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Mesa
City of Mesa
Mesa Bank and Mesa Arts Center building in downtown Mesa
Mesa Bank and Mesa Arts Center building in downtown Mesa
Location of Mesa in Maricopa County, Arizona
Location of Mesa in Maricopa County, Arizona
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Coordinates: Script error
CountryUnited States
StateArizona
CountyMaricopa
Founded1878
Government
 • MayorJohn Giles (R)
Area
 • City138.83 sq mi (359.56 km2)
 • Land138.07 sq mi (357.60 km2)
 • Water0.76 sq mi (1.96 km2)
Elevation1,240 ft (377.952 m)
Population
Script error(2010)[1]
 • City439,041
 • Estimate 
(2018)[2]
508,958
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Mesa (/ˈmsə/ MAY-sə) is a city in Maricopa County, in the U.S. state of Arizona. It is a suburb located about Script error east of Phoenix in the East Valley section of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. It is bordered by Tempe on the west, the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community on the north, Chandler and Gilbert on the south along with Queen Creek, and Apache Junction on the east.

Mesa is the largest suburban city by population in the United States,[1] the third-largest city in Arizona after Phoenix and Tucson, and the 35th-largest city overall in the US. The city is home to 508,958 people as of 2018 according to the Census Bureau, which makes it more populous than major cities such as Minneapolis, St. Louis, or Miami. Mesa is home to numerous higher education facilities including the Polytechnic campus of Arizona State University. It is also home to the largest relief airport in the Phoenix area, Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport, which is located in the southeastern corner of the city.

HistoryEdit

Script error The history of Mesa dates back at least 2,000 years to the arrival of the Hohokam people. The Hohokam, whose name means "All Used Up" or "The Departed Ones", built the original canal system. The canals were the largest and most sophisticated in the prehistoric New World. Some were up to Script error wide and Script error deep at their head gates, extending for as far as Script error across the desert. By A.D. 1100 water could be delivered to an area over Script error, transforming the Sonoran Desert into an agricultural oasis. By A.D. 1450, the Hohokam had constructed hundreds of miles of canals many of which are still in use today.[1]

After the disappearance of the Hohokam and before the arrival of the early settlers little is known, as explorers did not venture into this area. By the late 19th century near present-day Mesa, U.S. Army troops subdued the Apache, opening the way for settlement.[2]

Mormon pioneer Daniel Webster Jones, with Henry Clay Rogers as his right-hand man, led an expedition to found a Mormon settlement in Arizona. Leaving St. George, Utah in March 1877, Jones and others arrived at Lehi, an area within the northern edge of present-day Mesa. Jones had been asked by Mormon officials to direct a party of people in establishing a settlement in Arizona. This settlement was initially known as Jonesville and Fort Utah and did not receive the name of Lehi until 1883, when it was adopted on the suggestion of Brigham Young, Jr.[3]

At the same time, another group dubbed the First Mesa Company arrived from Utah and Idaho. Their leaders were named Francis Martin Pomeroy, Charles Crismon, George Warren Sirrine and Charles I. Robson. Rather than accepting an invitation to settle at Jones' Lehi settlement, they moved to the top of the mesa that serves as the city's namesake. They dug irrigation canals, some of which were over the original Hohokam canals, and by April 1878, water was flowing through them.[4] The Second Mesa Company arrived in 1879 and settled to the west of where the First Mesa Company settled in 1880, due to lack of available farmland. This settlement was called Stringtown.[5]

On July 17, 1878, Mesa City was registered as a Script error townsite. The first school was built in 1879. In 1883, Mesa City was incorporated with a population of 300 people. Dr. A. J. Chandler, who would later go on to found the city of Chandler, worked on widening the Mesa Canal in 1895 to allow for enough flow to build a power plant. In 1917, the city of Mesa purchased the utility company. The revenues from the company provided enough for capital expenditures until the 1960s. During the Great Depression, WPA funds provided paved streets, a new hospital, a new town hall and a library.[1]

After the founding of the city the elected official that most impacted the municipality was George Nicholas Goodman. He was mayor 5 different times[2] in parts of 3 different decade (1938-1942, 1946-1948, 1952-1956) (see: List of mayors of Mesa, Arizona). As mayor he was directly involved in the process of acquiring land for both Falcon Field and Williams Field.[2]

