the US (red, white and orange), [[Chiapas]] annexed from [[Captaincy General of Guatemala|Guatemala]] (blue), the annexation of the [[Republic of Yucatan]] (red) and the secession of [[Central America]] (purple).]]
On September 16, 1810, independence from Spain was declared by priest [[Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla]], in the small town of [[Dolores Hidalgo|Dolores]], Guanajuato.<ref>{{cite web|title=Miguel Hidalgo Biography|publisher=Catholic Encyclopedia|url=http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/16045a.htm|accessdate=September 30, 2007}}</ref> The first insurgent group was formed by Hidalgo, the Spanish [[viceregal]] army captain [[Ignacio Allende]], the [[militia]] captain [[Juan Aldama]] and "La Corregidora" [[Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez]]. Hidalgo and some of his soldiers were captured and [[executed by firing squad]] in [[Chihuahua, Chihuahua|Chihuahua]], on July 31, 1811. Following his death, the leadership was assumed by priest [[José María Morelos]], who occupied key southern cities.
In 1813 the [[Congress of Chilpancingo]] was convened and, on November 6, signed the "[[Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America]]". Morelos was captured and executed on December 22, 1815. In subsequent years, the insurgency was near collapse, but in 1820 [[Viceroy]] [[Juan Ruiz de Apodaca]] sent an army under the [[Criollo people|criollo]] general [[Agustín de Iturbide]] against the troops of [[Vicente Guerrero]]. Instead, Iturbide approached Guerrero to join forces, and on August 24, 1821 representatives of the [[Spanish Crown]] and Iturbide signed the "[[Treaty of Córdoba]]" and the "[[Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire]]", which recognized the [[independence of Mexico]] under the terms of the "[[Plan of Iguala]]".
==== Juárez reforms and territorial losses ====
[[File:BenitoJuarez.jpg|thumb|upright|President [[Benito Juárez]], resisted the French occupation, dissolved the Empire, restored the Republic and established the separation of Church and State.]]
[[File:Porfirio Diaz in uniform.jpg|upright|thumb|[[Porfirio Díaz]], president of Mexico with one interruption from 1876 to 1911]]
Agustín de Iturbide immediately proclaimed himself emperor of the [[First Mexican Empire]]. A revolt against him in 1823 established the [[United Mexican States (1824–1864)|United Mexican States]]. In 1824, a [[Constitution of 1824|Republican Constitution]] was drafted and [[Guadalupe Victoria]] became the first president of the newly born country. The first decades of the post-independence period were marked by [[Economic history of Mexico|economic instability]], which led to the [[Pastry War]] in 1836, and a constant strife between liberales, supporters of a [[federal republic|federal form of government]], and conservadores, proposals of a [[Unitary state|hierarchical form of government]].{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}}
General [[Antonio López de Santa Anna]], a centralist and two-time dictator, approved the [[Siete Leyes]] in 1836, a radical amendment that institutionalized the centralized form of government. When he suspended the 1824 Constitution, civil war spread across the country, and three new governments declared independence: the [[Republic of Texas]], the [[Republic of the Rio Grande]] and the [[Republic of Yucatán]].
Texas successfully achieved independence and was annexed by the United States. A [[territorial dispute|border dispute]] led to the [[Mexican-American War]], which began in 1846 and lasted for two years; the War was settled via the [[Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo]], which forced Mexico to give up over half of its land to the U.S., including [[Alta California]], [[Santa Fe de Nuevo México|New Mexico]], and the disputed parts of [[Coahuila y Tejas|Texas]]. A much smaller transfer of territory in what is today southern [[Arizona]] and southwestern [[New Mexico]]&nbsp;— the [[Gadsden Purchase]]&nbsp;— occurred in 1854.<ref>Robert J. McCarthy, Executive Authority, Adaptive Treaty Interpretation, and the International Boundary and Water Commission, U.S.-Mexico, 14-2 U. Denv. Water L. Rev. 197 (Spring 2011) (also available for free download at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1839903).</ref> The [[Caste War of Yucatán]], the [[Maya peoples|Mayan]] uprising that began in 1847,<ref>Nicholas A. Robins, Adam Jones (2009). [http://books.google.cz/books?id=AX3UCk_PdEwC&pg=&dq&hl=en#v=onepage&q=&f "''Genocides by the Oppressed: Subaltern Genocide in Theory and Practice''"]. Indiana University Press. P. 50. ISBN 0253220777.</ref> was one of the most successful modern Native American revolts.<ref>The Caste War of Yucatán: revised edition, by Nelson Reed, published by Stanford University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-8047-4001-1, ISBN 978-0-8047-4001-2, 448 pages</ref> Maya rebels, or [[Cruzob]],<ref>{{Cite book | last = Chandler | first = Gary | last2 = Prado | first2 = Liza | title = Moon Cancun and Cozumel: Including the Riviera Maya | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=kzJQnRiR1NoC&pg=PA272&dq#v=onepage&q=&f=false | publisher = Avalon Travel | year = 2007 | page = 272 | isbn = 1-56691-780-8}}</ref> maintained relatively independent enclaves until the 1930s.{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}}
Dissatisfaction with Santa Anna's return to power led to the liberal "[[Plan of Ayutla]]", initiating an era known as [[La Reforma]], after which [[Constitution of 1857|a new Constitution was drafted in 1857]] that established a [[secular state]], federalism as the [[form of government]], and several freedoms. As the conservadores refused to recognize it, the [[Reform War]] began in 1858, during which both groups had their own governments. The war ended in 1861 with victory by the Liberals, led by Amerindian president [[Benito Juárez]]. In the 1860s Mexico underwent a military occupation by [[France]], which established the [[Second Mexican Empire]] under the rule of [[House of Habsburg|Habsburg]] [[Archduke]] [[Maximilian I of Mexico|Ferdinand Maximilian]] of [[Austrian Empire|Austria]] with support from the Roman Catholic clergy and the conservadores, who later switched sides and joined the liberales. Maximilian surrendered, was tried on June 14 and was executed on June 19, 1867.
==== Porfiriato ====
[[Porfirio Díaz]], a republican general during the [[French intervention in Mexico|French intervention]], ruled Mexico from 1876 to 1880 and then from 1884 to 1911 in five consecutive reelections, period known as the [[Porfirio Díaz|Porfiriato]], characterized by remarkable economic achievements, investments in [[the arts]] and sciences, but also of [[income distribution|economic inequality]] and [[political repression]].{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}}
==== Mexican Revolution ====
[[File:Madero en Cuernavaca.jpg|right|thumb|[[Francisco I. Madero]] with [[Emiliano Zapata]], in [[Cuernavaca]] during the Mexican revolution.]]
A likely electoral fraud that led to Diaz' fifth reelection sparked the [[Mexican Revolution|1910 Mexican Revolution]], initially led by [[Francisco I. Madero]].
Díaz resigned in 1911 and Madero was elected president but [[Decena trágica|overthrown and murdered in a coup d'État two years later]] directed by conservative general [[Victoriano Huerta]]. That event re-ignited the civil war, involving figures such as [[Francisco Villa]] and [[Emiliano Zapata]], who formed their own forces. A third force, the [[Ejército Constitucionalista|constitutional army]] led by [[Venustiano Carranza]] managed to bring an end to the war, and radically amended the 1857 Constitution to include many of the social premises and demands of the revolutionaries into what was eventually called the [[Constitution of Mexico|1917 Constitution]]. It is estimated that the war killed 900,000 of the 1910 population of 15 million.<ref>[http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/investigations/505_mexicanrevolution.html ''The Mexican Revolution'']. ''Public Broadcasting Service'', [[USA]].</ref><ref>[http://www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/missmill/ ''Missing millions: the human cost of the Mexican Revolution'']. Robert McCaa, University of Minnesota Population Center.</ref> Assassinated in 1920, Carranza was succeeded by another revolutionary hero, [[Álvaro Obregón]], who in turn was succeeded by [[Plutarco Elías Calles]]. Obregón was reelected in 1928 but assassinated before he could assume power.
==== PRI rule ====
[[File:Nafta.jpg|thumb|NAFTA signing ceremony, October 1992. From left to right: (standing) president [[Carlos Salinas de Gortari]], president [[George H. W. Bush]] and prime minister [[Brian Mulroney]]; (seated) [[Jaime Serra Puche]], [[Carla Hills]] and [[Michael Wilson (politician)|Michael Wilson]]]]
In 1929, Calles founded the National Revolutionary Party (PNR), later renamed the [[Institutional Revolutionary Party]] (PRI), and started a period known as the [[Maximato]], which ended with the election of [[Lázaro Cárdenas]], who implemented many economic and social reforms, and most significantly [[Mexican oil expropriation|expropriated the oil industry]] into [[Pemex]] on March 18, 1938, but sparked a diplomatic crisis with the countries whose citizens had lost businesses by Cárdenas' radical measure.
Between 1940 and 1980, Mexico experienced a substantial economic growth that some historians call the "[[Mexican miracle]]".<ref>{{cite web|title=The Mexican Miracle: 1940–1968|work=World History from 1500|publisher=Emayzine|url=http://www.emayzine.com/lectures/mex9.html|accessdate=September 30, 2007}}</ref> Although the economy continued to flourish, [[distribution of wealth|social inequality]] remained a factor of discontent. Moreover, the PRI rule became increasingly authoritarian and at times oppressive<ref>{{cite web|last=Krauze|first=Enrique|title=Furthering Democracy in Mexico|date=January–February 2006|publisher=Foreign Affairs|url=http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20060101faessay85106/enrique-krauze/furthering-democracy-in-mexico.html|accessdate=October 7, 2007}}</ref> (see the [[Tlatelolco massacre|1968 Tlatelolco massacre]],<ref name=MMex>{{Cite book|title=Massacre in Mexico (Original "La noche de Tlatelolco")|author=[[Elena Poniatowska]]|publisher=Viking, New York|year=1975|isbn=0-8262-0817-7}}</ref> which claimed the life of around 30–800 protesters).<ref>Duncan Kennedy, [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/7513651.stm Mexico's long forgotten dirty war], BBC News, Saturday, July 19, 2008</ref>
Electoral reforms and high oil prices followed the administration of [[Luis Echeverría]],<ref>{{Cite book|last=Schedler|first=Andreas|title=Electoral Authoritarianism: The Dynamics of Unfree Competition|year=2006|publisher=L. Rienner Publishers|isbn=1-58826-440-8}}</ref><ref name="Crandall">{{Cite book|last=Crandall|first=R.|coauthors= Paz and Roett|title=Mexico's Democracy at Work|chapter=Mexico's Domestic Economy: Policy Options and Choices|publisher=Lynne Reinner Publishers|year=2004|isbn=0-8018-5655-8|page=160}}</ref> mismanagement of these revenues led to inflation and exacerbated the [[Latin American debt crisis|1982 Crisis]]. That year, [[1980s oil glut|oil prices plunged]], interest rates soared, and the government defaulted on its [[debt]]. [[Miguel de la Madrid|President Miguel de la Madrid]] resorted to currency devaluations which in turn sparked inflation.
In the 1980s the first cracks emerged in PRI's monopolistic position. In [[Baja California]], [[Ernesto Ruffo Appel]] was elected as governor. In 1988, [[electoral fraud]] prevented leftist candidate [[Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas]] from winning the national presidential elections, giving [[Carlos Salinas de Gortari]] the presidency and leading to massive protests in [[Mexico City]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.photius.com/countries/mexico/government/mexico_government_the_1988_elections.html|title="Mexico The 1988 Elections" (Sources: The Library of the Congress Country Studies, CIA World Factbook)|publisher=Photius Coutsoukis |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref>
Salinas embarked on a program of [[neoliberalism|neoliberal]] reforms which fixed the exchange rate, controlled inflation and culminated with the signing of the [[North American Free Trade Agreement]] (NAFTA), which came into effect on January 1, 1994. The same day, the [[Zapatista Army of National Liberation]] (EZLN) started a two-week-long armed rebellion against the federal government, and has continued as a non-violent opposition movement against [[neoliberalism]] and [[globalization]].
==== Democratization ====
In December 1994, a month after Salinas was succeeded by [[Ernesto Zedillo]], the [[1994 economic crisis in Mexico|Mexican economy collapsed]], with a rapid rescue packaged authorized by [[U.S.A.]] president [[Bill Clinton]] and major macroeconomic reforms started by president Zedillo, the economy rapidly recovered and growth peaked at almost 7% by the end of 1999.<ref>{{es icon}} {{cite web|last=Cruz Vasconcelos|first=Gerardo|title=Desempeño Histórico 1914–2004|url=http://www.imef.org.mx/NR/rdonlyres/F722BEDD-A8DE-49BA-AF4F-1A00889CE618/1192/CAPITULOI1.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=February 17, 2007 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20060703181721/http://www.imef.org.mx/NR/rdonlyres/F722BEDD-A8DE-49BA-AF4F-1A00889CE618/1192/CAPITULOI1.pdf |archivedate = July 3, 2006}}</ref>
In 2000, after 71 years, the PRI lost a presidential election to [[Vicente Fox]] of the opposition [[National Action Party (Mexico)|National Action Party]] (PAN). In the 2006 presidential election, [[Felipe Calderón]] from the PAN was declared the winner, with a very narrow margin over leftist politician [[Andrés Manuel López Obrador]] of the [[Party of the Democratic Revolution]] (PRD). López Obrador, however, [[Mexican general election 2006 controversies|contested the election]] and pledged to create an "alternative government".<ref>{{es icon}} {{Cite journal|last=Reséndiz|first=Francisco|title=Rinde AMLO protesta como "presidente legítimo"|journal=El Universal|year=2006|url=http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/389114.html}}</ref>
== Administrative divisions ==
{{Main|Political divisions of Mexico|List of Mexican states by population}}
The United Mexican States are a federation of 31 free and sovereign states, which form a union that exercises a degree of jurisdiction over the [[Mexican Federal District|Federal District]] and other [[territory (administrative division)|territories]].
Each state has its own constitution, [[congress]], and a judiciary, and its citizens elect by [[direct vote|direct voting]] a [[List of Mexican state governors|governor]] for a six-year term, and representatives to their respective unicameral state congresses for three-year terms.<ref>{{cite web|title=Article 116|work=Political Constitution of the United Mexican States|publisher=Congress of the Union of the United Mexican States|url=http://constitucion.gob.mx/index.php?idseccion=12|accessdate=October 7, 2007}}</ref>
The Federal District is a special political division that belongs to the federation as a whole and not to a particular state, and as such, has more limited local rule than the nation's states.<ref>{{cite web|title=Article 112|work=Political Constitution of the United Mexican States|publisher=Congress of the Union of the United Mexican States|url=http://constitucion.gob.mx/index.php?idseccion=12|accessdate=October 7, 2007}}</ref>
The states are divided into [[Municipalities of Mexico|municipalities]], the smallest administrative political entity in the country, governed by a [[mayor|mayor or municipal president]] ({{lang|es|presidente municipal}}), elected by its residents by plurality.<ref>{{cite web|title=Article 115|work=Political Constitution of the United Mexican States|publisher=Congress of the Union of the United Mexican States|url=http://constitucion.gob.mx/index.php?idseccion=12|accessdate=October 7, 2007}}</ref>
{{Mexico labeled map|float=center|margin=10px}}
* <big>{{flagcountry|Mexican Federal District|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Aguascalientes|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Baja California|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Baja California Sur|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Campeche|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Chiapas|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Chihuahua|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Coahuila|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Colima|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Durango|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Guanajuato|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Guerrero|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Hidalgo|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Jalisco|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flagcountry|México (state)|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Michoacán|size=30px}}</big>
<ol start="*">
* <big>{{flag|Morelos|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Nayarit|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Nuevo León|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Oaxaca|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Puebla|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Querétaro|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Quintana Roo|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|San Luis Potosí|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Sinaloa|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Sonora|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Tabasco|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Tamaulipas|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Tlaxcala|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Veracruz|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Yucatán|size=30px}}</big>
* <big>{{flag|Zacatecas|size=30px}}</big>
{{Main|Politics of Mexico|Federal government of Mexico|State governments of Mexico|Elections in Mexico}}
[[File:Enrique Peña Nieto - World Economic Forum on Latin America 2010.jpg|thumb|[[Enrique Peña Nieto]], current President of Mexico]]
[[File:MexCity-palacio.jpg|right|thumb|The [[National Palace (Mexico)|National Palace]], symbolic seat of the President and the cabinet.]]
