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{{Infobox Stadium
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{{short description|Stadium in Louisiana, United States}}
| stadium_name = {{PAGENAME}}
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{{distinguish|text=[[Mercedes-Benz Stadium]] in Atlanta or other sports venues named [[Mercedes-Benz Arena (disambiguation)|Mercedes-Benz Arena]]}}
| nickname = ''The Superdome'', ''The Dome''
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{{Infobox venue
| image = [[File:Superdome from Garage.jpg|300px]]
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| stadium_name = Mercedes-Benz Superdome
| location = 1500 Sugar Bowl Drive<br>[[New Orleans|New Orleans, Louisiana]] 70112
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| nickname =
| coordinates = {{Coord|29|57|3|N|90|4|52|W|type:landmark_scale:2000|display=it}}
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| logo_image = Mercedes-Benz Superdome logo.svg
| broke_ground = August 11, 1971
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| image = Mercedes-Benz Superdome Poydras bike.JPG
| opened = August 3, 1975
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| image_size = 260
| closed =
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| caption = The Superdome, 2011
| reopened = September 25, 2006
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| address = 1500 Sugar Bowl Drive
| owner = Louisiana Stadium/Expo District, Glenn Menard (Manager)
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| location = [[New Orleans|New Orleans, Louisiana]]
| operator = [[SMG (property management)|SMG]]
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| coordinates = {{coord|29|57|3|N|90|4|52|W|region:US-LA_type:landmark|display=inline,title}}
| surface = Monsanto "Mardi Grass" turf (1975–2003)<ref name="ballparks1">{{cite web |url=http://football.ballparks.com/NFL/NewOrleansSaints/articles.htm|title=Louisiana Superdome Articles |publisher=Football.ballparks.com|accessdate=December 14, 2011}}</ref><br>[[FieldTurf]] (2003–2006)<br>Sportexe Momentum Turf (2006–2009)<br>UBU-Intensity Series-S5-M Synthetic Turf (2010–present)<br>Concrete for multipurpose events
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| pushpin_map = United States New Orleans#USA Louisiana#USA
| construction_cost = [[United States dollar|$]]134 million (Initial)<br>(${{formatprice|{{Inflation|US|134000000|1975}}}} in {{CURRENTYEAR}} dollars{{inflation-fn|US}})<br><br>[[United States dollar|$]]193 million (2005–06 repairs)<br>Renovations: (${{formatprice|{{Inflation|US|193000000|2006}}}} in {{CURRENTYEAR}} dollars{{inflation-fn|US}})
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| pushpin_relief = 1
| architect = Curtis and Davis Associated<ref name="construction">[http://www.modernsteel.com/archives/PDFs_61-90/1976A9_16-1&2.pdf Louisiana Superdome]</ref><br>Edward B. Silverstein & Associates<ref name="construction"/><br>Nolan, Norman & Nolan<ref name="construction"/>
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| pushpin_map_caption = Location in New Orleans##Location in Louisiana##Location in the United States
| structural engineer = [[Sverdrup & Parcel]]<ref name="construction"/><br>[[Thornton Tomasetti]] (2006 repairs)
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| broke_ground = August 12, 1971
| services engineer =
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| opened = August 3, 1975
| general_contractor = Huber, Hunt, & Nichols/Blount Joint Venture<ref>{{cite web |url=http://football.ballparks.com/NFL/NewOrleansSaints/index.htm|title=Mercedes-Benz Superdome|publisher=Football.ballparks.com|accessdate=December 14, 2011}}</ref>
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| closed =
| tenants = [[New Orleans Saints]] ([[National Football League|NFL]]) (1975–present)<br>[[Sugar Bowl]] ([[National Collegiate Athletic Association|NCAA]]) (1975–present)<br>[[Tulane Green Wave]] (NCAA) (1975–present)<br>[[Utah Jazz|New Orleans Jazz]] ([[National Basketball Association|NBA]]) ([[List of Utah Jazz seasons|1975–1979]])<br>[[New Orleans Pelicans]] ([[American Association (20th century)|American Association]]) (1977)<br>[[New Orleans Breakers]] ([[United States Football League|USFL]]) (1984)<br>[[New Orleans Night]] ([[Arena Football League (1987–2008)|AFL]]) (1991–1992)<br>[[BCS National Championship Game]] (NCAA) [[2008 BCS National Championship Game|2008]], [[2012 BCS National Championship Game|2012]] <br>[[Super Bowl]] (NFL) ([[Super Bowl XII|1978]], [[Super Bowl XV|1981]], [[Super Bowl XX|1986]], [[Super Bowl XXIV|1990]], [[Super Bowl XXXI|1997]], [[Super Bowl XXXVI|2002]], [[Super Bowl XLVII|2013]])<br>[[New Orleans Bowl]] (NCAA) (2001–present)<br>[[NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship]] (1982, 1987, 1993, 2003, 2012)<br>[[NFC Championship Game]] (NFL) (2010)<br>[[Louisiana High School Athletic Association]] state championship games (1981–present) (NFL)
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| reopened = September 25, 2006
| seating_capacity = [[American football]]: 76,468<br>[[Basketball]]: 55,675<br>[[Baseball]]: 63,525
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| owner = Louisiana Stadium and Exposition District
| former_names = Louisiana Superdome (1975–2011)
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| operator = [[SMG (property management)|SMG]]
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| surface = Monsanto "Mardi Grass" turf (1975–2003)<ref name="ballparks1">{{cite web|url=http://football.ballparks.com/NFL/NewOrleansSaints/articles.htm|title=Louisiana Superdome Articles|publisher=Football.ballparks.com|accessdate=December 14, 2011|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120115051443/http://football.ballparks.com/NFL/NewOrleansSaints/articles.htm|archivedate=January 15, 2012|df=}}</ref><br />[[FieldTurf]] (2003–2006)<br />Sportexe Momentum Turf (2006–2009)<br />UBU Speed Series S5 (2010-2016) <br />[[Act Global|Act Global UBU Speed S5-M Synthetic Turf]] (2017–2018)<br />Turf Nation S5 (2019-present)
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| construction_cost = US$134 million (Initial)<br />(${{formatprice|{{Inflation|US|134000000|1975}}}} in {{Inflation-year|US}} dollars{{inflation-fn|US}})<br /><br />Renovations: US$193 million (2005–06 repairs)<br /> (${{formatprice|{{Inflation|US|193000000|2006}}}} in {{Inflation-year|US}} dollars{{inflation-fn|US}})
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| architect = Curtis and Davis Associated<ref name="construction">{{cite web|url=http://www.modernsteel.com/archives/PDFs_61-90/1976A9_16-1&2.pdf|title=Modern Steel Construction|website=www.modernsteel.com|access-date=2018-09-02|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121120204700/http://www.modernsteel.com/archives/PDFs_61-90/1976A9_16-1%262.pdf|archive-date=2012-11-20|dead-url=yes|df=}}</ref><br />Edward B. Silverstein & Associates<ref name="construction"/><br />Nolan, Norman & Nolan<ref name="construction"/>
  +
| structural engineer = [[Sverdrup & Parcel]]<ref name="construction"/><br />[[Thornton Tomasetti]] (2006 repairs)
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| services engineer =
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| general_contractor = [[Hunt Construction Group|Huber, Hunt, & Nichols]]/Blount Joint Venture<ref>{{cite web |url=http://football.ballparks.com/NFL/NewOrleansSaints/index.htm|title=Mercedes-Benz Superdome|publisher=Football.ballparks.com|accessdate=December 14, 2011}}</ref>
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| tenants = [[New Orleans Saints]] ([[National Football League|NFL]]) (1975–2004, 2006&ndash;present)<br />[[Sugar Bowl]] ([[National Collegiate Athletic Association|NCAA]]) (1975–2005, 2007&ndash;present)<br />[[Tulane Green Wave football|Tulane Green Wave]] (NCAA) (1975–2004, 2006&ndash;2013)<br />[[New Orleans Jazz (NBA team)|New Orleans Jazz]] ([[National Basketball Association|NBA]]) (1975–1979)<br />[[New Orleans Pelicans (baseball)|New Orleans Pelicans]] ([[American Association (20th century)|AA]]) (1977)<br />[[New Orleans Breakers]] ([[United States Football League|USFL]]) (1984)<br />[[New Orleans Night]] ([[Arena Football League|AFL]]) (1991–1992)<br />[[New Orleans Bowl]] (NCAA) (2001–2004, 2006&ndash;present)<br />[[New Orleans VooDoo]] (AFL) (2013)
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|publictransit={{rint|heritage|tram}} {{rint|neworleans|rampart-st-claude}} [[Poydras Street]]
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{{rint|us|amtrak}} {{rint|us|greyhound}} [[New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal]]
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| seating_capacity = [[American football]]: 73,208 (expandable to 76,468)<ref>{{cite web|title=The Superdome – An Icon Transformed|url=http://superdome.com/uploads/SUPERDOMEMEDIAKIT5.3.12FINAL.pdf|publisher=State of Louisiana|accessdate=September 6, 2012|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140221185008/http://superdome.com/uploads/SUPERDOMEMEDIAKIT5.3.12FINAL.pdf|archivedate=February 21, 2014|df=}}</ref><br />[[Basketball]]: 73,432<br />[[Baseball]]: 56,941
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| record_attendance = 78,133 ([[WrestleMania 34]], April 8, 2018)
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| former_names = Louisiana Superdome (1975–2011)
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| nrhp = {{Infobox NRHP
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| embed=yes
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| name = Louisiana Superdome
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| partof =
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| nrhp_type =
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| area =
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| architect=
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| architecture= Other
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| designated_nrhp_type = January 27, 2016<ref name="nhlsum">{{cite web|url=https://www.nps.gov/nr/feature/places/15001004.htm|work=National Park Service|title=Louisiana Superdome|date=January 27, 2016}}</ref>
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| added =
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| governing_body = Private
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| refnum= 15001004
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| partof_refnum =
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}}
 