With the opening of Falcon Field and Williams Field in the early 1940s, more military personnel began to move into the Mesa area. With the advent of air conditioning and the rise of tourism, population growth exploded in Mesa as well as the rest of the Phoenix area. Industry—especially early aerospace companies—grew in the 1950s and 1960s. As late as 1960, half of the residents of Mesa made a living with agriculture, but this has declined substantially as Mesa's suburban growth continued on track with the rest of the Phoenix metro area.[3]

GeographyEdit

Defining east and west MesaEdit

Due to Mesa's extremely long east to west travel distance, in excess of Script error[1] and large land area Script error, locations in Mesa are often referred to as residing within either East Mesa or West Mesa.[1][2][3]

Commonly accepted boundariesEdit

Center StreetEdit

Mesa employs a grid system for street numbering that is different from that used in Phoenix and other portions of the metropolitan area. Center Street, running north to south, bisects Mesa into eastern and western halves and serves as the east and west numbering point of origin within Mesa. Streets west of Center St., such as W. University Drive or W. Main St. are considered to be in West Mesa, whereas streets east of Center St., such as E. University or E. Main St., are considered to be in East Mesa.[4]

Mesa DriveEdit

Mesa Drive, running north to south and bisecting Mesa into east and west sections, is located Script error east of Center Street, and serves as the zip code boundary between the 85281, 85201, 85202, and 85210 zip codes of Western Mesa and the 85203, 85204, 85205, 85206, 85207, 85208, 85209, 85212, 85213, 85215, 85220, and 85242 zip codes of Eastern Mesa.[1]

Country Club DriveEdit

Country Club Drive, running north to south and bisecting Mesa into east and west sections, is located Script error west of Center St, and serves as the jurisdictional boundary between Arizona's 5th and 6th congressional districts.[1] Note that this same road (as Arizona Avenue) serves as the official east and west numbering point of origin within the city of Chandler, located south of Mesa.

ClimateEdit

Located in the Sonoran Desert, Mesa has a hot desert climate (Köppen: BWh), with mild winters and very hot summers. The hottest month is July, with an average high of Script error and an average low of Script error. The coldest month is December, with an average high of Script error and an average low of Script error.[1]

Climate data for Mesa, Arizona
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 89 95 99 106 118 116 119 115 113 107 97 86 Template:Max/27
Average high °F (°C) 67 71 77 85 94 104 106 104 99 89 75 67
Average low °F (°C) 41 45 49 54 61 70 77 76 70 59 47 40
Record low °F (°C) 15 19 24 30 37 43 54 51 40 30 22 17 Template:Min/27
Precipitation inches (Expression error: Unexpected < operator.m) 1.01 1.03 1.19 0.33 0.17 0.06 0.89 1.14 0.89 0.81 0.77 0.98 9.27
Source: The Weather Channel[1]
Climate data for Mesa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily daylight hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 14.5 14.0 13.5 12.5 11.5 10.5 10.0 12.2
Source: Weather Atlas [2]

DemographicsEdit

Historical populations
Census Pop. <tr><td style="text-align:center">1900</td><td style="padding-left:8px">722</td><td></td><td style="padding-left:8px">
</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">1910</td><td style="padding-left:8px">1,692</td><td></td><td style="padding-left:8px">134.3%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">1920</td><td style="padding-left:8px">3,036</td><td></td><td style="padding-left:8px">79.4%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">1930</td><td style="padding-left:8px">3,711</td><td></td><td style="padding-left:8px">22.2%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">1940</td><td style="padding-left:8px">7,224</td><td></td><td style="padding-left:8px">94.7%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">1950</td><td style="padding-left:8px">16,790</td><td></td><td style="padding-left:8px">132.4%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">1960</td><td style="padding-left:8px">33,772</td><td></td><td style="padding-left:8px">101.1%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">1970</td><td style="padding-left:8px">63,049</td><td></td><td style="padding-left:8px">86.7%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">1980</td><td style="padding-left:8px">152,404</td><td></td><td style="padding-left:8px">141.7%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">1990</td><td style="padding-left:8px">288,104</td><td></td><td style="padding-left:8px">89.0%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">2000</td><td style="padding-left:8px">396,375</td><td></td><td style="padding-left:8px">37.6%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">2010</td><td style="padding-left:8px">439,041</td><td></td><td style="padding-left:8px">10.8%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:center">Est. 2018</td><td style="padding-left:8px">508,958</td><td>[1]</td><td style="padding-left:8px">15.9%</td></tr><tr><td colspan=4 style="border-top:1px solid black; font-size:85%; text-align:left">U.S. Decennial Census[2]</td></tr>

According to the 2017 Census, the racial composition of Mesa was as follows:[3]

As of the census of 2010, there were 439,041 people, 146,643 households, and 99,863 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,171.3 people per square mile (1,224.4/km2). There were 175,701 housing units at an average density of 1,405.7 per square mile (542.8/km2).