The United Mexican States are a federation whose government is [[Representative democracy|representative]], democratic and [[republicanism|republican]] based on a presidential system according to the 1917 Constitution. The constitution establishes three levels of government: the federal Union, the state governments and the municipal governments. According to the constitution, all constituent states of the federation must have a republican form of government composed of three branches: the executive, represented by a governor and an appointed cabinet, the legislative branch constituted by a unicameral congress and the judiciary, which will include called state Supreme Court of Justice. They also have their own civil and judicial codes.
The [[Bicameralism|bicameral]] [[Congress of Mexico|Congress of the Union]], composed of a [[Senate of Mexico|Senate]] and a [[Chamber of Deputies (Mexico)|Chamber of Deputies]], makes [[federal law]], declares war, imposes taxes, approves the national budget and international treaties, and ratifies diplomatic appointments.<ref name="congress">{{cite web|title=Articles 50 to 79|work=Political Constitution of the United Mexican States|publisher=Congress of the Union of the United Mexican States|url=http://constitucion.gob.mx/index.php?idseccion=12|accessdate=October 3, 2007}}</ref> Seats to federal and state legislatures are elected by a system of [[parallel voting]] that includes plurality and [[proportional representation]].<ref>{{es icon}} {{cite web|title=Third Title, First Chapter, About Electoral systems|work=Código Federal de Instituciones y Procedimientos Electorales (Federal Code of Electoral Institutions and Procedures)|date=August 15, 1990|publisher=Congress of the Union of the United Mexican States|url=http://normateca.ife.org.mx/normanet/files_otros/COFIPE/cofipe.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=October 3, 2007}}</ref> The Chamber of Deputies of the Congress of the Union is conformed by 300 deputies elected by plurality and 200 deputies by proportional representation with [[closed list|closed party lists]]<ref name="COFIPE_congreso">{{es icon}} {{cite web|title=Third Title, First Chapter, About Electoral systems, Article 11-1|work=Código Federal de Instituciones y Procedimientos Electorales (Federal Code of Electoral Institutions and Procedures)|date=August 15, 1990|publisher=Congress of the Union of the United Mexican States|url=http://normateca.ife.org.mx/normanet/files_otros/COFIPE/cofipe.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=October 3, 2007}}</ref> for which the country is divided into 5 electoral constituencies or circumscriptions.<ref>{{es icon}} {{cite web|title=Fourth Title, Second Chapter, About coalitions, Article 59-1|work=Código Federal de Instituciones y Procedimientos Electorales (Federal Code of Electoral Institutions and Procedures)|date=August 15, 1990|publisher=Congress of the Union of the United Mexican States|url=http://normateca.ife.org.mx/normanet/files_otros/COFIPE/cofipe.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=October 3, 2007}}</ref> The Senate is conformed by a total of 128 senators: 64 senators, two for each state and two for the Federal District, elected by plurality in pairs; 32 senators assigned to the first minority or first-runner up (one for each state and one for the Federal District), and 32 are assigned by proportional representation with closed party lists for which the country conforms a single electoral constituency.<ref name="COFIPE_congreso" />
[[File:Vicente Fox Congreso.jpg|right|thumb|[[Congress of Mexico|Mexican Congress]]]]
The Executive, is the [[President of Mexico|President of the United Mexican States]], who is the [[head of state]] and [[head of government|government]], as well as the [[commander-in-chief]] of the Mexican military forces. The President also appoints the [[Mexican Executive Cabinet|Cabinet]] and other officers. The President is responsible for executing and enforcing the law, and has the authority of vetoing bills.<ref>{{cite web|title=Articles 80 to 93|work=Political Constitution of the United Mexican States|publisher=Congress of the Union of the United Mexican States|url=http://constitucion.gob.mx/index.php?idseccion=12|accessdate=October 3, 2007}}</ref>
The [[Judiciary]] branch of government is the [[Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation|Supreme Court of Justice]], comprised by eleven judges appointed by the President with Senate approval, who interpret laws and judge cases of federal competency. Other institutions of the judiciary are the Electoral Tribunal, collegiate, unitary and district tribunals, and the Council of the Federal Judiciary.<ref>{{cite web|title=Articles 90 to 107|work=Political Constitution of the United Mexican States|publisher=Congress of the Union of the United Mexican States|url=http://constitucion.gob.mx/index.php?idseccion=12|accessdate=October 3, 2007}}</ref>
Three parties have historically been the dominant parties in Mexican politics: the [[National Action Party (Mexico)|National Action Party]]: a right-wing conservative party founded in 1939 and belonging to the [[Christian Democrat Organization of America]];<ref>[http://www.odca.org.mx/miembros.html Miembros Titulares]{{dead link|date=April 2011}}. ODCA. Retrieved October 16, 2009</ref> the [[Institutional Revolutionary Party]], a center-left party and member of [[Socialist International]]<ref>[http://www.pri.org.mx/PriistasTrabajando/saladeprensa/comunicados/noticia.aspx?x=1485 Entrevista a la Lic. Beatriz Paredes Rangel, Presidenta dle Comité Ejecutivo Nacional del PRI]{{dead link|date=April 2011}}. Retrieved October 16, 2009</ref> that was founded in 1929 to unite all the factions of the [[Mexican Revolution]] and held an almost hegemonic power in Mexican politics since then; the [[Party of the Democratic Revolution]]: a left-wing party,<ref>[http://www.prd.org.mx/portal/documentos/estatuto_xi.pdf Estatuto del Partido de la Revolución Democrática]. Documentos Básicos. Retrieved October 16, 2009</ref> founded in 1989 as the successor of the coalition of socialists and liberal parties.
===Foreign relations===
[[File:President Barack Obama with Stephen Harper and Felipe Calderón.jpg|thumb|Prime Minister [[Stephen Harper]], and Presidents [[Barack Obama]] and Felipe Calderón at the 2009 [[North American Leaders' Summit]] in [[Guadalajara]].]]
{{Main|Foreign relations of Mexico}}
The foreign relations of Mexico are directed by the [[President of Mexico]]<ref name="CPEUM89"/> and managed through the [[Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Mexico)|Ministry of Foreign Affairs]].<ref name="SRE">{{cite web| author={{Sp icon}} Internal Rules of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs | title=Article 2, Section 1 | date=August 10, 2001 | publisher=Ministry of Foreign Affairs | url=http://www.sre.gob.mx/acerca/marco_normativo/reglamento.htm | accessdate=March 28, 2009 |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20080611012801/http://www.sre.gob.mx/acerca/marco_normativo/reglamento.htm |archivedate=June 11, 2008}}</ref> The principles of the [[foreign policy]] are constitutionally recognized in the Article 89, Section 10, which include: respect for [[international law]] and [[Sovereign state|legal equality of states]], their [[sovereignty]] and [[independence]], [[non-intervention]] in the domestic affairs of other countries, [[Dispute resolution|peaceful resolution of conflicts]], and promotion of [[international security|collective security]] through active participation in [[international organizations]].<ref name="CPEUM89">{{cite web| author={{Sp icon}} Political Constitution of the United Mexican States | title=Article 89, Section 10 | date=February 5, 1917 | publisher=Chamber of Deputies | url=http://www.cddhcu.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/pdf/1.pdf | accessdate=March 28, 2009 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070825041639/http://www.cddhcu.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/pdf/1.pdf |archivedate = August 25, 2007}}</ref> Since the 1930s, the [[Estrada Doctrine]] has served as a crucial complement to these principles.<ref name=estradadoctrine>{{Sp icon}} {{cite web| last=Palacios Treviño | first=Jorge | title=La Doctrina Estrada y el Principio de la No-Intervención | url=http://www.diplomaticosescritores.org/obras/DOCTRINAESTRADA.pdf | accessdate=April 4, 2009}}</ref>
Mexico is one of the founding members of several international organizations, most notably the United Nations,<ref>{{cite web| author=UN | title=United Nations Member States | date=November 7, 1945 | publisher=UN official website | url=http://www.un.org/members/list.shtml#m | accessdate=April 6, 2009}}</ref> the [[Organization of American States]],<ref name="Velázquez Flores 2007, p. 145">Velázquez Flores (2007), p. 145.</ref> the [[Organization of Ibero-American States]],<ref>{{sp icon}} {{cite web| author=Organization of Ibero-American States | title=Members | publisher=OEI official website | url=http://www.oei.es/acercaoei.htm | accessdate=April 6, 2009}}</ref> the [[OPANAL]]<ref>{{cite web| author=OPANAL | title=Members | publisher=OPANAL official website | url=http://www.opanal.org/opanal/about/about-i.htm | accessdate=April 6, 2009}}</ref> and the [[Rio Group]].<ref>{{sp icon}} {{cite web| author=Ministry of Foreign Affairs | title=El Presidente Felipe Calderón Hinojosa en la Ceremonia de Entrega de la Secretaría Pro Témpore del Grupo de Río | date=March 7, 2007 | publisher=Gobierno Federal | url=http://portal2.sre.gob.mx/gruporio/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2&Itemid=2 | accessdate=April 6, 2009}}</ref> In 2008, Mexico contributed over 40 million [[American dollar|dollars]] to the United Nations regular budget.<ref name="unbudget">{{cite web| author=United Nations | title=Regular Budget Payments of Largest Payers | year=2008 | publisher=Global Policy | url=http://www.globalpolicy.org/finance/tables/reg-budget/large08.htm | accessdate=April 4, 2009}}</ref> In addition, it was the only Latin American member of the [[Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development]] since it joined in 1994 until [[Chile]] gained full membership in 2010.<ref>{{cite web| author=Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development | title=Members | date=May 18, 1994 | publisher=OECD official website | url=http://www.oecd.org/document/58/0,3343,en_2649_201185_1889402_1_1_1_1,00.html | accessdate=April 6, 2009}}</ref><ref>{{cite web| title=Chile joins the OECD's Economic Club | date=January 12, 2010 |publisher=BBC News | url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/business/2010/01/100112_chile_oecd_biz.shtml | accessdate=April 23, 2010}}</ref> Mexico is considered as a [[regional power]]<ref name="regionalpower">{{cite web|title=Japan's Regional Diplomacy, Latin America and the Caribbean|publisher=Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan|url=http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/other/bluebook/2006/05.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=April 4, 2009}}</ref><ref name="regionalpower2">{{cite web|title=Latin America: Region is losing ground to competitors|publisher=Oxford Analytica|url=http://www.oxanstore.com/displayfree.php?NewsItemID=130098|accessdate=April 4, 2009 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071024190633/http://www.oxanstore.com/displayfree.php?NewsItemID=130098 |archivedate = October 24, 2007}}</ref> hence its presence in major economic groups such as the [[G8+5]] and the [[G-20 major economies|G-20]]. In addition, since the 1990s Mexico has sought a [[Reform of the United Nations Security Council|reform of the United Nations Security Council and its working methods]]<ref name="Foreign Affairs 2005 p. 215">Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2005), p. 215.</ref> with the support of Canada, Italy, Pakistan and other nine countries, which form a group informally called the [[Coffee Club]].<ref name="coffeeclub">{{cite news | author=Maggie Farley | title=Mexico, Canada Introduce Third Plan to Expand Security Council | date=July 22, 2005 |work=Los Angeles Times | url=http://articles.latimes.com/2005/jul/22/world/fg-unreform22 | accessdate=April 4, 2009}}</ref>
After the [[Independence of Mexico|War of Independence]], the relations of Mexico were focused primarily on the United States, its northern neighbor, [[Economy of Mexico|largest trading partner]],<ref>{{cite web| title=Bilateral Trade | year=2006 | publisher=Embassy of the U.S. in Mexico | url=http://www.usembassy-mexico.gov/eng/eataglance_trade.html | accessdate=March 28, 2009}}{{dead link|date=August 2011}}</ref> and the most [[superpower|powerful actor in hemispheric and world affairs]].<ref>{{cite web| author=Kim Richard Nossal | title=Lonely Superpower or Unapologetic Hyperpower? Analyzing American Power in the Post-Cold War Era | date=June 29 – July 2, 1999 | publisher=Queen's University | url=http://post.queensu.ca/~nossalk/papers/hyperpower.htm | accessdate=March 28, 2009}}</ref> Mexico supported the [[Cuban Revolution|Cuban government]] since its establishment in the early 1960s,<ref name="keller">{{cite web| author=Renata Keller | title=Capitalizing on Castro: Mexico's Foreign Relations with Cuba, 1959–1969 | year=2009 | publisher=Latin American Network Information Center | url=http://lanic.utexas.edu/project/etext/llilas/ilassa/2009/keller.pdf | accessdate=March 28, 2009}}{{dead link|date=March 2012}}</ref> the [[Sandinista National Liberation Front|Sandinista revolution]] in Nicaragua during the late 1970s,<ref name="salaverry">{{cite web| author=Salaverry, Jorge | title=Evolution of Mexican Foreign Policy | date=March 11, 1988 | publisher=The Heritage Foundation | url=http://www.heritage.org/research/latinamerica/bg638.cfm | accessdate=March 28, 2009}}</ref> and leftist revolutionary groups in [[El Salvador]] during the 1980s.<ref name="elsalvador">{{cite web| title=El Salvador in the 1980s | publisher=Historical Text Archive | url=http://historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?op=viewarticle&artid=345 | accessdate=March 28, 2009}}</ref> [[Felipe Calderón]]'s administration put a greater emphasis on relations with Latin America and the Caribbean.<ref name="Calderon FP">{{cite web| author={{Sp icon}} Dirección General de Coordinación Política | title=Se hará política exterior de Estado: Patricia Espinosa | date=December 2, 2008 | publisher=Senate of the Republic | url=http://www.senado.gob.mx/gace.php?sesion=2008/12/04/1&documento=4 | accessdate=March 29, 2009}}</ref>
{{Main|Mexican Armed Forces}}
[[File:Fuerzas Especiales Michoacán.jpg|thumb|right|Mexican Special Forces with Barrett M82 sniper rifles.]]