}}
 
}}
   
The '''Mercedes-Benz Superdome''', previously known as the '''Louisiana Superdome''' and colloquially known as the '''Superdome''', is a [[sport]]s and exhibition arena located in the [[New Orleans Central Business District|Central Business District]] of [[New Orleans, Louisiana]], USA. Plans were drawn up in 1967 by the New Orleans modernist architectural firm of Curtis and Davis.
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The '''Mercedes-Benz Superdome''', often referred to simply as the '''Superdome''', is a domed sports and exhibition [[sports venue|venue]] located in the [[New Orleans Central Business District|Central Business District]] of [[New Orleans]], [[Louisiana]], [[United States]]. It primarily serves as the home venue for the [[New Orleans Saints]] of the [[National Football League]] (NFL), the home stadium for the [[Sugar Bowl]], [[New Orleans Bowl]] in [[college football]] and the longtime rivalry football game of the SWAC Conference’s [[Southern University]] and [[Grambling State University]], known as the [[Bayou Classic]] (held yearly, every Thanksgiving Weekend). It also houses their schools’ Battle of the Bands between The Southern University "The Human Jukebox" and Grambling State’s Tiger Marching Band.
   
It is home to the [[National Football League|NFL]]'s [[New Orleans Saints]], the NCAA's Division I-A [[Tulane Green Wave football]] team (the largest football stadium in [[Conference USA]]), the [[State Farm]] [[Bayou Classic]], the [[R+L Carriers]] [[New Orleans Bowl]], the [[Allstate Sugar Bowl]] and, every fourth year, the [[BCS National Championship]] game. It is one of the few facilities in the US which can host major sporting events, such as the [[Super Bowl]] and the [[NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship|Final Four]]; as such, given New Orleans' popularity as a tourist destination, whenever it bids to host such an event it routinely makes the "short list" of candidates being considered. It has been chosen to host [[Super Bowl XLVII]] in February 2013.
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Plans were drawn up in 1967 by the New Orleans modernist architectural firm of Curtis and Davis and the building opened as the '''Louisiana Superdome''' in 1975. Its steel frame covers a {{Convert|13|acre|adj=on}} expanse and the {{Convert|273|ft|m|adj=on}} dome is made of a lamellar multi-ringed frame and has a diameter of {{Convert|680|ft|m}}, making it the largest fixed domed structure in the world.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://superdome.s3.amazonaws.com/doc/presskit.pdf|title=MERCEDES-BENZ SUPERDOME FACTS & FIGURES<!-- Bot generated title -->|publisher=}}</ref> It is adjacent to the [[Smoothie King Center]].
   