The racial make-up of the city was 81.6% White, 2.4% Black or African American, 2.2% Native American, 2.00% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 9.3% from other races, and 1.30% from two or more races. 24.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 146,643 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.7% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.9% were non-families. 24.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.20.

The age distribution was 27.3% under 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 18.4% from 45 to 64, and 13.3% who were 65 or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $42,817, and the median income for a family was $49,232. Males had a median income of $35,960 versus $27,005 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,601. About 6.2% of families and 8.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.7% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over. Mesa's residents exhibit a great deal of economic diversity,[citation needed] with low-income areas constructed somewhat close to high-scale neighborhoods with expensive custom homes. The neighborhood "Marlborough Mesa" has won a community award.[citation needed]

EconomyEdit

Top employersEdit

According to the City's 2015 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[4] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of employees
1 Banner Health System 9,573
2 Mesa Public Schools 8,500
3 Boeing 4,700
4 City of Mesa 3,545
5 Walmart 2,507
6 Gilbert Public Schools 1,300
7 Fry's Food and Drug 1,087
8 Mesa Community College 1,002
9 The Home Depot 963
10 Maricopa County Government 902

Cultural attractionsEdit

File:Mesa Template at night.jpg
File:Mesa-Mesa Grande Ruins-5.JPG

Historic properties in MesaEdit

Script error Numerous properties in the city are considered to be historical and have been included either in the National Register of Historic Places[1] or the listings of the Mesa Historic Properties.

Parks and recreationEdit

Mesa has over 2,280 acres of parkland in the city limits. Its largest is Red Mountain Park which spans 1,146 acres. It includes a lake, playgrounds, a basketball court and a cement volleyball court.[2]

GolfEdit

Mesa is home to numerous championship golf courses, including the original course in town, Mesa Country Club.[3] This course was founded in the late 1940s by the original leaders of the town, and "Country Club Drive", the most prominent street in Mesa, was at one point the modest entrance to the club.

West MesaEdit

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The Fiesta Mall is located in West Mesa, and owned by Westcor. Its anchors are Sears and Best Buy. It is located near several shopping centers, Mesa's Bank of America,[1] and other retail stores, banks, and restaurants. An expansion of the mall has been planned.[2]

Mesa Riverview is a new outdoor destination retail center in the northwestern corner of the city, near Loop 202 and Dobson Road. At build-out the center will include Script error of retail space.[1] Its anchors include Bass Pro Shops, Cinemark Theaters, Wal-Mart, and Home Depot.

East MesaEdit

Located in East Mesa is Superstition Springs Business Park.[2] It includes the Superstition Springs Center, a shopping mall owned by Westcor. It features an outdoor amphitheatre and fountain which convert to a stage. Anchor stores at the mall are Dillard's, JCPenney, Macy's, and Sears. Mission Community Church, previously known as Superstition Springs Community Church, was initially named after this business park.[3]

Special OlympicsEdit

Mesa is a delegation of Special Olympics Arizona. This team includes track & field, kayaking, swimming, basketball, bowling, and golf.

EducationEdit

Almost all of the city of Mesa is served by public schools operated by Mesa Public Schools; however, a small southern portion is served by the Gilbert Public Schools and the Queen Creek Unified School District, and a small western portion is served by the Tempe Elementary School District and the Tempe Union High School District.

Mesa is home to Mesa Community College, the largest of the Maricopa Community Colleges, which enrolls over 24,000 full and part-time students. The Polytechnic campus of Arizona State University lies in southeast Mesa. This satellite campus enrolls over 6,000 undergraduate and graduate students in scientific and engineering fields. A. T. Still University operates an Osteopathic Medical School in Mesa. The aviation school CAE Global Academy Phoenix is located in Mesa.

After launching a higher education initiative in 2012, Mesa became home to branch campuses of five private, liberal arts institutions: Albright College, Westminster College, Benedictine University, Upper Iowa University and Wilkes University.[4] Two have since left (Albright College and Westminster College), while a third, Wilkes University, recently announced it would move entirely online.[5]

TransportationEdit

File:Mesa City Hall.jpg

Script error Several area freeways serve the Mesa area, such as U.S. Route 60, locally known as the Superstition Freeway, which runs between Apache Junction and Phoenix. It is also served by SR 87 and bypass loops Loop 101, which skirts the western city limits as the Price Freeway, and Loop 202, which bypasses the city on the north and east. The main east-west arterial road in Mesa is Main Street (former US 60/70/80/89), serving Downtown Mesa. The primary north-south arterials include Country Club Drive, Gilbert Road, and Power Road.