The Mexican Armed Forces have two branches: the [[Mexican Army]] (which includes the [[Mexican Air Force]]), and the [[Mexican Navy]]. The Mexican Armed Forces maintain significant infrastructure, including facilities for design, research, and testing of weapons, vehicles, aircraft, naval vessels, defense systems and electronics;<ref name="impreso.milenio.com"/><ref name="Mexican Naval missile">[http://www.expreso.com.mx/PortalNovo/sitio/nota.php?cod_idioma=3&cod_conteudo=9320&cod=274&tipoINICIO=&codconteudoINICIO=9320 Mexican Naval missile] (in Spanish)</ref> military industry manufacturing centers for building such systems, and advanced naval dockyards that build heavy military vessels and advanced missile technologies.<ref>[http://www.semar.gob.mx/informes/nueva_realidad_2004/pag_20.htm Buque logístico multipropósito]{{dead link|date=April 2011}} (in Spanish).</ref>
In recent years, Mexico has improved its training techniques, military command and information structures and has taken steps to becoming more self-reliant in supplying its military by designing as well as manufacturing its own arms,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thegunzone.com/556dw-15.html |title=The 5.56 X 45 mm: 2006 |publisher=Thegunzone.com |accessdate=August 8, 2011}}</ref> missiles,<ref name="Mexican Naval missile"/> aircraft,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www2.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=104&STORY=/www/story/09-07-2007/0004658596&E|title=Hydra Technologies Surprises UAV Industry with Mexican-Made System, Earns Coveted Award at AUVSI's Unmanned Systems North America 2007 Show in D.C |publisher=.prnewswire.com |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref> vehicles, heavy weaponry, electronics,<ref name="impreso.milenio.com"/> defense systems,<ref name="impreso.milenio.com"/> armor, heavy military industrial equipment and heavy naval vessels.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.semar.gob.mx/boletin/2006/bol_225_06.htm |title=Mexican navy 2006 activities official report |publisher=Semar.gob.mx |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref> Since the 1990s, when the military escalated its role in the [[Mexican Drug War|war on drugs]], increasing importance has been placed on acquiring airborne surveillance platforms, aircraft, [[helicopters]], digital war-fighting technologies,<ref name="impreso.milenio.com">{{cite web|author=Loke |url=http://impreso.milenio.com/node/8696274 |title=Capacitarán a militares en combates con rifles láser &#124; Ediciones Impresas Milenio |publisher=Impreso.milenio.com |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}{{dead link|date=March 2012}}</ref> urban warfare equipment and rapid troop transport.<ref>Strategy on recent equipment purchases: [http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub638.pdf The Mexican Armed Forces in Transition]</ref>
Mexico has the capabilities to manufacture nuclear weapons, but forwent this possibility with the [[Treaty of Tlatelolco]] in 1968 and pledged to only use its nuclear technology for peaceful purposes.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.opanal.org/opanal/Tlatelolco/Tlatelolco-i.htm |title=Text of the Treaty of Tlatelolco |publisher=Opanal.org |date=November 27, 1963 |accessdate=March 9, 2011}}</ref> In 1970 Mexico's national institute for nuclear research successfully refined weapons grade uranium<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.inin.gob.mx/ |title=instituto nacional de investigaciones nucleares |publisher=Inin.gob.mx |accessdate=March 9, 2011}}</ref>{{Failed verification|date=March 2011}} which is used in the manufacture of nuclear weapons but in April 2010, Mexico agreed to turn over its weapons grade uranium to the United States.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.upi.com/Top_News/Special/2010/04/13/Mexico-to-slash-weapons-grade-uranium/UPI-91401271180679/ |title=Mexico to slash weapons-grade uranium |publisher=UPI.com |accessdate=March 9, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite news| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8618066.stm |work=BBC News | title=Russia and US sign plutonium pact | date=April 13, 2010}}</ref>
Historically, Mexico has remained neutral in international conflicts,<ref>{{Sp icon}} {{cite web| author=Gustavo Iruegas | title=Adiós a la neutralidad | date=April 27, 2007 | publisher=La Jornada | url=http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2007/04/27/index.php?section=opinion&article=023a2pol | accessdate=April 4, 2009}}</ref> [[Mexico in World War II|with the exception of World War II]]. However, in recent years some political parties have proposed an amendment of the [[Constitution of Mexico|Constitution]] in order to allow the Mexican Army, Air Force or Navy to collaborate with the United Nations in [[peacekeeping|peacekeeping missions]], or to provide military help to countries that officially ask for it.<ref name="neutral">{{Sp icon}} {{cite web| author=Ricardo Gómez & Andrea Merlos | title=Diputados, en Favor de Derogar Neutralidad en Guerras | date=April 20, 2007 | publisher=El Universal | url=http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/nacion/150273.html | accessdate=April 4, 2009}}</ref>
{{Main|Geography of Mexico}}
[[File:Mexico topographic map-blank.svg|thumb|Topographic map of Mexico]]
[[File:North America from low orbiting satellite Suomi NPP.jpg|thumb|right|Mexico as seen from space in a satellite photo taken by NASA's [[Suomi NPP]] in January 2012.]]
Mexico is located between latitudes [[14th parallel north|14°]] and [[33rd parallel north|33°N]], and longitudes [[86th meridian west|86°]] and [[119th meridian west|119°W]] in the southern portion of North America.{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}} Almost all of Mexico lies in the [[North American Plate]], with small parts of the [[Baja California peninsula]] on the [[Pacific Plate|Pacific]] and [[Cocos Plate]]s. [[Geophysics|Geophysically]], some geographers include the territory east of the [[Isthmus of Tehuantepec]] (around 12% of the total) within Central America.<ref>Nord-Amèrica, in [http://www.grec.cat/ Gran Enciclopèdia Catalana]</ref> [[Geopolitics|Geopolitically]], however, Mexico is entirely considered part of North America, along with Canada and the United States.<ref>{{cite book |last= Parsons |first= Alan |coauthors= Jonathan Schaffer |title= Geopolitics of oil and natural gas |publisher= U.S. Department of State |series= Economic Perspectives |year= 2004 |month= May |isbn= }}</ref>
Mexico's total area is {{convert|1972550|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}, making it the [[List of countries and outlying territories by total area|world's 14th largest country by total area]], and includes approximately {{convert|6000|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}} of islands in the Pacific Ocean (including the remote [[Guadalupe Island]] and the [[Revillagigedo Islands]]), [[Gulf of Mexico]], Caribbean, and [[Gulf of California]]. From its farthest land points, Mexico is a little over {{convert|2000|mi|km|0|abbr=on}} in length.
[[File:O457e4574jl0.jpg|thumb|right|Snow-capped [[Pico de Orizaba]], the highest point in Mexico]]
On its north, Mexico shares a {{convert|3141|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} [[Mexico – United States border|border with the United States]]. The meandering Río Bravo del Norte (known as the [[Rio Grande]] in the United States) defines the border from [[Ciudad Juárez]] east to the Gulf of Mexico. A series of natural and artificial markers delineate the United States-Mexican border west from Ciudad Juárez to the Pacific Ocean. On its south, Mexico shares an {{convert|871|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} border with Guatemala and a {{convert|251|km|0|mi|abbr=on}} border with Belize.
Mexico is crossed from north to south by two mountain ranges known as [[Sierra Madre Oriental]] and [[Sierra Madre Occidental]], which are the extension of the [[Rocky Mountains]] from northern North America. From east to west at the center, the country is crossed by the [[Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt]] also known as the Sierra Nevada. A fourth mountain range, the [[Sierra Madre del Sur]], runs from [[Michoacán]] to [[Oaxaca]].<ref name="nationsencyclopedia1">{{cite web|url=http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Americas/Mexico-TOPOGRAPHY.html |title=Mexico Topography |publisher=Nationsencyclopedia.com |date=October 16, 2007 |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref>
As such, the majority of the Mexican central and northern territories are located at high altitudes, and the highest elevations are found at the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt: [[Pico de Orizaba]] ({{convert|5700|m|ft|0|disp=comma|abbr=on}}), [[Popocatepetl]] ({{convert|5462|m|ft|0|disp=comma|abbr=on}}) and [[Iztaccihuatl]] ({{convert|5286|m|ft|0|disp=comma|abbr=on}}) and the [[Nevado de Toluca]] ({{convert|4577|m|ft|0|disp=comma|abbr=on}}). Three major urban agglomerations are located in the valleys between these four elevations: [[Toluca]], [[Greater Mexico City]] and [[Puebla, Puebla|Puebla]].<ref name="nationsencyclopedia1"/>
{{Main|Climate of Mexico}}
The [[Tropic of Cancer]] effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical zones. Land north of the twenty-fourth parallel experiences cooler temperatures during the winter months. South of the twenty-fourth parallel, temperatures are fairly constant year round and vary solely as a function of elevation. This gives Mexico one of the world's most diverse weather systems.
Areas south of the 24th parallel with elevations up to {{convert|1000|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} (the southern parts of both coastal plains as well as the [[Yucatán Peninsula]]), have a yearly median temperature between {{convert|24|to|28|C|F|1}}. Temperatures here remain high throughout the year, with only a {{convert|5|C-change|0}} difference between winter and summer median temperatures. Both Mexican coasts, except for the south coast of the Bay of Campeche and northern Baja, are also vulnerable to serious [[tropical cyclone|hurricanes]] during the summer and fall. Although low-lying areas north of the 24th parallel are hot and humid during the summer, they generally have lower yearly temperature averages (from {{convert|20|to|24|C|F|1|disp=or}}) because of more moderate conditions during the winter.
Many large cities in Mexico are located in the Valley of Mexico or in adjacent valleys with altitudes generally above {{convert|2000|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}. This gives them a year-round temperate climate with yearly temperature averages (from {{convert|16|to|18|C|F|1|disp=or}}) and cool nighttime temperatures throughout the year.
Many parts of Mexico, particularly the north, have a dry climate with sporadic rainfall while parts of the tropical lowlands in the south average more than {{convert|2000|mm|in|1|abbr=on}} of annual precipitation. For example, many cities in the north like [[Monterrey]], [[Hermosillo]], and [[Mexicali]] experience temperatures of {{convert|40|C|F}} or more in summer. In the [[Sonoran Desert]] temperatures reach {{convert|50|C|F}} or more.
In 2012, Mexico passed a comprehensive climate change bill, a first in the developing world, that has set a goal for the country to generate 35% of its energy from clean energy sources by 2024, and to cut emissions by 50% by 2050, from the level found in 2000.<ref>http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-18345079</ref><ref>http://www.ibtimes.com/first-developing-world-mexico-enacts-climate-change-law-701776</ref>
[[File:Standing jaguar.jpg|thumb|The [[jaguar]], a native mammal of Mexico]]
Mexico is one of the 18 [[megadiverse countries]] of the world. With over 200,000 different species, Mexico is home of 10–12% of the world's biodiversity.<ref name="SEMARNAT">{{cite web|title=Biodiversidad de México|publisher=SEMARNAT|url=http://cruzadabosquesagua.semarnat.gob.mx/iii.html|accessdate=October 7, 2007}}</ref> Mexico ranks first in biodiversity in [[reptile]]s with 707 known species, second in mammals with 438 species, fourth in [[amphibian]]s with 290 species, and fourth in flora, with 26,000 different species.<ref>{{cite web|title=Biodiversidad en México|publisher=CONEVYT|url=http://oregon.conevyt.org.mx/actividades/diversidad/lectura_biodiversidad.htm|accessdate=October 7, 2007}}</ref> Mexico is also considered the second country in the world in [[ecosystem]]s and fourth in overall species.<ref name="SNIB"/> Approximately 2,500 species are protected by Mexican legislations.<ref name="SNIB">{{cite web|title=Sistema Nacional sobre la Biodiversidad en México|publisher=CONABIO|url=http://www.conabio.gob.mx/institucion/snib/doctos/acerca.html|accessdate=October 7, 2007}}</ref>
[[File:GoldenEagle-Nova.jpg|thumb|The [[golden eagle]], the national symbol of Mexico]]
As of 2002, Mexico had the second fastest rate of deforestation in the world, second only to Brazil.<ref name="autogenerated2002">{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1854188.stm |title=Mexico's 'devastating' forest loss |publisher=BBC News |date=March 4, 2002 |accessdate=August 8, 2011}}</ref> The government has taken another initiative in the late 1990s to expand the people's knowledge, interest and use of the country's esteemed biodiversity, through the [[Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad]].
In Mexico, {{convert|170000|km2|sqmi|0}} are considered "Protected Natural Areas." These include 34 biosphere reserves (unaltered ecosystems), 67 [[List of national parks of Mexico|national parks]], 4 natural monuments (protected in perpetuity for their aesthetic, scientific or historical value), 26 areas of protected flora and fauna, 4 areas for natural resource protection (conservation of soil, hydrological basins and forests) and 17 sanctuaries (zones rich in diverse species).<ref name="SEMARNAT"/>
The discovery of the Americas brought to the rest of the world many widely used [[Agriculture|food crops]] and [[edible plants]]. Some of Mexico's native [[culinary art|culinary]] ingredients include: chocolate, [[avocado]], tomato, maize, [[vanilla]], [[guava]], [[chayote]], [[Dysphania ambrosioides|epazote]], [[Sweet potato|camote]], [[jícama]], [[nopal]], [[zucchini]], [[Crataegus mexicana|tejocote]], [[Corn smut|huitlacoche]], [[sapote]], [[mamey sapote]], many varieties of [[bean]]s, and an even greater variety of [[chili pepper|chiles]], such as the [[habanero]] and the [[jalapeño]]. Most of these names come from indigenous languages like [[Nahuatl]].
Due to its high biodiversity Mexico has also been a frequent site of [[bioprospecting]] by international research bodies.<ref>Hayden, Cori. 2003. When Nature Goes Public. The making and Unmaking of Bioproscpecting in Mexico. Princeton University Press.</ref> The first highly successful instance being the discovery in 1947 of the tuber "[[Mexican barbasco trade|Barbasco]]" (''[[Dioscorea composita]]'') which has a high content of [[diosgenin]], revolutionizing the production of [[synthetic hormones]] in the 1950es and 1960es and eventually leading to the invention of [[combined oral contraceptive pill]]s.<ref>Soto Laveaga, Gabriela (2009). Jungle Laboratories: MExican peasants, National Projects and the Making of the Pill. Duke University.</ref>
{{Main|Economy of Mexico|Economic history of Mexico}}
[[File:Santa Fé Mexico.jpg|thumb|left|250px|[[Santa Fe, Mexico City|Santa Fe]], [[Central business district|CBD]] of [[Mexico City]]]]
[[File:Bolsa Mexicana de Valores.png|thumb|upright|Headquarters of the [[Bolsa Mexicana de Valores|Mexican Stock Exchange]].]]