It is the largest fixed domed structure in the world. Its steel frame covers a {{Convert|13|acre|adj=on}} expanse. Its {{Convert|273|ft|m|adj=on}} dome is made of a Lamella multi-ringed frame and has a diameter of {{Convert|680|ft|m}}.
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Because of the building's size and location in one of the major tourist destinations of the United States, the Superdome routinely hosts major sporting events, including the [[Super Bowl]], [[College Football Championship Game]], and the [[NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Championship|Final Four]] in college basketball. The stadium was also the long-time home of the [[Tulane Green Wave football]] team of [[Tulane University]] until 2014 (when they returned on-campus at [[Yulman Stadium]]) and was the home venue of the [[New Orleans Jazz (NBA team)|New Orleans Jazz]] of the [[National Basketball Association]] (NBA) from 1975 until 1979.
   
In 2005, it came to international attention when it was damaged by [[Hurricane Katrina]] and housed thousands of people seeking shelter from the storm.
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The Superdome gained international attention of a different type in 2005 when it housed thousands of people seeking shelter from [[Hurricane Katrina]]. The building suffered extensive damage as a result of the storm, and was closed for many months afterward. It was eventually decided the building would be fully refurbished and reopened in time for the Saints' 2006 home opener on September 25.
   
On October 3, 2011, it was announced that [[Mercedes-Benz]] purchased naming rights to the stadium. The new name took effect on October 23, 2011.<ref name=USA_Today_naming_rights>{{cite news|last=Woodyard|first=Chris|title=Mercedes-Benz buys naming rights to New Orleans' Superdome|url=http://content.usatoday.com/communities/driveon/post/2011/10/mercedes-benz-new-orleans-superdome-naming-rights-saints-bcs-super-bowl-2013/1|publisher=USA Today|accessdate=October 4, 2011|date=October 4, 2011}}</ref> It is the third stadium that has naming rights from Mercedes-Benz (and first in the United States), after the [[Mercedes-Benz Arena]] in Stuttgart, Germany and the [[Shanghai Arena|Mercedes-Benz Arena]] in Shanghai, China.
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On October 3, 2011, it was announced that German automaker [[Mercedes-Benz]] purchased naming rights to the stadium. The new name took effect on October 23, 2011.<ref name=USA_Today_naming_rights>{{cite news|last=Woodyard|first=Chris|title=Mercedes-Benz buys naming rights to New Orleans' Superdome|url=http://content.usatoday.com/communities/driveon/post/2011/10/mercedes-benz-new-orleans-superdome-naming-rights-saints-bcs-super-bowl-2013/1|work=USA Today|accessdate=October 4, 2011|date=October 4, 2011}}</ref>
   
 
==Description==
 
==Description==
The Superdome is located on {{Convert|52|acre}} of land, including the former [[Girod Street Cemetery]]. The dome has an interior space of {{Convert|125000000|cuft|m3|-5}}, a height of {{Convert|253|ft|m|1}}, a dome diameter of {{Convert|680|ft|m|1}}, and a total floor area of {{Convert|269000|sqft|m2|0}}.
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The Superdome is located on {{Convert|70
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|acre}} of land, including the former [[Girod Street Cemetery]]. The dome has an interior space of {{Convert|125000000|cuft|m3|-5}}, a height of {{Convert|253|ft|m|1}}, a dome diameter of {{Convert|680|ft|m|1}}, and a total floor area of {{Convert|269000|sqft|m2|0}}.
   
 
===Capacity===
 
===Capacity===
The Superdome has a listed football [[seating capacity]] of 76,468 (expanded) or 69,703 (not expanded), a maximum basketball seating capacity of 73,432, and a maximum baseball capacity of 63,525; however, published attendance figures from events such as the Sugar Bowl football game have exceeded 85,000.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://archives.chicagotribune.com/2008/jan/09/sports/chi-09-lsujan09|newspaper=[[Chicago Tribune]]|title=Featured Articles from the Chicago Tribune}}</ref> The basketball capacity does not reflect the NCAA's new policy on arranging the basketball court on the 50-yard line on the football field, per 2009 NCAA policy.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.ncaa.org/wps/wcm/connect/public/ncaa/resources/basketball+resources/seating+configuration+at+the+final+four|work=NCAA|title=Basketball Resources|date=January 2, 2012}}</ref> In 2011, 3,500 seats were added, increasing the Superdome's capacity to 76,468.
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The Superdome has a listed football [[seating capacity]] of 76,468 (expanded) or 73,208 (not expanded) and a maximum basketball seating capacity of 73,432. However, published attendance figures from events such as the Super Bowl football game have exceeded 79,000. The basketball capacity does not reflect the NCAA's new policy on arranging the basketball court on the 50-yard line on the football field, per 2009 NCAA policy.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.ncaa.org/wps/wcm/connect/public/ncaa/resources/basketball+resources/seating+configuration+at+the+final+four|work=NCAA|title=Basketball Resources|date=January 2, 2012|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131225181259/http://www.ncaa.org/wps/wcm/connect/public/NCAA/Resources/Basketball+Resources/Seating+Configuration+at+the+Final+Four|archivedate=December 25, 2013|df=}}</ref> In 2011, 3,500 seats were added, increasing the Superdome's capacity to 76,468. The Superdome's capacity was 78,133 for [[WWE]] [[WrestleMania 34]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.nola.com/festivals/index.ssf/2014/04/wrestlemania_xxx_live_blogging.html|title=WrestleMania XXX: Daniel Bryan wins WWE world heavyweight title|publisher=NOLA Media Group|accessdate=January 22, 2017}}</ref> The actual capacity is 73,208 people.
   