Public transportation in Mesa is provided by Valley Metro via bus and light rail (Valley Metro Rail). The light rail section in Mesa spans about four miles from Sycamore/Main St in the west of the city, through downtown to Mesa Dr/Main St. Until July 2008, Mesa was the largest U.S. city with no public transit service on Sundays, but now has Sunday service available on Routes 40-Apache/Main, 61-Southern, 96-Dobson, 108-Elliot, 112-Country Club/Arizona, 156-Chandler/Williams Field, and 184-Power.

Air service in the city is provided by two airports. Falcon Field, located in the northeastern part of the area, was established as a training field for British RAF pilots during World War II and was transferred to the city at the end of the war. Falcon Field has 605 aircraft based there.[1] Boeing builds the AH-64 Apache attack helicopter at a facility adjoining Falcon Field. Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport is located in the far southeastern area of the city, and provides alternate but limited air service when compared to Sky Harbor International Airport. Phoenix-Mesa Gateway was formerly Williams Gateway Airport, and before that, Williams Air Force Base, which closed in 1993. Williams Gateway was announced as a new Focus City for Allegiant Air. Service started October 25, 2007.

Notable peopleEdit

Sister citiesEdit

Mesa has five sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Airport Information – KFFZ: Falcon Field Airport, Mesa, Arizona, USA", airnav.com (AirNav, LLC), http://www.airnav.com/airport/KFFZ
  2. 2.0 2.1 Leatherman, Benjamin (August 6, 2014). "The 15 Biggest Rock Stars Who Live in Arizona". Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20140808164253/http://blogs.phoenixnewtimes.com/uponsun/2014/08/biggest_arizona_rock_stars.php. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
  3. "98 players born in Arizona". Baseball-Reference.com. Archived from the original on July 5, 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20140705074732/http://www.baseball-reference.com/bio/AZ_born.shtml. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  4. Steenblik, Rachel Hunt; Wheelwright, Hannah (2015). Mormon Feminism: Essential Writings. Oxford University Press. p. 196. ISBN 9780190248031. https://books.google.com/books?id=3IgvCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA196&dq=%22Janice+Merrill+Allred%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiz8cSR3MLLAhUEeD4KHezGAnkQ6AEIOjAB#v=onepage&q=%22Janice%20Merrill%20Allred%22&f=false.
  5. "NBA Coach Mike Brown Began Career at MCC". Mesa Community College Alumni Association. https://www.mesacc.edu/50/success/mike-brown. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  6. "Austin Gibbs Releases His Monumental 'EP' through 101 Distribution". PR Web. April 30, 2009. Archived from the original on October 5, 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20121005122150/http://www.prweb.com/releases/Austin_Gibbs/EP_Music_Album/prweb2373494.htm. Retrieved September 16, 2014.
  7. "George N Goodman, Fair Secretary, Dies". Arizona Republic. https://www.newspapers.com/clip/23142884/obituary_george_nicholas_goodman_az/. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  8. "HAYDEN, Carl Trumbull, (1877–1972)". United States Congress. Archived from the original on February 26, 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20140226181727/http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=H000385. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
  9. "87 Jamar Hunt". University of Texas, El Paso. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20121019002916/http://www.utepathletics.com/sports/m-footbl/mtt/hunt_jamar00.html. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  10. "Albie Lopez". Baseball-Reference.com. Archived from the original on July 3, 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20140703084848/http://www.baseball-reference.com/players/l/lopezal02.shtml. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  11. "Carolyn Morris". Baseball-Reference.com. Archived from the original on November 8, 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20121108192556/http://www.baseball-reference.com/bullpen/Carolyn_Morris. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  12. "Jerald Jackson Taylor". apnewsarchive.com. April 3, 1995. http://www.apnewsarchive.com/1995/HONOLULU-AP-Irwin-Spencer-Bickson-who-opened-the-first/id-4b6581184871b82fccb9096182e016a7. Retrieved July 31, 2015.
http://lodge9.azfop.com/files/2018/06/Statement-from-Mesa-FOP.pdf

BibliographyEdit

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External linksEdit

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