[[File:Mexico City suburbs Cuautepec.JPG|thumb|A [[shanty town]] in the [[State of Mexico]]. 51% of Mexicans live in moderate to extreme poverty, according to national statistics.<ref>[http://www.zocalo.com.mx/seccion/articulo/555127 ''No baja la pobreza en México'' (Spanish)]</ref>]]
Mexico has the [[List of countries by GDP (nominal)|13th largest]] nominal GDP and the [[List of countries by GDP (PPP)|11th largest]] by [[purchasing power parity]]. GDP annual average growth for the period of 1995–2002 was 5.1%.<ref name="Crandall" /> Foreign debt decreased to less than 20% of GDP.<ref name="Crandall"/> 17% of the population lives below Mexico's own poverty line, ranking behind Kazakhstan, Bulgaria and Thailand. The overall [[Poverty in Mexico|poverty rate]] however is 44.2%, while a full 70% lack one of the 8 economic indicators used to define poverty by the Mexican government.<ref>http://www.usembassy-mexico.gov/pdf/2010_Poverty_Fact_Sheet.pdf</ref> From the late 1990s, the majority of the population has been part of the growing middle class.<ref name="WB">{{cite web| title=Mexico, World Bank's Country Brief | url=http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/LACEXT/MEXICOEXTN/0,,contentMDK:20185184~pagePK:141137~piPK:141127~theSitePK:338397,00.html | accessdate=February 19, 2007}}</ref> But from 2004 to 2008 the portion of the population who received less than half of the median income has risen from 17% to 21% and the absolute levels of poverty have risen considerably from 2006 to 2010, with a rise in persons living in extreme or moderate poverty rising from 35 to 46% (52 million persons).<ref name="OECDREFORMA"/><ref name="CONEVAL">{{cite web|url=http://web.coneval.gob.mx/Informes/Evaluaci%C3%B3n%202011/Informe%20de%20Evaluaci%C3%B3n%20de%20la%20Pol%C3%ADtica%20de%20Desarrollo%20Social%202011/Informe_de_evaluacion_de_politica_social_2011.pdf |title=CONEVAL Informe 2011 |format=PDF |accessdate=March 31, 2012}}</ref> This is also reflected by the fact that infant mortality in Mexico is three times higher than the average among OECD nations, and the literacy levels are in the median range of OECD nations. According to [[Goldman Sachs]], by 2050 Mexico will have the 5th largest economy in the world.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.chicagobooth.edu/alumni/clubs/pakistan/docs/next11dream-march%20%2707-goldmansachs.pdf |title=Goldman Sachs Paper No.153 Relevant Emerging Markets |format=PDF |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref>
According to the [[Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development|OECD]], worldwide Mexico is the country with the second highest degree of economic disparity between the extremely poor and extremely rich, beaten only by Chile – although it has been falling over the last decade. The bottom ten percent in the income hierarchy disposes of 1.36% of the country's resources, whereas the upper ten percent dispose of almost 36%. OECD also notes that Mexico's budgeted expenses for poverty alleviation and social development is only about a third of the OECD average – both in absolute and relative numbers.<ref name="OECDREFORMA">Perspectivas OCDE: México Reformas para el Cambio [http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/35/8/49363879.pdf]{{quote|Si bien la pobreza había venido disminuyendo a lo largo de los últimos decenios, en fechas recientes ha vuelto a aumentar. Entre 2004 y 2008 la proporción de personas que vivían con menos del 50% del ingreso medio aumentó del 18.4% al 21%. También se registró un crecimiento considerable en las últimas estadísticas oficiales sobre la pobreza absoluta, que tienen en cuenta el acceso a alimentos, salud, educación, vivienda y otros factores. De acuerdo con datos recientes del Consejo Nacional de Evaluación de la Política de Desarrollo Social (CONEVAL), entre 2006 y 2010, la proporción de personas que vivían en la pobreza (extrema y moderada) aumentó del 35% al 46% (lo que equivale a 52 millones de personas). El alto nivel de pobreza absoluta se refleja también en otros indicadores relativos a las condiciones de vida: por ejemplo, la mortalidad infantil, que es tres veces superior al promedio de la OCDE, y la tasa de analfabetismo, que supera a la media del conjunto de la Organización. México es el segundo país con las desigualdades más grandes entre los países de la OCDE, después de Chile, si bien la tendencia ha sido descendente en la última década. Las estadísticas más recientes de la OCDE, que figuran en el informe Divided We Stand (diciembre de 2011), señalan que el 10% más pobre de la población de México percibe alrededor del 1.3% del ingreso total disponible, mientras que el 10% más rico recibe casi el 36%. Aunque México es uno de los pocos países de la OCDE donde las desigualdades han disminuido en las últimas décadas, éstas siguen siendo altas y se han convertido en un obstáculo para
el crecimiento y el desarrollo.}}</ref>
According to a 2008 UN report the average income in a typical urbanized area of Mexico was $26,654, while the average income in rural areas just miles away was only $8,403.<ref>{{es icon}} {{Cite journal|title=Sobresale Nuevo León por su alto nivel de vida|journal=El Norte|year=2006|url=http://busquedas.gruporeforma.com/utilerias/imdservicios3w.dll?JPrintS&file=mty/norte01/00393/00393608.htm&palabra=}}</ref> Daily minimum wages are set annually by law and determined by zone; $57.46 [[Mexican peso]]s ($5.75 USD) in Zona A ([[Baja California]], [[Federal District]], [[State of Mexico]], and large cities), $55.84 Mexican pesos ($5.59 USD) in Zone B ([[Sonora]], [[Nuevo León]], [[Tamaulipas]], [[Veracruz]], and [[Jalisco]]), and $54.47 Mexican pesos ($5.45 USD) in Zone C (all other states)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.sat.gob.mx/sitio_Internet/asistencia_contribuyente/informacion_frecuente/salarios_minimos/ |title=Salarios mínimos 2010 |publisher=Sat.gob.mx |accessdate=October 30, 2010}}</ref>
In 2006, trade with the United States and Canada accounted for almost 50% of its exports and 45% of its imports.<ref name="cia.gov"/> During the first three quarters of 2010, the United States had a $46.0 billion [[trade deficit]] with Mexico.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.koreauspartnership.org/pdf/Koreas%20Balance%20of%20Payments.pdf |title=Korea's Balance of Payments |format=PDF |accessdate=March 9, 2011}}</ref> In August 2010 Mexico surpassed France to became the 9th largest holder of US debt.<ref>http://www.ustreas.gov/tic/mfh.txt</ref> The commercial and financial dependence on the US is a cause for concern.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Thompson|first=Adam|title=Mexico, Economics: The US cast a long shadow|journal=Financial Times|date=June 20, 2006|url=http://www.ft.com/cms/s/f53c9268-005a-11db-8078-0000779e2340,dwp_uuid=bfb8911e-ff83-11da-93a0-0000779e2340.html}}</ref> The remittances from Mexican citizens working in the United States account for 0.2% of Mexico's GDP<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.dallasfed.org/research/busfront/bus0401.html |title=Workers' Remittances to Mexico&nbsp;– Business Frontier, Issue 1, 2004&nbsp;– FRB Dallas |publisher=Dallasfed.org |date=July 10, 2003 |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref> which was equal to US$20 billion per year in 2004 and is the tenth largest source of foreign income after oil, industrial exports, manufactured goods, electronics, heavy industry, automobiles, construction, food, banking and financial services.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.stratfor.com/global_market_brief_mexico_sees_decline_remittances |title=Free Preview of Members-Only Content |publisher=Stratfor |date=August 30, 2007 |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}{{dead link|date=March 2012}}</ref> According to Mexico's central bank, remittances in 2008 amounted to $25bn.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7855021.stm |title=Slowdown hits Mexico remittances |date=January 27, 2009 |accessdate=May 6, 2009 |work=BBC News}}</ref>
Mexico is the largest North American auto-producing nation, recently surpassing Canada and the U.S.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.upi.com/Business_News/2008/12/11/Mexico_tops_US_Canadian_car_makers/UPI-17741229011704/ |title=Mexico tops U.S., Canadian car makers |publisher=Upi.com |date=December 11, 2008 |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref> The industry produces technologically complex components and engages in some research and development activities.<ref name="Gereffi">{{Cite book| last=Gereffi| first=G | last2=Martínez | first2=M | chapter=Mexico's Economic Transformation under NAFTA | editor-last=Crandall | editor-first=R | editor2-last=Paz | editor2-first=G | editor3-last=Roett | editor3-first=R | title=Mexico's Democracy at Work: Political and Economic Dynamics | publisher=Lynne Reiner Publishers | publication-date=September 30, 2004 | isbn=1-58826-300-2 }}</ref> The "Big Three" ([[General Motors]], [[Ford]] and [[Chrysler]]) have been operating in Mexico since the 1930s, while [[Volkswagen]] and [[Nissan]] built their plants in the 1960s.<ref name="Hufbauer Auto">{{Cite book| last=Hufbauer | first=G.C. | last2=Schott | first2=J.J . | contribution= Chapter 6, The Automotive Sector| contribution-url= http://www.iie.com/publications/chapters_preview/332/06iie3349.pdf| title= NAFTA Revisited: Achievements and Challenges | place= Washington, D.C. | publisher=Institute for International Economics | publication-date=October 2005 | pages=1–78 | isbn= 0-88132-334-9 | url= http://bookstore.petersoninstitute.org/book-store/332.html}}</ref> In [[Puebla, Puebla|Puebla]] alone, 70 industrial part-makers cluster around Volkswagen.<ref name="Gereffi"/> The relatively small domestic car industry is represented by [[DINA S.A.]], which has built buses and trucks for almost half a century,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.dina.com.mx/history.html |title= History |author=DINA Camiones Company |accessdate=April 15, 2009}}</ref> and the new [[Mastretta]] company that builds the high performance [[Mastretta MXT]] sports car.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.autoblog.com/2008/07/25/london-2008-mastretta-mxt-will-be-mexicos-first-homegrown-car/|title=London 2008: Mastretta MXT will be Mexico's first homegrown car | author=Jeremy Korzeniewski |accessdate=July 30, 2008}}</ref>
Major players in the broadcasting industry are [[Televisa]], the largest Spanish media company in the Spanish-speaking world,<ref name=autogenerated2>{{cite web|url=http://www.snellwilcox.com/news_events/press_releases/203|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20071214054201/http://www.snellwilcox.com/news_events/press_releases/203|archivedate=December 14, 2007 |title=Televisa Brings 2006 FIFA World Cup to Mexico in HD With Snell & Wilcox Kahuna SD/HD Production Switcher |publisher=Snellwilcox.com |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref> and [[TV Azteca]].
{{Main|Tourism in Mexico}}
[[File:View from Pyramide de la luna.jpg|thumb|left|right|The Pyramids of [[Teotihuacan]].]]
[[File:Imagebysafa2.jpg|thumb|right|[[Cancún]], [[Quintana Roo]]]]
[[File:Acapulco, Mexico.jpg|thumb|right|[[Acapulco]], [[Guerrero]]]]
Mexico reports the 23rd highest tourism-based income in the world, and the highest in Latin America.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unwto.org/facts/eng/pdf/indicators/Top%20Spenders.pdf |title=UNWTO Archive &#124; World Tourism Organization UNWTO |publisher=Unwto.org |accessdate=March 9, 2011}}</ref> The vast majority of tourists come to Mexico from the United States and Canada followed by Europe and Asia. A smaller number also come from other Latin American countries.<ref>"{{cite web| url=http://www.sectur.gob.mx/wb/sectur/sect_Estadisticas_del_Sector|title = Turismo de internación 2001–2005, Visitantes internacionales hacia México | publisher = Secretaría de Turismo (SECTUR)|author=SECTUR|accessdate=July 26, 2008|year=2006|language=Spanish |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080610233248/http://www.sectur.gob.mx/wb/sectur/sect_Estadisticas_del_Sector |archivedate = June 10, 2008}} pp. 5</ref> In the 2008 [[Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report|Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index]], fifth among Latin American countries, and the ninth in the Americas.<ref name="TTCI2008">{{cite web| author = Jennifer Blanke and Thea Chiesa, Editors |year = 2008 | url=http://www.weforum.org/pdf/CGR08/Rankings.pdf |title = The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2008| publisher = World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland|accessdate=June 14, 2008}}</ref>
{{See also|Electricity sector in Mexico}}
Energy production in Mexico is managed by state-owned companies: the [[Comisión Federal de Electricidad|Federal Commission of Electricity]] and [[Pemex]].
Pemex, the public company in charge of exploration, extraction, transportation and marketing of crude oil and natural gas, as well as the refining and distribution of petroleum products and petrochemicals, is one of the largest companies in the world by revenue, making US $86 billion in sales a year.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.americaeconomia.com/PLT_WRITE-PAGE.asp?SessionId=&Language=0&Modality=0&DateView=&NamePage=SearchResultArti&Section=1&Content=28380&Style=15624|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070929094218/http://www.americaeconomia.com/PLT_WRITE-PAGE.asp?SessionId=&Language=0&Modality=0&DateView=&NamePage=SearchResultArti&Section=1&Content=28380&Style=15624|archivedate=September 29, 2007 |title=Top 500 Companies in Latin America |accessdate=February 16, 2007 |author=América Economia |format=Requires subscription}}</ref><ref name=fortune>{{cite news|url=http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/global500/2010/snapshots/6385.html |title=Fortune Global 500 2010: 64. Pemex |publisher=Fortune Magazine |accessdate=July 26, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/5de6ef96-8b95-11db-a61f-0000779e2340.html|title=FT Non-Public 150 – the full list|date=December 14, 2006|accessdate=July 26, 2010}}</ref> Mexico is the sixth-largest oil producer in the world, with 3.7 million barrels per day.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/topworldtables1_2.html|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070216112638/http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/topworldtables1_2.html|archivedate=February 16, 2007 |title=Top World Oil Net Exporters and Producers |accessdate=February 16, 2007 |author=Energy Information Administration}}</ref> In 1980 oil exports accounted for 61.6% of total exports; by 2000 it was only 7.3%.<ref name="Gereffi"/>
The largest hydro plant in Mexico is the 2,400 MW [[Chicoasén Dam|Manuel Moreno Torres Dam]] in Chicoasén, [[Chiapas]], in the [[Grijalva River]]. This is the world's fourth most productive hydroelectric plant.<ref name="EIA">{{cite web|url=http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/Mexico/Background.html |title=EIA |publisher=Eia.doe.gov |accessdate=October 30, 2010}}</ref>
{{Main|Transportation in Mexico}}
[[File:Avenida Carlos Lazo.jpg|thumb|right|Much of Mexico's automotive traffic depends on the national highway system.]]
The paved-roadway network extended for {{convert|116802|km|mi|abbr=on}} in 2005; {{convert|10474|km|mi|abbr=on}} were multi-lane freeways or [[Limited-access road|expressways]],<ref>[http://dgaf.sct.gob.mx/fileadmin/EST_BASICA/EST_BASICA_2005/EST2005_12INFRA.pdf Infraestructura Carretera]{{dead link|date=March 2012}}. Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes</ref> most of which were [[tollways]]. Nonetheless, it still cannot meet national needs adequately.<ref name=brit-mex>{{cite web |url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/379167/Mexico |title=Mexico |publisher=Britannica Online Encyclopedia |accessdate=March 6, 2011}}</ref> Most of the domestic passenger transport needs are served by an extensive bus network.<ref name=encnations/>
Mexico was one of the first Latin American countries to promote railway development,<ref name=brit-mex/> and the network covers {{convert|30952|km|mi|abbr=on}}.<ref name=encnations>[http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Americas/Mexico-INFRASTRUCTURE-POWER-AND-COMMUNICATIONS.html Infrastructure, Power and Communications, Mexico]. Encyclopedia of the Nations</ref> The [[Secretariat of Communications and Transportation (Mexico)|Secretary of Communications and Transport]] of Mexico proposed a high-speed rail link that will transport its passengers from [[Mexico City]] to [[Guadalajara, Jalisco|Guadalajara]], [[Jalisco]].<ref name="azcentral.com">{{cite web|url=http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/business/articles/0106mextrain06.html |title=Mexico reviving travel by train |publisher=Azcentral.com |date=January 6, 2006 |accessdate=October 30, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://guadalajarareporter.com/news-mainmenu-82/regional-mainmenu-85/3249-bullet-train-to-mexico-city-looks-to-be-back-on-track-.html |title=Bullet Train To Mexico City Looks To Be Back On Track ? |publisher=Guadalajara Reporter |date=October 17, 2003 |accessdate=October 30, 2010}}</ref> The train, which will travel at 300 kilometers per hour,<ref name="systra.com">{{cite web|url=http://www.systra.com/Project-for-a-Mexico-City-Guadalajara-High-Speed-Line?lang=fr |title=Project for a Mexico City – Guadalajara High Speed Line. Rail transport engineering, public transport engineering |publisher=Systra |accessdate=October 30, 2010}}</ref> will allow passengers to travel from Mexico City to Guadalajara in just 2&nbsp;hours.<ref name="systra.com"/> The whole project was projected to cost 240&nbsp;billion [[MXN|pesos]], or about 25&nbsp;billion US$<ref name="azcentral.com"/> and is being paid for jointly by the Mexican government and the local private sector including the wealthiest man in the world, Mexico's billionaire business tycoon [[Carlos Slim]].<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-127506564/slim-invest-santa-cruz.html | work=The America's Intelligence Wire | title=Slim to invest in Santa Cruz | date=January 21, 2005}}</ref> The government of the state of [[Yucatán]] is also funding the construction of a high speed line connecting the cities of [[Cozumel]] to [[Mérida, Yucatán|Mérida]] and [[Chichen Itza]] and Cancún.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.articlealley.com/article_1717563_33.html |title=Mexico Real Estate In Yucatan to Benefit from New Bullet Train |publisher=Articlealley.com |date=August 25, 2010 |accessdate=October 30, 2010}}</ref>
In 1999, Mexico had 233 airports with paved runways; of these, 35 carry 97% of the passenger traffic.<ref name=encnations/> The [[Mexico City International Airport]] remains the largest in Latin America and the 44th largest in the world<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.aicm.com.mx/acercadelaicm/Estadisticas/index.php?Publicacion=169|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20080531064833/http://www.aicm.com.mx/acercadelaicm/Estadisticas/index.php?Publicacion=169|archivedate=May 31, 2008 |title=Acerca del AICM. Posicionamiento del Aeropuerto Internacional de la Ciudad de México (AICM) con los 50 aeropuertos más importantes del mundo |publisher=AICM |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref> transporting 21 million passengers a year.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.aicm.com.mx/acercadelaicm/Estadisticas/index.php?Publicacion=168|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20080531064828/http://www.aicm.com.mx/acercadelaicm/Estadisticas/index.php?Publicacion=168|archivedate=May 31, 2008 |title=Acerca del AICM, Pasajeros |publisher=Aicm.com.mx |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref>
{{Main|Telecommunications in Mexico}}
[[File:STS-51-G Morelos 1 deployment.jpg|thumb|A [[Satmex]] communications satellite being deployed from its launch vehicle]]
The telecommunications industry is mostly dominated by [[Telmex]] (''Teléfonos de México''), privatized in 1990. As of 2006, Telmex had expanded its operations to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay and the United States. Other players in the domestic industry are [[Axtel]] and [[Maxcom]]. Due to Mexican [[orography]], providing landline telephone service at remote mountainous areas is expensive, and the penetration of line-phones per capita is low compared to other Latin American countries, at 40 percent, however 82% of Mexicans over the age of 14 own a mobile phone. Mobile telephony has the advantage of reaching all areas at a lower cost, and the total number of mobile lines is almost two times that of landlines, with an estimation of 63 million lines.<ref name=ciacom>[https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mx.html#Comm Communications] CIA Factbook</ref> The telecommunication industry is regulated by the government through [[Cofetel]] (''Comisión Federal de Telecomunicaciones'').