 
The chronology of the capacity for football is as follows:
 
The chronology of the capacity for football is as follows:
* 74,452 (1975–1978)<ref>{{cite news |url=http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1090246/index.htm|work=CNN|title=Galleries|date=September 15, 1975|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
+
{| class="wikitable"
* 71,330 (1979–1984)<ref>{{cite web |url=http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=HGtEAAAAIBAJ&sjid=cbIMAAAAIBAJ&pg=3705,241208&dq=en|title=Falcons Fight Hate|newspaper=[[The Albany Herald]]|date=September 2, 1979|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
+
|-
* 71,647 (1985–1986)<ref>{{cite web |url=http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=SKc_AAAAIBAJ&sjid=uVYMAAAAIBAJ&pg=4528,1593501&dq=en|title=Saints-Jets Game a Sellout|newspaper=[[The Vindicator]]|date=November 19, 1983|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
+
! scope="row" style="{{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints}};"|Years
* 69,723 (1987–1989)<ref>{{cite web |url=http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=tvglAAAAIBAJ&sjid=tvMFAAAAIBAJ&pg=1665,3369684&dq=en|title=Ranking the NFL Stadiums|newspaper=[[The Miami News]]|date=August 12, 1987|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
+
! scope="row" style="{{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints}};"|Capacity
* 69,065 (1990–1994)<ref>{{cite web |url=http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=xHEjAAAAIBAJ&sjid=0mMEAAAAIBAJ&pg=4347,2532202&dq=en|title=Jackson Blocks Out Bitter Past-And Saints Swilling|newspaper=[[Pittsburgh Post-Gazette]]|date=December 17, 1990|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
+
|-
* 70,852 (1995)<ref>{{cite web |url=http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=vDpAAAAAIBAJ&sjid=WlkMAAAAIBAJ&pg=4601,6943857&dq=en|title=Saints Stump Panthers|newspaper=[[The Robesonian]]|date=November 28, 1995|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
+
! scope="row" style="{{NFLAltPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints}};"|1975–1978
* 64,992 (1996)<ref>{{cite web |first=Dick|last=Brinster|url=http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=IXciAAAAIBAJ&sjid=jKwFAAAAIBAJ&pg=1083,2951923&dq=en|title=Broncos Wrap Up Home-Field Advantage|newspaper=[[Argus-Press]]|date=December 2, 1996|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
+
| 74,452<ref>{{cite news |title=Galleries|url=http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1090246/index.htm|work=CNN|date=September 15, 1975|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
* 69,420 (1997)<ref name="ESPN">{{cite book |title=ESPN Sports Almanac|year=1998|publisher=Information Please LLC|location=Boston|isbn=0-7868-8296-4}}</ref>
+
|-
* 69,028 (1998)
+
! scope="row" style="{{NFLAltPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints}};"|1979–1984
* 70,054 (1999)<ref>{{cite news |title=Williams Primed for Debut|url=http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=AD&p_theme=ad&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EB4790F28F82348&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM|newspaper=[[The Advocate (Louisiana)|The Advocate]]|date=September 10, 1999|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
+
| 71,330<ref>{{cite news |title=Falcons Fight Hate|url=https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=HGtEAAAAIBAJ&sjid=cbIMAAAAIBAJ&pg=3705,241208&dq=en|newspaper=[[The Albany Herald]]|date=September 2, 1979|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
* 64,900 (2000)<ref>{{cite news |url=http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/USAToday/access/63967245.html?dids=63967245:63967245&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Nov+16%2C+2000&author=Gary+Mihoces&pub=USA+TODAY&desc=Saints+tested+by+Williams+loss+Raiders%2C+Rams+loom+as+former+'Ain'ts'+seek+1st+playoff+win&pqatl=google|newspaper=[[USA Today]]|first=Gary|last=Mihoces|title=Saints Tested by Williams Loss Raiders, Rams Loom As Former 'Ain'ts' Seek 1st Playoff Win|date=November 16, 2000|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
+
|-
* 70,020 (2001)<ref>{{cite news |title=Roaf Listed As "Doubtful to Out" for Jets game|url=http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=AD&p_theme=ad&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EF8793D51CE1B8F&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM|newspaper=[[The Advocate (Louisiana)|The Advocate]]|date=November 1, 2001|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
+
! scope="row" style="{{NFLAltPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints}};"|1985–1986
* 68,500 (2002–2003)<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sportsbusinessdaily.com/Journal/Issues/2003/03/20030303/This-Weeks-Issue/Saints-Season-Tix-Offer-Scores.aspx|title=Saints’ Season-Tix Offer Scores|work=SportsBusiness Daily|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
+
| 71,647<ref>{{cite news |title=Saints-Jets Game a Sellout|url=https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=SKc_AAAAIBAJ&sjid=uVYMAAAAIBAJ&pg=4528,1593501&dq=en|newspaper=[[The Vindicator]]|location=Youngstown|date=November 19, 1983|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
* 64,900 (2004–2005)<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sportsbusinessdaily.com/Daily/Morning-Buzz/2004/08/05/Morning-Buzz-August-5-2004.aspx|title=Morning Buzz, August 5, 2004|work=SportsBusiness Daily|date=August 5, 2004|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
+
|-
* 70,003 (2006)<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.manualredeye.com/2010/03/06/soap-box-dey-need-it/|title=Soap Box: Dey Need It : RedEye|publisher=Manualredeye.com|date=March 6, 2010|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
+
! scope="row" style="{{NFLAltPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints}};"|1987–1990
* 72,968 (2007–2010)<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/08/31/AR2005083102576.html|newspaper=[[The Washington Post]]|first=Thomas|last=Heath|title=Obsolete Stadium Is Now Serving a Tragic Purpose|date=September 1, 2005|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
+
| 69,723<ref>{{cite news |title=Ranking the NFL Stadiums|url=https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=tvglAAAAIBAJ&sjid=tvMFAAAAIBAJ&pg=1665,3369684&dq=en|newspaper=[[The Miami News]]|date=August 12, 1987|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
* 76,468 (2011–present)
+
|-
  +
! scope="row" style="{{NFLAltPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints}};"|1991–1994
  +
| 69,065<ref>{{cite news |title=Jackson Blocks Out Bitter Past-And Saints Swilling|url=https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=xHEjAAAAIBAJ&sjid=0mMEAAAAIBAJ&pg=4347,2532202&dq=en|newspaper=[[Pittsburgh Post-Gazette]]|date=December 17, 1990|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
  +
|-
  +
! scope="row" style="{{NFLAltPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints}};"|1995
  +
| 70,852<ref>{{cite news |title=Saints Stump Panthers|url=https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=vDpAAAAAIBAJ&sjid=WlkMAAAAIBAJ&pg=4601,6943857&dq=en|newspaper=[[The Robesonian]]|date=November 28, 1995|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
  +
|-
  +
! scope="row" style="{{NFLAltPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints}};"|1996
  +
| 64,992<ref>{{cite news |title=Broncos Wrap Up Home-Field Advantage|first=Dick|last=Brinster|url=https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=IXciAAAAIBAJ&sjid=jKwFAAAAIBAJ&pg=1083,2951923&dq=en|newspaper=[[Argus-Press]]|date=December 2, 1996|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
  +
|-
  +
! scope="row" style="{{NFLAltPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints}};"|1997
  +
| 69,420<ref name="ESPN">{{cite book |title=ESPN Sports Almanac|year=1998|publisher=Information Please LLC|location=Boston|isbn=0-7868-8296-4}}</ref>
  +
|-
  +
! scope="row" style="{{NFLAltPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints}};"|1998
  +
| 69,028<ref>{{cite news |title=Nfc In Order Of Predicted Finishes|first=Charean|last=Williams|url=http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/1998-08-28/features/9808280660_1_kevin-greene-free-agent-steve-young|newspaper=[[Orlando Sentinel]]|date=August 28, 1998|accessdate=October 18, 2012}}</ref>
  +
|-
  +
! scope="row" style="{{NFLAltPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints}};"|1999
  +
| 70,054<ref>{{cite news |title=Williams Primed for Debut|url=http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=AD&p_theme=ad&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EB4790F28F82348&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM|newspaper=[[The Advocate (Louisiana)|The Advocate]]|location=Baton Rouge|date=September 10, 1999|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
  +
|-
  +
! scope="row" style="{{NFLAltPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints}};"|2000
  +
| 64,900<ref>{{cite news |title=Saints Tested by Williams Loss Raiders, Rams Loom As Former 'Ain'ts' Seek 1st Playoff Win|first=Gary|last=Mihoces|url=https://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/USAToday/access/63967245.html?dids=63967245:63967245&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Nov+16%2C+2000&author=Gary+Mihoces&pub=USA+TODAY&desc=Saints+tested+by+Williams+loss+Raiders%2C+Rams+loom+as+former+'Ain'ts'+seek+1st+playoff+win&pqatl=google|newspaper=[[USA Today]]|date=November 16, 2000|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
  +
|-
  +
! scope="row" style="{{NFLAltPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints}};"|2001
  +
| 70,020<ref>{{cite news |title=Roaf Listed As "Doubtful to Out" for Jets game|url=http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=AD&p_theme=ad&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EF8793D51CE1B8F&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM|newspaper=[[The Advocate (Louisiana)|The Advocate]]|location=Baton Rouge|date=November 1, 2001|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
  +
|-
  +
! scope="row" style="{{NFLAltPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints}};"|2002–2003
  +
| 68,500<ref>{{cite web |title=Saints' Season-Tix Offer Scores|url=http://www.sportsbusinessdaily.com/Journal/Issues/2003/03/20030303/This-Weeks-Issue/Saints-Season-Tix-Offer-Scores.aspx|work=SportsBusiness Daily|date=March 3, 2003|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
  +
|-
  +
! scope="row" style="{{NFLAltPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints}};"|2004–2005
  +
| 64,900<ref>{{cite web |title=Morning Buzz, August 5, 2004|url=http://www.sportsbusinessdaily.com/Daily/Morning-Buzz/2004/08/05/Morning-Buzz-August-5-2004.aspx|work=SportsBusiness Daily|date=August 5, 2004|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
  +
|-
  +
! scope="row" style="{{NFLAltPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints}};"|2006
  +
| 68,354<ref>{{cite news|title=Sellout of Season Tickets Shows Faith in N.O., Benson Says|first=Jimmy|last=Smith|url=http://www.nola.com/saintsbeat/weblog/index.ssf?/printer/printer.ssf?/base/news-6/1158735078294750.xml&coll=1&style=print|newspaper=[[The Times-Picayune]]|location=New Orleans|date=September 20, 2006|accessdate=October 18, 2012|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20121025182601/http://www.nola.com/saintsbeat/weblog/index.ssf?%2Fprinter%2Fprinter.ssf%3F%2Fbase%2Fnews-6%2F1158735078294750.xml&coll=1&style=print|archivedate=October 25, 2012|df=}}</ref>
  +
|-
  +
! scope="row" style="{{NFLAltPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints}};"|2007–2010
  +
| 72,968<ref>{{cite news |title=Obsolete Stadium Is Now Serving a Tragic Purpose|first=Thomas|last=Heath|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/08/31/AR2005083102576.html|newspaper=[[The Washington Post]]|date=September 1, 2005|accessdate=October 22, 2011}}</ref>
  +
|-
  +
! scope="row" style="{{NFLAltPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints}};"|2011–present
  +
| 73,208 (expandable to 76,468)
  +
|}
   