The Mexican satellite system is domestic and operates 120 earth stations. There is also extensive microwave radio relay network and considerable use of fiber-optic and coaxial cable.<ref name=ciacom/> Mexican satellites are operated by ''Satélites Mexicanos'' ([[Satmex]]), a private company, leader in Latin America and servicing both North and South America.<ref>[http://www.satmex.com.mx/english/?opcion=0 Satmex. Linking the Americas.]{{Dead link|date=September 2010}}. Retrieved January 24, 2007.</ref> It offers broadcast, telephone and telecommunication services to 37 countries in the Americas, from Canada to [[Argentina]]. Through business partnerships Satmex provides high-speed connectivity to ISPs and Digital Broadcast Services.<ref>{{cite web|author=Source: Arianespace|url=http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewpr.html?pid=7420 |title=Mexican Operator Satmex Has Chosen Arianespace to Launch Its New Satmex 6 Satellite |publisher=Spaceref.com |date=February 14, 2002 |accessdate=August 8, 2011}}</ref> Satmex maintains its own satellite fleet with most of the fleet being Mexican designed and built.
Usage of radio, television, and Internet in Mexico is prevalent.<ref name=encnations/> There are approximately 1,410 radio broadcast stations and 236 television stations (excluding repeaters).<ref name=ciacom/> Major players in the broadcasting industry are [[Televisa]]—the largest media company in the Spanish-speaking world<ref name=autogenerated2 />—and [[TV Azteca]].
===Science and technology===
{{Main|History of science and technology in Mexico}}
[[File:Del Rio.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Andrés Manuel del Río]] discovered the element [[vanadium]].<ref>{{cite journal | title = The Road to Chemical Names and Eponyms: Discovery, Priority, and Credit | author = Cintas, Pedro | journal = Angewandte Chemie International Edition | volume = 43 | issue = 44 | page = 5890 | year = 2004 | pmid = 15376297 | doi = 10.1002/anie.200330074 | pages = 5888–94 }}</ref>]]
The [[National Autonomous University of Mexico]] was officially established in 1910,<ref>Coerver, Pasztor & Buffington (2004), p. 161</ref> and the university become one of the most important institutes of higher learning in Mexico.<ref name="page285">Summerfield, Devine & Levi (1998), p. 285</ref> UNAM provides world class education in science, medicine, and engineering.<ref>Summerfield, Devine & Levi (1998), p. 286</ref> Many scientific institutes and new institutes of higher learning, such as [[National Polytechnic Institute]] (founded in 1936),<ref>Forest & Altbach (2006), p. 882</ref> were established during the first half of the 20th century. Most of the new research institutes were created within UNAM. Twelve institutes were integrated into UNAM from 1929 to 1973.<ref name="page18">Fortes & Lomnitz (1990), p. 18</ref> In 1959, the [[Mexican Academy of Sciences]] was created to coordinate scientific efforts between academics.
In 1995 Mexican chemist [[Mario J. Molina]] shared the [[Nobel Prize in Chemistry]] with [[Paul J. Crutzen]], and [[F. Sherwood Rowland]] for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1995/index.html |title=The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995 |accessdate=January 2, 2009 |work=Nobelprize.org |publisher=[[Nobel Foundation]]}}</ref> Molina, an alumnus of UNAM, became the first Mexican citizen to win the Nobel Prize in science.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/1995/molina-1018.html |title=Molina wins Nobel Prize for ozone work |accessdate=January 2, 2009 |author=Thomson, Elizabeth A. |date=October 18, 1995 |publisher=[[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]]}}</ref>
In recent years, the largest scientific project being developed in Mexico was the construction of the [[Large Millimeter Telescope]] (Gran Telescopio Milimétrico, GMT), the world's largest and most sensitive single-aperture telescope in its frequency range.<ref>{{Page needed|date=January 2011}}Unravelling unidentified γ-ray sources with the large millimeter telescope, Alberto Carramiñana and the LMT-GTM collaboration, in ''The Multi-Messenger Approach to High-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources'', Josep M. Paredes, Olaf Reimer, and Diego F. Torres, eds., Springer Netherlands, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4020-6117-2.</ref> It was designed to observe regions of space obscured by stellar dust.
The electronics industry of Mexico has grown enormously within the last decade. In 2007 Mexico surpassed South Korea as the second largest manufacturer of televisions, and in 2008 Mexico surpassed China, South Korea and Taiwan to become the largest producer of smartphones in the world. There are almost half a million (451,000) students enrolled in electronics engineering programs.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_21/b3985070.htm |title=Mexico: Pumping Out Engineers |work=Bloomberg BusinessWeek |date=May 22, 2006 |accessdate=October 30, 2010}}</ref>
{{Main|Demographics of Mexico}}
{{Historical populations
|title = Historical populations
|type = Mexico
|align = right
|footnote = Source: [http://www.inegi.org.mx/est/contenidos/Proyectos/ccpv/default.aspx INEGI]
|1895 |12632427
|1900 |13607272
|1910 |15160369
|1921 |14334780
|1930 |16552722
|1940 |19653552
|1950 |25791017
|1960 |34923129
|1970 |48225238
|1980 |66846833
|1990 |81249645
|1995 |91158290
|2000 |97483412
|2005 |103263388
|2010 |112336538
The recently conducted 2010 Census<ref>{{cite web|title=Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010 |url=http://www3.inegi.org.mx/sistemas/TabuladosBasicos/Default.aspx?c=27302&s=est |publisher=Inegi.org.mx |accessdate=May 20, 2011}}</ref> showed a population of 112,336,538, making it the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world.<ref name=Spanishhistory>{{cite web|title=Spanish Language History| publisher=Today Translations|url=http://www.todaytranslations.com/index.asp-Q-Page-E-Spanish-Language-History--13053095|accessdate=October 1, 2007}}</ref>
Mexico is ethnically diverse, the various indigenous peoples and European immigrants are united under a single national identity.<ref name="autogenerated115">Wimmer, Andreas, 2002. Nationalist exclusion and ethnic conflict: shadows of modernity, Cambridge University Press page 115</ref> The core part of Mexican national identity is formed on the basis of a synthesis of European culture with Indigenous cultures in a process known as [[mestizaje]], alluding to the mixed biological origins of the majority of Mexicans.<ref name="autogenerated115"/><ref name="census">{{Cite book
| last = Hall Steckel
| first = Richard
| last2 = R. Haines
| first2 = Michael
| title = A population history of North America
| url = http://books.google.com/books?id=BPdgiysIVcgC&pg=PA621&dq#v=onepage&q=&f=false
| publisher = Cambridge University Press
| year = 2000
| page = 621
| isbn = 0-521-49666-7}}
</ref> Mexican politicians and reformers such as [[José Vasconcelos]] and [[Manuel Gamio]] were instrumental in building a Mexican national identity on the concept of mestizaje.<ref>Knight, Alan. 1990. "Racism, Revolution and ''indigenismo'': Mexico 1910&ndash;1940". Chapter 4 in ''The Idea of Race in Latin America, 1870&ndash;1940''. Richard Graham (ed.) pp. 78–85)</ref> The term [[mestizo]], often used in literature about Mexican social identities, carries a variety of socio-cultural, economic, racial and biological meanings. For this reason it has been deemed too imprecise to be used for ethnic classification and has been abandoned in Mexican censuses.<ref name=brit-mex/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/377246/mestizo |title=mestizo (people) |publisher=Britannica.com |accessdate=October 30, 2010}}</ref>
The category of "indígena" (indigenous) can be defined narrowly according to linguistic criteria including only speakers of one of [[Languages of Mexico|Mexico's 62 indigenous languages]] or people who self-identify as having an indigenous cultural background. According to the [[National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples]], as of 2005 there are 10.1 million Mexicans who speak an indigenous language and claim indigenous heritage, representing 9.8% of the total population.<ref name=CDI1>{{cite web|url=http://www.cdi.gob.mx/cedulas/sintesis_resultados_2005.pdf |title=Síntesis de Resultados |publisher=Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas |year=2006 |accessdate=December 22, 2010}}</ref>
The word "mestizo" is sometimes used with the meaning of a person with mixed indigenous and European blood. This usage does not conform to the Mexican social reality where a person of pure indigenous genetic heritage would be considered Mestizo either by rejecting his indigenous culture or by not speaking an indigenous language,<ref>Bartolomé, Miguel Alberto. (1996) "Pluralismo cultural y redefinicion del estado en México". in Coloquio sobre derechos indígenas, Oaxaca, IOC.[http://courses.cit.cornell.edu/iard4010/documents/Pluralismo_cultural_y_redefinicion_del_estado_en_Mexico.pdf] p. 2 "''En primer lugar cabe destacar que en México la pertenencia racial no es un indicador relevante ni suficiente para denotar una adscripción étnica específica. El proceso de mestizaje no ha sido sólo biológico sino básicamente social y cultural, por ello personas racialmente indígenas pueden asumirse y definirse culturalmente como mestizas. De esta manera ser o no ser indígena representa un acto de afirmación o de negación lingüística y cultural, que excluye la pertenencia a un fenotipo racial particular. Por lo tanto es relativamente factible realizar el llamado tránsito étnico, es decir que un indígena puede llegar a incorporarse al sector mestizo a través de la renuncia a su cultura tradicional y si sus condiciones materiales se lo permiten. Este acto supone tanto la aceptación de un estilo de vida alterno como la negación del propio, incluyendo la no enseñanza de la lengua a sus hijos. Pero muy difícilmente ocurre lo contrario; esto es que individuos fenotípicamente "blancos", pretendan reivindicar una adscripción indígena. Sin embargo, y con gran frecuencia, esas mismas personas considerarán a los indígenas como sus antepasados, fundadores de una "nación mexicana" que ahora les pertenece en calidad de herederos.''"</ref> and a person with a very low percentage of indigenous genetic heritage would be considered fully indigenous either by speaking an indigenous language or by identifying with a particular indigenous cultural heritage.<ref>Knight, Alan. 1990. "Racism, Revolution and ''indigenismo'': Mexico 1910&ndash;1940". Chapter 4 in ''The Idea of Race in Latin America, 1870&ndash;1940''. Richard Graham (ed.) p.73)</ref><ref>{{cite book|author=Schaefer, Richard T. (ed.)|year=2008|title=Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity and Society |page=900|publisher=Sage|isbn=978-1-4129-2694-2|quote=In New Spain, there was no strict idea of race (something that continued in Mexico). The Indians that had lost their connections with their communities and had adopted different cultural elements could "pass" and be considered mestizos. The same applied to Blacks and castas. Rather, the factor that distinguished the various social groups was their calidad; this concept of "quality" was related to an idea of blood as conferring status, but there were also other elements, such as occupation and marriage, that could have the effect of blanqueamiento (whitening) on people and influence their upward social mobility.}}</ref><ref>Wade, Peter. 1997. ''Race and Ethnicity in Latin America''. Pluto Press.</ref>
Mexico represents the largest source of [[immigration to the United States]]. About 9% of the population born in Mexico is now living in the United States.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?ID=208 |title=Mexican Immigration to the US: The Latest Estimates |publisher=Migrationinformation.org |accessdate=August 8, 2011}}</ref> 28.3 million Americans listed their ancestry as Mexican as of 2006.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_&-redoLog=false&-mt_name=ACS_2006_EST_G2000_B03001 |title=Detailed Tables&nbsp;— American FactFinder. B03001. HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN |accessdate=December 15, 2007 |coauthors=United States Census Bureau |work=2006 American Community Survey}}</ref> Per the 2000 U.S. Census, a plurality of 47.3% of [[Mexican American]]s self identify as White, closely followed by Mexican Americans who self identify as "Some other race", usually Mestizo (European/Indian) with 45.5%.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/35.pdf |title=Shades of Belonging |last=Tafoya |first=Sonya |accessdate=June 3, 2008 |publisher=[[Pew Research Center|Pew Hispanic Center]] |date=December 6, 2004 |format=PDF}}</ref>
Mexico is home to the largest number of U.S. citizens abroad (estimated at one million as of 1999).<ref name="U.S.">{{cite web|title=American Citizens Living Abroad By Country|year=1999|publisher=US State Department|url=http://www.aca.ch/amabroad.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=October 3, 2007}}</ref> The Argentine community is considered to be the second largest foreign community in the country (estimated somewhere between 30,000 and 150,000).<ref>{{cite web|last=Gutiérrez Vega|first=Mario|title=Migrantes, votos, remesas: La apuesta política de los ausentes|date=October 16, 2005|publisher=Institute of Mexicans Abroad (IME)|url=http://www.ime.gob.mx/investigaciones/bibliografias/apuesta_politica_gutierrez.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=October 3, 2007}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Especial Argentinos en el exterior, Mexico|year=2007|publisher=La Nación|url=http://www.lanacion.com.ar/coberturaespecial/argentinos/mexico/index.asp|accessdate=October 3, 2007 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070829152344/http://www.lanacion.com.ar/coberturaespecial/argentinos/mexico/index.asp |archivedate = August 29, 2007}}</ref> Mexico also has a large [[Lebanese people|Lebanese]] community, now numbering around 400,000.<ref>{{cite web|last=Langley |first=William |url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/comment/personal-view/3641163/The-biggest-enchilada.html |title=The biggest enchilada |work=The Daily Telegraph |date=July 8, 2007 |accessdate=August 8, 2011}}</ref> In October 2008, Mexico agreed to deport [[Cuba]]ns using the country as an entry point to the US.<ref>"[http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/27284023/ Mexico to deport Cubans bound for U.S.]". Msnbc.msn.com. October 20, 2008</ref> Large numbers of [[Illegal immigration in Mexico|Central American migrants]] who have crossed Guatemala's western border into Mexico are deported every year.<ref>{{cite web|last=Rodriguez |first=Olga R. |url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/topstories/2008-04-13-1799967311_x.htm |title=Central America migrant flow to US slows |work=USA Today |date=April 13, 2008 |accessdate=August 8, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2010-05-25-mexico-migrants_N.htm |title=Activists blast Mexico's immigration law |newspaper=[[USA Today]] |date=May 25, 2010}}</ref> Small numbers of illegal immigrants come from [[Ecuador]], Cuba, China, South Africa, and [[Pakistan]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id=083e0b4728d31cd23a57533cf02c46c5 |title=Digital Immigration Card Shows Mexico's Progressive Views on Immigration&nbsp;– NAM |publisher=News.newamericamedia.org |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref>
===Indigenous peoples===
{{Main|Indigenous peoples of Mexico}}
[[File:Jarabe Mixteco.jpg|thumb|Two young [[Mixtec people]] dancing a [[jarabe]].]]
According to the [[National Commission for the Development of the Indigenous Peoples]] (CDI) there are 9,854,301 indigenous people reported in Mexico in 2000, which constitute 9.54% of the population in the country. The absolute indigenous population is growing, but at a slower rate than the rest of the population so that the percentage of indigenous peoples is nonetheless falling.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://mexico.cnn.com/nacional/2011/03/30/inegi-cada-vez-mas-mexicanos-hablan-una-lengua-indigena |title=INEGI: Cada vez más mexicanos hablan una lengua indígena - Nacional - CNNMéxico.com |publisher=CNN |date=March 30, 2011 |accessdate=December 10, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cdi.gob.mx/index2.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=62&Itemid=24 |title=National Commission for the Development of the Indigenous Peoples |accessdate=March 31, 2012}}</ref><ref name="inegi1">{{cite web|url=http://www.inegi.gob.mx/est/contenidos/espanol/rutinas/ept.asp?t=mlen01&c=3325 |title=Indicadores seleccionados sobre la población hablante de lengua indígena, 1950 a 2005 |publisher=Inegi.gob.mx |accessdate=December 10, 2011}}</ref> The majority of the indigenous population is concentrated in the central and southern states, that are generally the least developed, and the majority of the indigenous population live in rural areas. Some indigenous communities have a degree of autonomy under the legislation of "usos y costumbres", which allows them to regulate some internal issues under [[customary law]]. According to the CDI, the [[political divisions of Mexico|states]] with the greatest percentage of indigenous population are:<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cdi.gob.mx/index.php?id_seccion=91 |title=Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas. México |publisher=Cdi.gob.mx |accessdate=December 10, 2011}}</ref> [[Yucatán]], with 59%, [[Quintana Roo]] with 39% and [[Campeche]] with 27% of the population being indigenous, most of them [[Maya people|Maya]]; [[Oaxaca]] with 48% of the population, the most numerous groups being the [[Mixtec]] and [[Zapotec people]]s; [[Chiapas]] has 28%, the majority being [[Tzeltal]] and [[Tzotzil people|Tzotzil]] Maya; [[Hidalgo (Mexico)|Hidalgo]] with 24%, the majority being [[Otomi people|Otomi]]; [[Puebla]] with 19%, and [[Guerrero]] with 17%, mostly [[Nahua people]] and the states of [[San Luis Potosí]] and [[Veracruz]] both home to a population of 15% indigenous people, mostly from the [[Totonac]], Nahua and [[Huastec people|Teenek (Huastec)]] groups.<ref name="inegi.org.mx">http://www.inegi.org.mx/prod_serv/contenidos/espanol/bvinegi/productos/censos/poblacion/poblacion_indigena/Pob_ind_Mex.pdf</ref>
All of the indices of social development for the indigenous population are considerably lower than the national average. In all states indigenous people have higher [[infant mortality]], in some states almost double of the non-indigenous populations. Literacy rates are also much lower, with 27% of indigenous children between 6 and 14 being illiterate compared to a national average of 12%. The indigenous population participate in the workforce longer than the national average, starting earlier and continuing longer. However, 55% of the indigenous population receive less than a minimum salary, compared to 20% for the national average. Many practice subsistence agriculture and receive no salaries. Indigenous people also have less access to health care and a lower quality of housing.<ref name="inegi.org.mx"/>
===Population genetics===
[[File:Mestizo.jpg|thumb|An 18th century indigenous woman with her Spanish husband and their child]]
A study by the [[National Institute of Genomic Medicine, Mexico]] reported that Mestizo Mexicans are 58.96% European, 35.05% "Asian" (Amerindian), and 5.03% African. Sonora shows the highest European contribution (70.63%) and Guerrero the lowest (51.98%) where we also observe the highest Asian contribution (37.17%). African contribution ranges from 2.8% in Sonora to 11.13% in Veracruz. 80% of the Mexican population was classed as mestizo (defined as "being racially mixed in some degree").<ref name="autogenerated1">{{cite web
|title=Evaluation of Ancestry and Linkage Disequilibrium Sharing in Admixed Population in Mexico
|author=J.K. Estrada, A. Hidalgo-Miranda, I. Silva-Zolezzi and G. Jimenez-Sanchez
|accessdate=July 18, 2012}}</ref>
In May 2009, Mexico's National Institute of Genomic Medicine issued a report on a genomic study of 300 mestizos from the states of Guerrero, Sonora, Veracruz, Yucatán, Zacatecas, and Guanajuato. The study found that the Mestizo population of these Mexican states were on average 55% of indigenous ancestry followed by 41.8% of European, 1.8% of African, and 1.2% of East Asian ancestry. The study also noted that whereas Mestizo individuals from the southern state of Guerrero showed on average 66% of indigenous ancestry, those from the northern state of Sonora displayed about 61.6% European ancestry. The study found that there was an increase in indigenous ancestry as one traveled towards to the Southern states in Mexico, while the indigenous ancestry declined as one traveled to the Northern states in the country, such as Sonora.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2009/05/11/0903045106.abstract |title=Analysis of genomic diversity in Mexican Mestizo populations to develop genomic medicine in Mexico |publisher=Pnas.org |date=May 11, 2009 |accessdate=December 10, 2011}}</ref>
{{Main|Languages of Mexico}}
{{See also|Mexican Spanish|List of endangered languages in Mexico}}
[[File:Mapa de lenguas de México + 100 000.png|thumb|Map showing the distribution of speakers of Mexico's main indigenous languages.]]
The country has the largest Spanish-speaking population in the world with almost a third of all Spanish native speakers.<ref name=Spanishhistory /><ref>{{es icon}} {{cite web|title=Título Primero, Capítulo I, De las garantías individuales|work=Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos|date=June 19, 2007|publisher=Congress of the Union of the United Mexican States|url=http://www.normateca.gob.mx/Archivos/34_D_1247_22-06-2007.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=October 2, 2007}}</ref>
Mexico is home to a large number of indigenous languages, spoken by some 5.4% of the population – 1.2% of the population are monolingual speakers of an indigenous language.<ref>{{cite web|title=POBLACIÓN DE 5 AÑOS Y MÁS POR ENTIDAD FEDERATIVA, SEXO Y GRUPOS LENGUA INDÍGENA QUINQUENALES DE EDAD, Y SU DISTRIBUCIÓN SEGÚN CONDICIÓN DE HABLA INDÍGENA Y HABLA ESPAÑOLA|publisher=INEGI, México|url=http://www.inegi.gob.mx/prod_serv/contenidos/espanol/bvinegi/productos/censos/poblacion/2000/definitivos/Nal/tabulados/00li01.pdf|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20080102103605/http://www.inegi.gob.mx/prod_serv/contenidos/espanol/bvinegi/productos/censos/poblacion/2000/definitivos/Nal/tabulados/00li01.pdf|archivedate=January 2, 2008|accessdate=December 13, 2007|format=PDF}}</ref> The indigenous languages with most speakers are [[Nahuatl]], spoken by approximately 1.45 million people,<ref>{{Cite book|author={{aut|INEGI [Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas, Geografia e Informática]}} |authorlink=Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática |year=2005 |title=Perfil sociodemográfica de la populación hablante de náhuatl |url=http://www.inegi.gob.mx/prod_serv/contenidos/espanol/bvinegi/productos/censos/poblacion/poblacion_indigena/Hablantes_Nahuatl.pdf |format=PDF|series=XII [[Censo General de Población y Vivienda 2000]] |edition=Publicación única|publisher=INEGI|location=Aguascalientes, Mex. |isbn=970-13-4491-X|accessdate=December 2, 2008}} {{es icon}}</ref> [[Yukatek Maya]] spoken by some 750,000 people and the [[Mixtec languages|Mixtec]]<ref>2000 census; the numbers are based on the number of total population for each group and the percentages of speakers given on the website of the Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas, http://www.cdi.gob.mx/index.php?id_seccion=660, accessed July 28, 2008).</ref> and [[Zapotec languages]]<ref>[http://www.inali.gob.mx/catalogo2007/html/v_zapoteco.html Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas. 2008. “Catalogo de las lenguas indígenas nacionales: Variantes lingüísticas de México con sus autodenominaciones y referencias geoestadísticas.”]{{dead link|date=November 2011}}</ref> each spoken by more than 400,000 people. The National Institute of Indigenous Languages [[INALI]] recognizes 68 linguistic groups and some 364 different specific varieties of indigenous languages.<ref>{{Cite journal|author={{aut|INALI [Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas]}} |authorlink=Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas |date=January 14, 2008 |title=Catálogo de las lenguas indígenas nacionales: Variantes lingüísticas de México con sus autodenominaciones y referencias geoestadísticas |url=http://www.inali.gob.mx/pdf/CLIN_completo.pdf |format=PDF online facsimile|journal=[[Diario Oficial de la Federación]] |location=México, D.F. |publisher=[[Government of Mexico|Imprenta del Gobierno Federal]], [[Secretaría de Gobernación|SEGOB]] |volume=652 |issue=9 |pages=22–78 (first section),1–96 (second section),1–112 (third section) |oclc=46461036}} {{es icon}}</ref> Since the promulgation of the Law of Indigenous Linguistic Rights in 2003, these languages have had status as national languages, with equal validity with Spanish in all the areas and contexts in which they are spoken.<ref>{{es icon}} {{cite web|title=Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas (General Law of the Rights of the Indigenous Peoples)|publisher=CDI México|url=http://cdi.gob.mx/derechos/vigencia/2006_ley_general_derechos_linguisticos_pueblos_indigenas.pdf|accessdate=October 2, 2007|format=PDF |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070925193420/http://cdi.gob.mx/derechos/vigencia/2006_ley_general_derechos_linguisticos_pueblos_indigenas.pdf |archivedate = September 25, 2007}}</ref>
In addition to the indigenous languages, other minority languages are spoken by immigrant populations, such as the 80,000 German-speaking [[Mennonites in Mexico]].,<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.hshs.mb.ca/mennonite_old_colony_vision.pdf|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070205052716/http://www.hshs.mb.ca/mennonite_old_colony_vision.pdf|archivedate=February 5, 2007|title=The Mennonite Old Colony Vision: Under siege in Mexico and the Canadian Connection|format=PDF|accessdate=May 30, 2007}}</ref> and 5,000 the [[Chipilo Venetian dialect|Chipilo dialect]] of the [[Venetian language]] spoken in [[Chipilo]], [[Puebla]].
{{See also|Religion in Mexico|Our Lady of Guadalupe}}
{{Bar box
|title=[[Religion in Mexico]] (2010 census)<ref name="2010-census"/>
{{Bar percent|Roman Catholicism|blue|82.7}}
{{Bar percent|Other Christian|purple|9.7}}
{{Bar percent|Other Religion|red|0.2}}
{{Bar percent|[[Irreligion|No religion]]|green|4.7}}
{{Bar percent|Unspecified|orange|2.7}}
The 2010 census by the [[Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía]] gave [[Roman Catholicism in Mexico|Roman Catholicism]] as the main religion, with 82.7% of the population, while 9.7% (10,924,103) belong to other Christian denominations, including [[Evangelicals]] (5.2%); [[Pentecostals]] (1.6%); other Protestant or Reformed (0.7%); [[Jehovah's Witnesses]] (1.4%); [[Seventh-day Adventist Church|Seventh-day Adventists]] (0.6%); and members of [[The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints]] (0.3%).<ref name="2010-census">{{cite web |url=http://www3.inegi.org.mx/sistemas/TabuladosBasicos/Default.aspx?c=27302&s=est |title=Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010 – Cuestionario básico |publisher=INEGI |accessdate=March 4, 2011}}</ref> 172,891 (or less than 0.2% of the total) belonged to other, non-Christian religions; 4.7% declared having [[Irreligion in Mexico|no religion]]; 2.7% were unspecified.<ref name="2010-census"/>
The 92,924,489<ref name="2010-census"/> Catholics of Mexico constitute in absolute terms the second largest Catholic community in the world, after [[Brazil]]'s.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.adherents.com/largecom/com_romcath.html |title=The Largest Catholic Communities |accessdate=November 10, 2007 |work=Adherents.com}}</ref> 47% percent of them attend church services weekly.<ref>{{cite web|title=Church attendance|work=Study of worldwide rates of religiosity|year=1997|publisher=University of Michigan|url=http://www.ns.umich.edu/htdocs/releases/print.php?Releases/1997/Dec97/chr121097a|accessdate=January 3, 2007}}</ref> Most Mexican cities, towns and villages hold a yearly [[feast day]] to commemorate their local [[patron saints]].{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}} The feast day of [[Our Lady of Guadalupe]], the patron saint of Mexico, is celebrated on December 12 and is regarded by many Mexicans as the most important religious holiday of their country.<ref>{{cite web|title=Our Lady of Guadalupe|url=http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=456|publisher=Catholic Online|accessdate=October 24, 2011}}</ref>
The 2010 census reported 314,932 members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,<ref name="2010-census"/> though the church in 2009 claimed to have over one million registered members.<ref name="lds-Mexico">{{cite web|title=Mexico, Country profile|publisher=The Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Days Saints Newsroom|url=http://newsroom.lds.org/ldsnewsroom/eng/contact-us/mexico|archiveurl=http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20100825063153/http://newsroom.lds.org/ldsnewsroom/eng/contact-us/mexico|archivedate=August 25, 2010|accessdate=March 4, 2011}}</ref> About 25% of registered members attend a weekly sacrament service although this can fluctuate up and down.<ref name="encyclopedia-mormonism">{{Cite book|last=Ludlow|first=Daniel H.|title=Encyclopedia of Mormonism|year=1994|pages=4:1527|isbn=0-87579-924-8}}</ref>
[[File:Mexican-girls-2.jpeg|thumb|Mexican girls wearing the colors of the Mexican flag.]]
The presence of [[History of the Jews in Mexico|Jews in Mexico]] dates back to 1521, when Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztecs, accompanied by several [[Converso]]s.<ref>{{cite book|last=Primack|first=Karen|title=Jews in places you never thought of|year=1998|publisher=KTAV Publishing House, Inc.|page=305|url=http://books.google.com/?id=GhD0JZAOTHUC&pg=PA77&lpg=PA77&dq=jews+came+to+mexico+in+1521#v=onepage&q&f=false|isbn=978-0-88125-608-6}}</ref> According to the 2010 census, there are 67,476 Jews in Mexico.<ref name="2010-census"/> [[Islam in Mexico]] is practiced by a small population in the city of [[Torreón]], Coahuila, and there are an estimated 300 Muslims in the [[San Cristóbal de las Casas]] area in Chiapas.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2009/127397.htm|title=International Religious Freedom Report 2009|publisher=US Department of State|accessdate=July 13, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://wwrn.org/articles/10271/ |title=Mayans in Mexico’s Chiapas Region Convert to Islam |publisher=Wwrn.org |date=February 18, 2005 |accessdate=October 30, 2010}}</ref> In the 2010 census 18,185 Mexicans reported belonging to an [[Eastern religion]],<ref name="2010-census"/> a category which includes a tiny [[Buddhism in Mexico|Buddhist]] population.
===Gender equality===
The [[World Economic Forum]] 2011 [[Global Gender Gap Report]] ranked Mexico 89th out of 135 countries for gender parity, making it one of the least gender balanced countries in the North American region, particularly to the disadvantage of women, who have a below average degree of political participation and labor equality. Education and health indicators for Mexican women were however better than the average in the study.<ref name="GGI">{{cite web|author=World Economic Forum |url=http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-2011/ |title=The Global Gender Gap Report 2011 : The World Economic Forum |publisher=Reports.weforum.org |accessdate=November 12, 2011}}</ref>
===Metropolitan areas===
{{Main|Metropolitan areas of Mexico}}
[[File:Polanco Skyline Mexico City DF.jpg|thumb|The [[Greater Mexico City|Mexico City metropolitan area]] is home to over 20 million people.]]