==Football==
+
==Sports==
The Superdome's primary tenant is the NFL's New Orleans Saints. The team regularly draws capacity crowds.<ref>{{cite web |title=Saints sell out Superdome for sixth season in a row|url=http://www.nfl.com/news/story/09000d5d81ff44d6/article/saints-sell-out-superdome-for-sixth-season-in-a-row|publisher=NFL|accessdate=October 4, 2011|date=May 22, 2011}}</ref>
 
   
The NFL has hosted six [[Super Bowl]]s at the Superdome, with a seventh scheduled for 2013.
+
===Football===
  +
[[File:The Dome New Orleans Man Trip.jpg|thumb|right|400px|Panoramic of 69,719 in attendance<ref>{{cite web|title=2010 Detroit lions: 2009 Season in Review|url=http://media.detroitlions.com/images/9007/media_guide/2010/2010_Det_SeasonReview.pdf|website=Detroit Lions|page=2|access-date=September 23, 2012}}</ref> during a Saints game vs the [[Detroit Lions]], 2009.]]
  +
The Superdome's primary tenant is the [[National Football League|NFL's]] [[New Orleans Saints]]. The team regularly draws capacity crowds.<ref>{{cite web |title=Saints sell out Superdome for sixth season in a row|url=http://www.nfl.com/news/story/09000d5d81ff44d6/article/saints-sell-out-superdome-for-sixth-season-in-a-row|publisher=NFL|access-date=October 4, 2011|date=May 22, 2011}}</ref>
   
In college football, Tulane University plays all of their home games at the stadium, although the school is planning to build [[Tulane Community Stadium|a smaller on-campus stadium]] and move there in 2014.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.nola.com/tulane/index.ssf/2011/12/tulane_plans_to_build_a_30000-.html|title=Tulane Plans to Build a 30,000-plus Seat On-Campus Football Stadium|first=Tammy|last=Nunez|newspaper=[[The Times-Picayune]]|date=December 8, 2011|accessdate=March 27, 2012}}</ref> The [[BCS National Championship Game]] has been played at the Superdome four times. Two other bowl games are also played there annually: the [[Sugar Bowl]] and [[New Orleans Bowl]]. The Superdome also hosts the [[Bayou Classic]], a [[List of black college football classics|major regular-season game]] between two of the state's [[historically black colleges and universities]], [[Grambling State Tigers football|Grambling State]] and [[Southern Jaguars football|Southern]].
+
The NFL has hosted seven [[Super Bowl]]s at the Superdome, most recently [[Super Bowl XLVII]] in 2013. The Superdome is scheduled to host its eighth Super Bowl in 2024.
   