Metropolitan areas in Mexico have been traditionally defined as the group of municipalities that heavily interact with each other, usually around a core city.<ref name="CONAPO">{{cite web|url=http://www.inegi.gob.mx/est/contenidos/espanol/metodologias/otras/zonas_met.pdf |title=Delimitación de las zonas metropolitanas de México |format=PDF |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref> In 2004, a joint effort between CONAPO, [[Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía|INEGI]] and the Ministry of Social Development (SEDESOL) agreed to define metropolitan areas as either:<ref name="CONAPO"/>
* the group of two or more municipalities in which a city with a population of at least 50,000 is located whose urban area extends over the limit of the municipality that originally contained the core city incorporating either physically or under its area of direct influence other adjacent predominantly urban municipalities all of which have a high degree of social and economic integration or are relevant for urban politics and administration; or
* a single municipality in which a city of a population of at least one million is located and fully contained, (that is, it does not transcend the limits of a single municipality); or
* a city with a population of at least 250,000 which forms a [[conurbation]] with other cities in the United States.
{{Main|Culture of Mexico}}
[[File:Tradicionalranchero.JPG|thumb|right|[[Jarabe Tapatío]], an example of traditional Mexican dance and costumes.]]
Mexican culture reflects the complexity of the [[History of Mexico|country's history]] through the blending of indigenous cultures and the [[culture of Spain]], imparted during Spain's 300-year colonization of Mexico. Exogenous cultural elements mainly from the United States have been incorporated into Mexican culture.{{Citation needed|date=July 2011}}
The Porfirian era (''el [[Porfirio Díaz|Porfiriato]]''), in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, was marked by economic progress and peace. After four decades of civil unrest and war, Mexico saw the development of philosophy and the arts, promoted by President Díaz himself. Since that time, as accentuated during the [[Mexican Revolution]], cultural identity has had its foundation in the ''mestizaje'', of which the indigenous (i.e. Amerindian) element is the core. In light of the various ethnicities that formed the Mexican people, [[José Vasconcelos]] in his publication ''La Raza Cósmica'' (The Cosmic Race) (1925) defined Mexico to be the melting pot of all races (thus extending the definition of the ''mestizo'') not only biologically but culturally as well.<ref name="vasconcelos160">{{Cite book|last=Vasconcelos|first=José|coauthors=Didier T. Jaén (translator)|title=La Raza Cósmica (The Cosmic Race)|publisher=The Johns Hopkins University Press|year=1997|isbn=0-8018-5655-8|page=160 }}</ref> This exalting of ''mestizaje'' was a revolutionary idea that sharply contrasted with the idea of a superior pure race prevalent in Europe at the time.{{Citation needed|date=July 2011}}
{{Main|Mexican literature|Mesoamerican literature}}
[[File:Sor Juana by Miguel Cabrera.png|thumb|upright|A late 18th century painting of [[Juana Inés de la Cruz]], Mexican poet and writer.]]
The literature of Mexico has its antecedents in the literatures of the indigenous settlements of Mesoamerica. The most well known prehispanic poet is [[Nezahualcoyotl]]. Modern Mexican literature was influenced by the concepts of the Spanish colonialization of [[Mesoamerica]]. Outstanding colonial writers and poets include [[Juan Ruiz de Alarcón]] and [[Juana Inés de la Cruz]].
In light of the various ethnicities that formed the Mexican people, [[José Vasconcelos]] in his publication [[La Raza Cósmica]] (The Cosmic Race) (1925) defined Mexico to be the melting pot of all races, biologically as well as culturally.<ref name="vasconcelos160"/>
Other writers include [[Alfonso Reyes]], [[José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi]], [[Ignacio Manuel Altamirano]], [[Carlos Fuentes]], [[Octavio Paz]] (Nobel Laureate), [[Renato Leduc]], [[Carlos Monsiváis]], [[Elena Poniatowska]], [[Mariano Azuela]] ("Los de abajo") and [[Juan Rulfo]] ("Pedro Páramo"). [[Bruno Traven]] wrote "Canasta de cuentos mexicanos", "El tesoro de la Sierra Madre."
===Visual arts===
{{See also|Mexican art}}
[[File:Palacio de las Bellas Artes (Mexico City).jpg|thumb|right|The [[Palacio de Bellas Artes|Palace of Fine Arts]] in Mexico City]]
Post-revolutionary art in Mexico had its expression in the works of renowned artists such as [[Frida Kahlo]], [[Diego Rivera]], [[José Clemente Orozco]], [[Rufino Tamayo]], [[Federico Cantú Garza]], [[David Alfaro Siqueiros]] and [[Juan O'Gorman]]. Diego Rivera, the most well-known figure of Mexican muralism, painted the [[Man at the Crossroads]] at the [[Rockefeller Center]] in New York City, a huge mural that was destroyed the next year due to the inclusion of a portrait of Russian communist leader [[Vladimir Lenin|Lenin]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Rockefeller Controversy|publisher=Diego Rivera Prints|url=http://www.diego-rivera.org/rockefellercontroversy.html|accessdate=October 2, 2007}}</ref> Some of Rivera's murals are displayed at the Mexican [[National Palace (Mexico)|National Palace]] and the [[Palacio de Bellas Artes|Palace of Fine Arts]].
[[Mesoamerican architecture]] is mostly noted for its pyramids which are the largest such structures outside of Ancient Egypt.{{Citation needed|date=July 2011}} [[Spanish Colonial architecture]] is marked by the contrast between the simple, solid construction demanded by the new environment and the Baroque ornamentation exported from Spain.{{Citation needed|date=July 2011}} Mexico, as the center of New Spain has some of the most renowned buildings built in this style.
===Cinema and media===
{{Main|Cinema of Mexico}}
[[Cinema of Mexico|Mexican films]] from the [[Golden Age of Mexican cinema|Golden Age]] in the 1940s and 1950s are the greatest examples of Latin American cinema, with a huge industry comparable to the Hollywood of those years. Mexican films were exported and exhibited in all of Latin America and Europe. [[Maria Candelaria]] (1944) by [[Emilio Fernández]], was one of the first films awarded a [[Palme d'Or]] at the [[Cannes Film Festival]] in 1946, the first time the event was held after World War II. The famous Spanish-born director [[Luis Buñuel]] realized in Mexico, between 1947 to 1965 some of him master pieces like [[Los Olvidados]] (1949), [[Viridiana]] (1961) and [[El angel exterminador]] (1963). Famous actors and actresses from this period include [[María Félix]], [[Pedro Infante]], [[Dolores del Río]], [[Jorge Negrete]] and the comedian [[Cantinflas]].
More recently, films such as [[Like Water for Chocolate (film)|Como agua para chocolate]] (1992), [[Cronos (film)|Cronos]] (1993), [[Y tu mamá también]] (2001), and [[Pan's Labyrinth]] (2006) have been successful in creating universal stories about contemporary subjects, and were internationally recognised, as in the prestigious Cannes Film Festival. Mexican directors [[Alejandro González Iñárritu]] ([[Amores perros]], [[Babel (film)|Babel]]), [[Alfonso Cuarón]] ([[Children of Men]], [[Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban]]), [[Guillermo del Toro]], [[Carlos Carrera]] ([[El crimen del Padre Amaro|The Crime of Father Amaro]]), and screenwriter [[Guillermo Arriaga]] are some of the most known present-day film makers.
Two of the major television networks based in Mexico are [[Televisa]] and [[TV Azteca]]. Televisa is also the largest producer of Spanish-language content in the world and also the world's largest Spanish-language media network.<ref>{{cite web|title=Televisa Brings 2006 FIFA World Cup to Mexico in HD With Snell & Wilcox Kahuna SD/HD Production Switcher|work=Press release|date=June 27, 2006 | publisher=[[Snell & Wilcox]] | url=http://www.snellwilcox.com/news_events/press_releases/203 | accessdate=September 30, 2007}}{{dead link|date=April 2011}}</ref> [[Grupo Multimedios]] is another media conglomerate with Spanish-language broadcasting in Mexico, Spain, and the United States. Soap operas ([[telenovela]]s) are translated to many languages and seen all over the world with renowned names like [[Verónica Castro]], [[Lucía Méndez]], [[Lucero (actress)|Lucero]], and [[Thalía]].
{{Main|Music of Mexico}}
{{See also|List of Mexican composers of classical music}}
[[File:Guadalajara mariachis.jpg|thumb|right|A mariachi band at the XIII Encuentro Internacional del Mariachi y la Charreria, Guadalajara, Mexico.]]
Mexican society enjoys a vast array of music genres, showing the diversity of Mexican culture. Traditional music includes [[Mariachi]], [[banda music|Banda]], [[Norteño (music)|Norteño]], [[Ranchera]] and [[Corrido]]s; on an every-day basis most Mexicans listen to contemporary music such as [[Mexican pop music|pop]], rock, etc. in both English and Spanish. Mexico has the largest media industry in Latin America, producing Mexican artists who are famous in Central and South America and parts of Europe, especially Spain. Some well-known Mexican singers are
[[Thalía]], [[Luis Miguel]], [[Alejandro Fernández]], [[Julieta Venegas]] and [[Paulina Rubio]]. Mexican singers of traditional music are: [[Lila Downs]], [[Susana Harp]], [[Jaramar]], [[GEO Meneses]] and [[Alejandra Robles]]. Popular groups are [[Café Tacuba]], [[Molotov (band)|Molotov]] and [[Maná]], among others. Since the early years of 2000s (decade), [[Mexican rock]] has seen widespread growth both domesticly and internationally.{{Citation needed|date=July 2011}}
According to the Sistema Nacional de Fomento Musical, there are between 120 and 140 youth orchestras affiliated to this federal agency from all federal states.{{Citation needed|date=July 2011}} Some states, through their state agencies in charge of culture and the arts—Ministry or Secretary or Institute or Council of Culture, in some cases Secretary of Education or the State University—sponsor the activities of a professional [[Orchestra|Symphony Orchestra or Philharmonic Orchestra]] so all citizens can have access to this artistic expression from the field of classical music$3. Mexico City is the most intense hub of this activity hosting 12 professional orchestras sponsored by different agencies such as the National Institute of Fine Arts, the Secretary of Culture of the Federal District, The National University, the National Polytechnic Institute, a Delegación Política (Coyoacán) and very few are a kind of private ventures.{{Citation needed|date=July 2011}}
{{Main|Mexican cuisine}}
[[File:Hot chocolate.jpg|thumb|right|"Chocolate" originates from Mexico's [[Aztec]] cuisine, derived from the [[Nahuatl]] word [[xocolatl]].]]
Mexican cuisine is known for its intense and varied flavors, colorful decoration, and variety of spices. Most of today's Mexican food is based on pre-Columbian traditions, including the Aztecs and Maya, combined with culinary trends introduced by Spanish colonists.
The [[conquistador]]es eventually combined their imported diet of rice, beef, pork, chicken, wine, garlic and onions with the native pre-Columbian food, including maize, tomato, [[vanilla]], [[avocado]], [[guava]], [[papaya]], [[pineapple]], [[chili pepper]], [[bean]]s, [[squash (plant)|squash]], [[sweet potato]], peanut, and [[turkey (bird)|turkey]].
Mexican food varies by region, because of local climate and geography and ethnic differences among the indigenous inhabitants and because these different populations were influenced by the Spaniards in varying degrees. The north of Mexico is known for its beef, goat and [[ostrich]] production and meat dishes, in particular the well-known [[Arrachera]] cut.
Central Mexico's cuisine is largely made up of influences from the rest of the country, but also has its authentics, such as [[barbacoa]], [[pozole]], [[menudo (soup)|menudo]], [[tamales]], and [[carnitas]].
Southeastern Mexico, on the other hand, is known for its spicy vegetable and chicken-based dishes. The cuisine of Southeastern Mexico also has quite a bit of Caribbean influence, given its geographical location. [[Veal]] is common in the [[Yucatan]]. Seafood is commonly prepared in the states that border the Pacific Ocean or the [[Gulf of Mexico]], the latter having a famous reputation for its fish dishes, in particular à la veracruzana.
In modern times, other cuisines of the world have become very popular in Mexico, thus adopting a Mexican fusion. For example, sushi in Mexico is often made with a variety of sauces based on [[mango]] or [[tamarind]], and very often served with [[serrano pepper|serrano]]-chili-blended soy sauce, or complemented with vinegar, [[habanero]] and [[chipotle]] peppers
The most internationally recognized dishes include chocolate, [[taco]]s, [[quesadilla]]s, [[enchilada]]s, [[burrito]]s, [[tamale]]s and [[mole (sauce)|mole]] among others. Regional dishes include [[mole (sauce)|mole poblano]], [[chiles en nogada]] and [[chalupa]]s from [[Puebla]]; [[cabrito]] and [[machaca]] from Monterrey, [[cochinita pibil]] from [[Yucatán]], [[Tlayuda]]s from [[Oaxaca]], as well as [[barbacoa]], [[chilaquiles]], [[milanesa]]s, and many others.
{{Main|Sport in Mexico}}
[[File:Azteca entrance.jpg|thumb|right|The [[Estadio Azteca]] (Aztec Stadium) is the official home stadium of the [[Mexico national football team]].]]
Mexico City hosted the [[1968 Summer Olympics|XIX Olympic Games]] in 1968, making it the first Latin American city to do so.<ref>{{cite web|title=2016 Binational Olympics|month=December | year=2003|publisher=San Diego Metropolitan|url=http://www.sandiegometro.com/2003/dec/coverstory2.html|accessdate=October 7, 2007 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070930043448/http://www.sandiegometro.com/2003/dec/coverstory2.html |archivedate = September 30, 2007}}</ref> The country has also hosted the [[FIFA World Cup]] twice, in [[1970 FIFA World Cup|1970]] and [[1986 FIFA World Cup|1986]].<ref>{{cite web|title=About CONCACAF|publisher=The Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF)|url=http://www.concacaf.com/about.asp|accessdate=October 7, 2007 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071006070253/http://www.concacaf.com/about.asp |archivedate = October 6, 2007}}</ref>
Mexico's most popular sport is association football (soccer). It is commonly believed that Football was introduced in Mexico by [[Cornish people|Cornish]] miners at the end of the 19th century. By 1902 a five-team league had emerged with a strong British influence.<ref>{{cite web|title= Introduction|publisher=Federacion Mexicana de Futbol|url=http://www.femexfut.org.mx/portalv2/(hjfqs545niz5yh55yipntw55)/default.aspx?s=135}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title= Mexico&nbsp;– List of Final Tables|publisher=Rec.Sports.Soccer Statistics Foundation|url=http://www.rsssf.com/tablesm/mexhist.html}}</ref> Mexico's top clubs are [[Club Deportivo Guadalajara|Guadalajara]] with 11 championships, [[Club América|América]] with 10 and [[Deportivo Toluca F.C.|Toluca]] with 10.<ref>{{cite web|title= Mexico&nbsp;– List of Champions|publisher=Rec.Sports.Soccer Statistics Foundation|url=http://www.rsssf.com/tablesm/mexchamp.html}}</ref> [[Antonio Carbajal]] was the first player to appear in five World Cups,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/soccer/world/2002/world_cup/hof/carbajal/ |title=CNNSI.com - 2002 World Cup - World Cup Hall of Fame: Antonio Carbajal - Wednesday May 08, 2002 10:46 PM |publisher=Sportsillustrated.cnn.com |date=2002-05-08 |accessdate=2012-07-28}}</ref> and [[Hugo Sánchez]] was named best [[CONCACAF]] player of the 20th century by IFFHS.<ref>[http://www.terra.com/deportes/articulo/html/fox507174.htm ''Hugo Sánchez donó trofeos pichichi y mejor jugador CONCACAF al Real Madrid'' (Spanish)]</ref>
[[File:Estadio de beisbol en Monterrey.jpg|thumb|[[Estadio de Béisbol Monterrey|Baseball stadium]] in Monterrey, home to [[Monterrey Sultans]].]]