===Home field advantage===
+
The [[1976 Pro Bowl]] was held at the Superdome on Monday, January 26, 1976. It was the NFL's 26th annual all-star game.<ref name=GameBook>{{cite web|title=1976 Pro Bowl game book |url=http://www.nflgsis.com/1975/Post/04/55145/Gamebook.pdf |work=NFL Game Statistics & Information |publisher=[[National Football League]] |format=PDF |access-date=January 30, 2012 |archiveurl=https://www.webcitation.org/655Hy2grR?url=http://www.nflgsis.com/1975/Post/04/55145/Gamebook.pdf |archivedate=January 30, 2012 |deadurl=no |df= }}</ref>
Since the Superdome's reopening in the wake of Hurricane Katrina and the increased success of the New Orleans Saints, the Superdome has developed a reputation for having a very strong home field advantage. While all domed stadiums possess this quality to some degree, the Superdome is known to get extremely loud during games, especially during offensive drives by the visiting team.
 
   
During a pregame interview before the Minnesota Vikings' opening game of the 2010 NFL season against the Saints, Brett Favre, reflecting on the Vikings' loss to the Saints in the 2009–10 NFC Championship Game, said of the Superdome: "That was, by far, the most hostile environment I've ever been in. You couldn't hear anything." It was during that loss that some of the Vikings players elected to wear earplugs, including Favre. It was the first game of the season that they had chosen to do so.<ref>http://www.fannation.com/truth_and_rumors/view/147830-vikings-to-wear-earplugs-in-superdome St. Paul Pioneer Press</ref>
+
[[Tulane Green Wave football|Tulane University]] played their home games at the stadium from 1975 to 2013 (except 2005) before moving to on-campus [[Yulman Stadium]].<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.nola.com/tulane/index.ssf/2011/12/tulane_plans_to_build_a_30000-.html|title=Tulane Plans to Build a 30,000-plus Seat On-Campus Football Stadium|first=Tammy|last=Nunez|newspaper=[[The Times-Picayune]]|location=New Orleans|date=December 8, 2011|access-date=March 27, 2012}}</ref>
   
==Baseball==
+
The [[BCS National Championship Game]] was played at the Superdome four times. The [[College Football Playoff]] semifinal game is played every three years in the stadium. Two other bowl games are also played there annually: the [[Sugar Bowl]] and [[New Orleans Bowl]]. The Superdome also hosts the [[Bayou Classic]], a [[List of black college football classics|major regular-season game]] between two of the state's [[historically black colleges and universities]], [[Grambling State Tigers football|Grambling State]] and [[Southern Jaguars football|Southern]].
The first baseball game in the Superdome was an exhibition between the [[Minnesota Twins]] and the [[Houston Astros]] on April 6, 1976.<ref>{{cite news |title=Home in the Dome|url=http://www.sportsmogul.com/vbulletin2/attachment.php?attachmentid=30795&d=1275411938|agency=Associated Press|accessdate=June 2, 2010}}</ref> The [[American Association (20th century)|American Association]] [[New Orleans Pelicans]] played at the Superdome during the 1977 season. The Pelicans' season attendance was 217,957 at the dome.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of New Orleans Baseball|url=http://www.neworleansbaseball.com/history.html|accessdate=September 21, 2009}}</ref>
 
   
Superdome officials pursued negotiations with [[Oakland Athletics]] officials during the 1978–1979 baseball off-season about moving the Athletics to the Superdome. The Athletics were unable to break their lease at the [[Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum]] and remained in Oakland.<ref>{{cite news |author=[[United Press International]]|title=Yankees, Twins Still Dickering|url=http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=mBQOAAAAIBAJ&sjid=QnwDAAAAIBAJ&pg=6523,5452839&dq=superdome+yankees|newspaper=[[Tampa Bay Times|St. Petersburg Times]]|date=January 30, 1979|accessdate=June 19, 2009}}</ref> Superdome officials met with the [[Pittsburgh Pirates]] in April 1981 about moving the club to New Orleans when the Pirates were unhappy with their lease at [[Three Rivers Stadium]].<ref>{{cite news |author=[[Associated Press]]|title=Pirates Considering New Orleans Move|url=http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=KBQQAAAAIBAJ&sjid=Ko8DAAAAIBAJ&pg=4488,2263737&dq=superdome+yankees|newspaper=Ellensburg Daily Record|date=April 24, 1981|accessdate=June 19, 2009}}</ref>
+
In 2013, the [[Arena Football League]] [[New Orleans VooDoo]] played their last six home games of the season at the stadium. From 1991 to 1992, the [[New Orleans Night]] of the [[Arena Football League|AFL]] played at the stadium.
   
The [[New York Yankees]] played exhibition games at the Superdome in 1980, 1981, 1982, and 1983. The Yankees hosted the [[Baltimore Orioles]] on March 15 and 16, 1980. 45,152 spectators watched the Yankees beat the Orioles 9 to 3 on March 15, 1980. The following day, 43,339 fans saw [[Floyd Rayford]] lead the Orioles to a 7 to 1 win over the Yankees.<ref>{{cite news |author=[[Associated Press]]|title=Big Crowds See Baseball at Superdome|url=http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=ln0UAAAAIBAJ&sjid=LQMEAAAAIBAJ&pg=4892,4343235&dq=superdome+yankees|newspaper=[[The Blade (newspaper)|Toledo Blade]]|date=March 17, 1980|accessdate=June 19, 2009}}</ref> Late in 1982, the Yankees considered opening the 1983 regular season at the Superdome if Yankee Stadium would not be ready yet after renovations.<ref>{{cite news |title=SPORTS PEOPLE; Yankees, Southern Style|url=http://www.nytimes.com/1982/10/15/sports/sports-people-yankees-southern-style.html|newspaper=[[The New York Times]]|date=October 15, 1982|accessdate=June 19, 2009}}</ref> Attendance slipped to 15,129 for a March 27, 1983 Yankees-[[Toronto Blue Jays|Blue Jays]] exhibition game at the Superdome.<ref>{{cite news |title=Yanks' Alexander Impressive in Win Over Jays|url=http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=ISAMAAAAIBAJ&sjid=yV0DAAAAIBAJ&pg=3818,5134859&dq=superdome+yankees|newspaper=[[Tampa Bay Times|St. Petersburg Times]]|date=March 28, 1983|accessdate=June 19, 2009}}</ref> The [[Philadelphia Phillies]] and [[St. Louis Cardinals]] closed the 1984 spring training season with two games at the dome on March 31, 1984 and April 1, 1984.<ref>{{cite news |title=Phillies Full of Questions for Opener|publisher=[[The Philadelphia Inquirer]]|date=Apri 2, 1984|accessdate=June 19, 2009}}</ref>
+
The annual Louisiana Prep Classic state championship football games organized by the [[Louisiana High School Athletic Association]] have been held at the Superdome since 1981, except in 2005 following the extreme damage of Hurricane Katrina. The first state championship game in the stadium matched [[New Orleans Catholic League]] powers [[St. Augustine High School (New Orleans)|St. Augustine]] and [[Jesuit High School (New Orleans)|Jesuit]] on December 15, 1978. The Purple Knights won their second Class AAAA title in four seasons by ousting the Blue Jays, 13–7, in front of over 42,000 fans.
   
==Basketball==
+
{| class="wikitable" style=font-size:100% style="text-align:center"
The NCAA has hosted the [[NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship|Men's Final Four]] at the Superdome five times, most recently in [[2012 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament|2012]].
+
|-
  +
!style="text-align:center;{{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};|Date
  +
!style="text-align:center;{{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};|Super Bowl
  +
!style="text-align:center;{{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};|Team (Visitor)
  +
!style="text-align:center;{{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};|Points
  +
!style="text-align:center;{{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};|Team (Home)
  +
!style="text-align:center;{{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};|Points
  +
!style="text-align:center;{{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};|Spectators
  +
|-
  +
|January 15, 1978 || [[Super Bowl XII|XII]]|| '''[[1977 Dallas Cowboys season|Dallas Cowboys]]''' || 27|| [[1977 Denver Broncos season|Denver Broncos]] || 10||76,400
  +
|-
  +
|January 25, 1981 || [[Super Bowl XV|XV]]|| '''[[1980 Oakland Raiders season|Oakland Raiders]]''' || 27|| [[1980 Philadelphia Eagles season|Philadelphia Eagles]] || 10||76,135
  +
|-
  +
|January 26, 1986 || [[Super Bowl XX|XX]]|| '''[[1985 Chicago Bears season|Chicago Bears]]''' || 46|| [[1985 New England Patriots season|New England Patriots]] || 10||73,818
  +
|-
  +
|January 28, 1990 || [[Super Bowl XXIV|XXIV]]|| '''[[1989 San Francisco 49ers season|San Francisco 49ers]]''' || 55|| [[1989 Denver Broncos season|Denver Broncos]] || 10||72,919
  +
|-
  +
|January 26, 1997 || [[Super Bowl XXXI|XXXI]]|| [[1996 New England Patriots season|New England Patriots]] || 21|| '''[[1996 Green Bay Packers season|Green Bay Packers]]''' || 35||72,301
  +
|-
  +
|February 3, 2002 || [[Super Bowl XXXVI|XXXVI]]|| [[2001 St. Louis Rams season|St. Louis Rams]] || 17|| '''[[2001 New England Patriots season|New England Patriots]]''' || 20||72,922
  +
|-
  +
|February 3, 2013 || [[Super Bowl XLVII|XLVII]]|| '''[[2012 Baltimore Ravens season|Baltimore Ravens]]''' || 34|| [[2012 San Francisco 49ers season|San Francisco 49ers]] || 31||71,024
  +
|}
   
The NBA's [[Utah Jazz|New Orleans Jazz]] used the Superdome as their home court, from 1975–1979. In 1977, the Jazz set a then-record in attendance for an NBA game, with 35,077 watching the Jazz led by [[Pete Maravich|Pete "Pistol Pete" Maravich]] against the [[Philadelphia 76ers]].<ref name=Timeline>{{cite web |title=Timeline|url=http://www.superdome.com/time|publisher=Louisiana Superdome|accessdate=October 4, 2011}}</ref>
+
'''Home field advantage'''<br />Since the Superdome's reopening in the wake of Hurricane Katrina and the increased success of the New Orleans Saints, the Superdome has developed a reputation for having a very strong home field advantage. While all domed stadiums possess this quality to some degree, the Superdome is known to get extremely loud during games, especially during offensive drives by the visiting team.
   
==Boxing==
+
During a pregame interview before the Minnesota Vikings' opening game of the 2010 NFL season against the Saints, Brett Favre, reflecting on the Vikings' loss to the Saints in the 2009–10 NFC Championship Game, said of the Superdome: "That was, by far, the most hostile environment I've ever been in. You couldn't hear anything." It was during that loss that some of the Vikings players elected to wear earplugs, including Favre. It was the first game of the season that they had chosen to do so.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.fannation.com/truth_and_rumors/view/147830-vikings-to-wear-earplugs-in-superdome|title=Sports News, Scores and Highlights from Sports Illustrated – SI.com|website=www.fannation.com}}</ref>
The Superdome has been the venue of several major boxing events, such as when [[Muhammad Ali]] won the world Heavyweight title for the third time by beating [[Leon Spinks]] in their rematch, the [[The No Mas Fight|rematch between Sugar Ray Leonard and Roberto Duran]] and [[Carnival of Champions|the Wilfredo Gomez-Lupe Pintor, Thomas Hearns-Wilfred Benitez doubleheader]].<ref>http://boxrec.com/location.php?country_code=US&region_name=LA&towncity_name=&towncity_id=19136&venue_name=&venue_id=34822&yyyy=&submit=Go</ref>
 