Baseball has traditionally been more popular than soccer in some regions.{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}} The Mexican professional league is named the [[Liga Mexicana de Beisbol]]. While usually not as strong as the United States, the Caribbean countries and Japan, Mexico has nonetheless achieved several international baseball titles.{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}} Mexico has had several players signed by Major League teams, the most famous of them being Dodgers pitcher [[Fernando Valenzuela]].{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}}
[[Bullfighting]] is a popular sport in the country, and almost all large cities have bullrings. [[Plaza México]] in Mexico City, is the largest bullring in the world, which seats 55,000 people. Professional wrestling (or [[Lucha libre]] in Spanish) is a major crowd draw with national promotions such as [[Asistencia Asesoría y Administración|AAA]], LLL, [[Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre|CMLL]] and others.
Mexico is an international power in [[professional boxing]] (at the amateur level, [[Mexico at the Olympics|several Olympic boxing medals]] have also been won by Mexico). [[Vicente Saldivar]], [[Rubén Olivares]], [[Salvador Sánchez]], [[Julio César Chávez]], [[Ricardo Lopez Nava|Ricardo Lopez]] and [[Erik Morales]] are but a few Mexican fighters who have been ranked among the best of all time.<ref>[http://sports.espn.go.com/sports/boxing/greatest/featureVideo?page=greatest4150 ESPN.com: ALL-TIME GREATEST BOXERS:]</ref>
Notable Mexican athletes include golfer [[Lorena Ochoa]], who was ranked first in the [[LPGA]] world rankings prior to her retirement,<ref>{{cite web|title=LPGA Rolex Women's World Golf Rankings|date=October 1, 2007|url=http://www.lpga.com/content/RolexRankings10-1-2007.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=October 7, 2007}}{{dead link|date=March 2012}}</ref> [[Ana Guevara]], former world champion of the {{convert|400|m|ft|}} and Olympic subchampion in Athens 2004, and [[Fernando Platas]], a numerous Olympic medal winning diver.
==Health care==
{{Main|Health care in Mexico}}
[[File:Mexicohospital.jpg|thumb|''Hospital Angeles'' in Mexico City, the largest Mexican private hospital chain.]]
Since the early 1990s, Mexico entered a transitional stage in the health of its population and some indicators such as mortality patterns are identical to those found in highly developed countries like Germany or Japan.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://countrystudies.us/mexico/63.htm |title=Mexico&nbsp;– Health Care and Social Security |publisher=Countrystudies.us |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref> Although all Mexicans are entitled to receive medical care by the state, 50.3 million Mexicans had no medical insurance as of 2002.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://sinais.salud.gob.mx/descargas/pdf/SE01_PoblacionesInst.pdf |title=Sistema Nacional de Información en Salud&nbsp;– Poblaciones de las Instituciones Prestadoras de Servicios de Salud de México: Definición y Construcción|format=PDF |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref> Efforts to increase the number of people are being made, and the current administration intends to achieve [[universal health care]] by 2011.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.presidencia.gob.mx/prensa/presidencia/?contenido=38260 |title=De seguir por el camino correcto en materia de salud, en tres años todos los mexicanos, sin excepción, contarán con médico, medicinas y tratamiento cuando lo necesiten: Presidente Calderón |publisher=Presidencia.gob.mx |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}{{dead link|date=April 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www2.esmas.com/noticierostelevisa/mexico/009174/calderon-promete-cobertura-universal-salud |title=Calderón promete cobertura universal de salud |publisher=.esmas.com |date=August 29, 2008 |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref>
Mexico's medical infrastructure is highly rated for the most part and is usually excellent in major cities,<ref name="Health Care in Mexico">{{cite web|url=http://www.expatforum.com/articles/health/health-care-in-mexico.html |title=Health Care in Mexico |publisher=Expatforum.com |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/articles/article/Mexico/Health-Care-Issues-Mexico/695 |title=Health Care Issues Mexico |publisher=Kwintessential.co.uk |accessdate=November 4, 2009}}</ref> but rural communities still lack equipment for advanced medical procedures, forcing patients in those locations to travel to the closest urban areas to get specialized medical care.<ref name=brit-mex/>
State-funded institutions such as [[Mexican Social Security Institute]] (IMSS) and the [[Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers]] (ISSSTE) play a major role in health and social security. Private health services are also very important and account for 13% of all medical units in the country.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://sinais.salud.gob.mx/medicinaprivada/index.html |title=Sistema Nacional de Información en Salud&nbsp;– Infraestructura |publisher=Sinais.salud.gob.mx |accessdate=May 30, 2010}}</ref>
Medical training is done mostly at public universities with much specializations done in vocational or internship settings. Some public universities in Mexico, such as the [[University of Guadalajara]], have signed agreements with the U.S. to receive and train American students in Medicine. Health care costs in private institutions and prescription drugs in Mexico are on average lower than that of its North American economic partners.<ref name="Health Care in Mexico"/>
{{Main|Education in Mexico}}
[[File:Biblioteca Central de la UNAM .jpg|thumb|right|The [[National Autonomous University of Mexico]].]]
In 2004, the literacy rate was at 97%<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.inegi.gob.mx/est/contenidos/espanol/rutinas/ept.asp?t=medu15&s=est&c=3283 |title=INEGI literacy report −14, 2005 |publisher=Inegi.gob.mx |accessdate=August 8, 2011}}</ref> for youth under the age of 14 and 91% for people over 15,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.inegi.gob.mx/est/contenidos/espanol/rutinas/ept.asp?t=medu16&s=est&c=3284 |title=INEGI literacy report 15+, 2005|publisher=Inegi.gob.mx |accessdate=August 8, 2011}}</ref> placing Mexico at the 24th place in the world rank accordingly to [[UNESCO]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Mexico: Youth Literacy Rate|publisher=Global Virtual University|url=http://globalis.gvu.unu.edu/indicator_detail.cfm?IndicatorID=41&Country=MX|accessdate=October 2, 2007}}</ref>
The [[National Autonomous University of Mexico]] ranks 190th place in the Top 200 World University Ranking published by The Times Higher Education Supplement in 2009.<ref>{{cite web|title=The Times Higher Awards 2009|publisher=The Times Higher Education Supplement |url=http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/hybrid.asp?typeCode=438}}</ref> Private business schools also stand out in international rankings. [[IPADE]] and [[EGADE]], the business schools of [[Universidad Panamericana]] and of [[Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education]] respectively, were ranked in the top 10 in a survey conducted by ''[[The Wall Street Journal]]'' among recruiters outside the United States.<ref>{{cite news|title=Recruiter's scoreboard Highlights|work=The Wall Street Journal/Harris Interactive survey of corporate recruiters on business schools|url=http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/MB_06_Scoreboard.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=October 4, 2007}}</ref>
==Law enforcement==
Public security is enacted at the three levels of government, each of which has different prerogatives and responsibilities. Local and state police department are primarily in charge of law enforcement, whereas the [[Mexican Federal Police]] are in charge of specialized duties. All levels report to the Secretaría de Seguridad Pública (Secretary of Public Security). The General Attorney's Office (Procuraduría General de la República, PGR) is the [[executive (government)|executive power]]'s agency in charge of investigating and prosecuting crimes at the federal level, mainly those related to drug and arms trafficking,<ref>" An Inside Look at Mexican Guns and Arms Trafficking," by Barnard R. Thompson, MexiData.info, May 31, 2010 | url=http://mexidata.info/id2684.html</ref> espionage, and bank robberies.<ref>[http://www.photius.com/countries/mexico/national_security/mexico_national_security_police_and_law_enfor~516.html Mexico Police and Law Enforcement Organizations]. Accessed: 2008-03-04</ref> The PGR operates the [[Federal Investigations Agency]] (Agencia Federal de Investigación, AFI) an investigative and preventive agency.<ref>[http://www.pgr.gob.mx/Combate%20a%20la%20Delincuencia/Agencia%20Federal%20de%20Investigacion/Agencia%20Federal%20de%20Investigacion.asp Agencia Federal de Investigacion]. Procuraduría General de la República. Accessed: 2008-03-04</ref>
[[File:Mexican troops operating in a random checkpoint 2009.jpg|thumb|right|Mexican troops operating a [[random checkpoint]].]]
While the government generally respects the human rights of its citizens, serious abuses of power have been reported in security operations in the southern part of the country and in indigenous communities and poor urban neighborhoods.<ref name=brit-mex/> The National Human Rights Commission has had little impact in reversing this trend, engaging mostly in documentation but failing to use its powers to issue public condemnations to the officials who ignore its recommendations.<ref>[http://www.economist.com/world/la/displaystory.cfm?story_id=10696136 Big, expensive and weirdly spineless]. [[The Economist]]. Issued: 2008-02-14. Retrieved March 4, 2008</ref> By law, all defendants have the rights that assure them fair trials and human treatment; however, the system is overburdened and overwhelmed with several problems.<ref name=brit-mex/>
Despite the efforts of the authorities to fight crime and fraud, few Mexicans have strong confidence in the police or the judicial system, and therefore, few crimes are actually reported by the citizens.<ref name=brit-mex/> The ''Global Integrity Index'' which measures the existence and effectiveness of national anti-corruption mechanisms rated Mexico 31st behind Kenya, Thailand, and Russia.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://report.globalintegrity.org/globalindex/results.cfm |title=Global Integrity Report |publisher=Report.globalintegrity.org |accessdate=August 8, 2011}}</ref> In 2008, president Calderón proposed a major reform of the judicial system, which was approved by the Congress of the Union, which included oral trials, the presumption of innocence for defendants, the authority of local police to investigate crime—until then a prerogative of special police units—and several other changes intended to speed up trials.<ref>McKinley, JC Jr. (March 7, 2008) [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/07/world/americas/07mexico.html?_r=1&oref=slogin Mexico’s Congress Passes Overhaul of Justice Laws]. [[The New York Times]]. Accessed on: March 18, 2008</ref>
{{Main|Crime in Mexico|Mexican Drug War}}
According to a 2012 OECD study 15% of Mexicans report having been a victim of crime in the past year, a figure which among OECD countries is only higher in South Africa.<ref name="OECDREFORMA"/> As of 2010 Mexico's [[List of countries by intentional homicide rate|homicide rate]] was 18 per 100,000 inhabitants;<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.icesi.org.mx/documentos/estadisticas/estadisticasOfi/denuncias_homicidio_doloso_1997_2010.pdf |title=Homicidios dolosos 1997-2010 |accessdate=2011-04-02 |format=PDF |publisher=Instituto Ciudadano de Estudios Sobre la Inseguridad, A.C. |language=Spanish}}</ref> the world average is 6.9 per 100,000 inhabitants.<ref>[http://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/statistics/Homicide/Globa_study_on_homicide_2011_web.pdf Global Study on Homicide]. ''[[United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime|UNODC]].''</ref> [[Mexican Drug War|Drug-traffic and narco-related activities]] are a major concern in Mexico.<ref name=Cartel>{{cite web|url=http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/07/17/world/main5167018.shtml |title=Mexico Boosts Force in War with Drug Gang |publisher=Cbsnews.com |date=July 17, 2009 |accessdate=August 8, 2011}}</ref> Mexico's drug war has left over 60,000 dead and perhaps another 20,000 missing.<ref>{{cite news|author=|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jun/23/mexico-elections-drugs-war |title=Mexico elections: failure of drugs war leaves nation at the crossroads |publisher=''The Guardian'' |date=June 23, 2012}}</ref> The Mexican [[drug cartel]]s have as many as 100,000 members.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2009/mar/03/100000-foot-soldiers-in-cartels/ |title=100,000 foot soldiers in Mexican cartels |publisher=Washingtontimes.com |date=2009-03-03 |accessdate=2012-05-07}}</ref>
President [[Felipe Calderón]] made abating organized crime one of the top priorities of his administration by deploying military personnel to cities where drug cartels operate. This move was criticized by the opposition parties and the National Human Rights Commission for escalating the violence, but its effects have been positively evaluated by the [[Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs]] as having obtained "unprecedented results" with "many important successes".<ref>Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs. (2008). [http://www.state.gov/p/inl/rls/nrcrpt/2008/vol1/html/100777.htm International Narcotics Control Strategy Report]{{dead link|date=March 2012}}. Retrieved March 4, 2008</ref> Since President Felipe Calderón launched a crackdown against cartels in 2006, more than 28,000 alleged criminals have been killed.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1205074.stm |title=Mexico country profile |publisher=BBC News |date=November 29, 2010 |accessdate=March 9, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|author=AP |url=http://www.foxnews.com/world/2010/12/16/killed-mexicos-drug-violence/ |title=More Than 30,000 Killed in Mexico's Drug Violence |publisher=Fox News |date=February 1, 2010 |accessdate=March 9, 2011}}</ref> Of the total drug-related violence 4% are innocent people,<ref name="MSNBC">{{cite web |url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/29413556/ns/world_news-americas |title=Mexican president: We're not losing drug war |accessdate=January 9, 2011 |publisher=MSNBC}}</ref> mostly by-passers and people trapped in between shootings; 90% accounts for criminals and 6% for military personnel and police officers.<ref name="MSNBC"/> In October 2007, President Calderón and US president [[George W. Bush]] announced the [[Mérida Initiative]], a plan of law enforcement cooperation between the two countries.<ref>Gómez, Natalia (2007). [http://www.el-universal.com.mx/notas/456623.html Otorgará Iniciativa Mérida 500 mdd a México en primer año]. [[El Universal (Mexico)|El Universal]]. Retrieved March 4, 2008</ref>
==See also==
{{div col|colwidth=20em}}
*[[Index of Mexico-related articles]]
*[[International rankings of Mexico]]
*[[List of Mexicans]]
*[[Outline of Mexico]]
*[[Postage stamps and postal history of Mexico]]
<!-- *[[List of places in Mexico]] -->
*[[State governments of Mexico]]
*{{Wikipedia books link|Mexico}}
{{div col end}}
* {{Cite book|first=Enrique| last=Krauze| authorlink=Enrique Krauze| title=Mexico: Biography of Power: A history of Modern Mexico 1810–1996| publisher=Harper Perennial| location=New York, New York| year=1998| isbn=0-06-092917-0| page=896 }}
* {{Cite book| first=Michael C.| last=Meyer| coauthors=William H. Beezley, editors| title=The Oxford History of Mexico| publisher=Oxford University Press| year=2000| isbn=0-19-511228-8| page=736 }}
* {{Cite book| last=Parkes| first=Henry Bamford| authorlink=Henry Bamford Parkes| title=A History of Mexico| isbn=0-395-08410-5| publisher=Houghton Mifflin| location=Boston| year=1972| edition=3rd}}
==External links==
{{Sister project links}}
*{{Official website|http://en.presidencia.gob.mx/|name=The Presidency of Mexico}} {{en icon}}
*[http://www.visitmexico.com/en-i0/ Mexico Tourism Official Website | VisitMexico]
*{{CIA World Factbook link|mx|Mexico}}
*[http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/govpubs/for/mexico.htm Mexico] from ''UCB Libraries GovPubs''
*[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1205074.stm Mexico] from the [[BBC News]]
*[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/379167/Mexico Mexico] at ''[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]''
* [http://www.ifs.du.edu/ifs/frm_CountryProfile.aspx?Country=MX Key Development Forecasts for Mexico] from [[International Futures]]
{{Mexico topics}}
{{States of Mexico}}
{{Countries of North America}}
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{{Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development}}
{{Organization of American States}}
{{G15 nations}}
{{Community of Democracies}}
{{Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation}}
{{Latin Union}}
{{World Trade Organization}}
|title = International membership (temporary or former)
|list =
{{UN Security Council|state=collapsed}}
[[Category:Countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean]]
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[[Category:Countries bordering the Pacific Ocean]]
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[[Category:Spanish-speaking countries]]
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[[Category:States and territories established in 1813]]
[[Category:States and territories established in 1813]]
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{{link FA|ca}}

Latest revision as of 22:23, 28 March 2013

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