   
==Stadium history==
+
===Baseball===
===Planning===
+
When the plaza level seats remained moveable, the capacity for baseball was 63,525 and the field size was as followed: 325 feet to both left field and right field, 365 feet to both left-center field and right-center field, 421 feet to center field, and 60 feet to the backstop. The bowl was reconfigured in a renovation from 2006–2011, which replaced the moveable seats with a pre-cast concrete deck and moved the seating closer to the field, creating 3,500 new seats in the lower bowl. This made the bowl more suitable for football, but less accommodating for baseball.<ref>{{cite news|title=Final phase of Superdome facelift is under way|url=https://www.nola.com/saints/index.ssf/2011/01/final_phase_of_superdome_facel.html|date=January 22, 2011|accessdate=January 1, 2019}}</ref>
Sports visionary [[David Dixon (businessman)|David Dixon]] (who decades later founded the [[United States Football League]]) conceived of the Superdome while attempting to convince the NFL to award a franchise to New Orleans. After hosting several exhibition games at [[Tulane Stadium]] during typical New Orleans summer thunderstorms, Dixon was told by NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle that the NFL would never expand into New Orleans without a domed stadium. Dixon then won the support of the [[list of Governors of Louisiana|governor]] of [[Louisiana]], [[John McKeithen]]. When they toured the [[Reliant Astrodome|Astrodome]] in [[Houston]], [[Texas]] in 1966, McKeithen was quoted as saying, "I want one of these, only bigger," in reference to the Astrodome itself. Bonds were passed for construction of the Superdome on November 8, 1966, seven days after commissioner [[Pete Rozelle]] awarded New Orleans the 25th professional football franchise. The stadium was conceptualized to be a multifunctional stadium for football, baseball and basketball [with moveable field level stands that would be arranged specifically for each sport and areas with dirt (for the bases and pitchers mound) covered with metal plates on the stadium floor (they were covered by the artificial turf during football games)] and there are also Meeting Rooms that could be rented for many different purposes. Dixon imagined the possibilities of staging simultaneous high school football games side-by-side and suggested that the synthetic surface be white.<ref>{{cite news |title=Louisiana Plans Functional Stadium|newspaper=[[The New York Times]]|date=June 11, 1967|url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20716F93D5B107B93C3A8178DD85F438685F9|page=215}}</ref> Blount International of [[Montgomery, Alabama|Montgomery]], [[Alabama]] was chosen to build the stadium.<ref name="Air University">{{cite web |url=http://www.au.af.mil/au/goe/eagle_bios/2001/blount_2001.asp|title=Air University: Eagle Biography: Winton M. "Red" Blount|publisher=Au.af.mil|accessdate=December 14, 2011}}</ref>
 
   
It was hoped the stadium would be ready in time for the [[1972 NFL season]], and the final cost of the facility would come in at $46&nbsp;million. Instead, due to political delays, construction did not start until August 11, 1971, and was not finished until August 1975, seven months after [[Super Bowl IX]] was scheduled to be played in the stadium. Since the stadium was not finished in time for the Super Bowl, the game had to be moved to [[Tulane Stadium]], and was played in cold and rainy conditions. Factoring in inflation, construction delays, and the increase in transportation costs caused by the [[1973 oil crisis]], the final price tag of the stadium skyrocketed to $165&nbsp;million.
+
The first baseball game in the Superdome was an exhibition between the [[1976 Minnesota Twins season|Minnesota Twins]] and the [[1976 Houston Astros season|Houston Astros]] on April 6, 1976.<ref name="Home in the Dome">{{cite news|title=Home in the Dome|url=http://www.sportsmogul.com/vbulletin2/attachment.php?attachmentid=30795&d=1275411938|agency=Associated Press|accessdate=June 2, 2010|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110928090028/http://www.sportsmogul.com/vbulletin2/attachment.php?attachmentid=30795&d=1275411938|archivedate=September 28, 2011|df=}}</ref>
   
===Early history===
+
Superdome officials pursued negotiations with [[Oakland Athletics]] officials during the 1978–79 baseball off-season about moving the Athletics to the Superdome. The Athletics were unable to break their lease at the [[Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum]] and remained in Oakland.<ref>{{cite news |author=[[United Press International]]|title=Yankees, Twins Still Dickering|url=https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=mBQOAAAAIBAJ&sjid=QnwDAAAAIBAJ&pg=6523,5452839&dq=superdome+yankees|newspaper=[[St. Petersburg Times]]|date=January 30, 1979|accessdate=June 19, 2009}}</ref> Superdome officials met with the [[Pittsburgh Pirates]] in April 1981 about moving the club to New Orleans when the Pirates were unhappy with their lease at [[Three Rivers Stadium]].<ref>{{cite news |agency=Associated Press|title=Pirates Considering New Orleans Move|url=https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=KBQQAAAAIBAJ&sjid=Ko8DAAAAIBAJ&pg=4488,2263737&dq=superdome+yankees|newspaper=Ellensburg Daily Record|date=April 24, 1981|accessdate=June 19, 2009}}</ref>
The [[New Orleans Saints]] opened the [[1975 NFL season]] at the Superdome, losing 21–0 to the [[Cincinnati Bengals]] in the first regular-season game in the facility. Tulane Stadium was condemned for destruction on the day the Superdome opened, although the original concrete sections stood on the [[Tulane University]] campus until November 1979.
 
   
The first Super Bowl played in the stadium was [[Super Bowl XII]] in January [[1977 NFL season|1978]], the first in [[prime time]].
+
'''Minor League Baseball'''<br />The [[American Association (20th century)|American Association]] [[New Orleans Pelicans (baseball)|New Orleans Pelicans]] played at the Superdome during the 1977 season. The Pelicans' season attendance was 217,957 at the dome.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of New Orleans Baseball|url=http://www.neworleansbaseball.com/history.html|accessdate=September 21, 2009}}</ref>
   
The original artificial turf playing surface in the Superdome was produced by Monsanto specifically for the Superdome and was named "Mardi Grass."<ref name="ballparks1"/>
+
'''Major League Baseball Exhibitions'''<br />The [[1976 Minnesota Twins season|Minnesota Twins]] and the [[1976 Houston Astros season|Houston Astros]] played an exhibition game on April 6, 1976.<ref name="Home in the Dome"/> The [[New York Yankees]] played exhibition games at the Superdome in 1980, 1981, 1982, and 1983. The Yankees hosted the [[1980 Baltimore Orioles season|Baltimore Orioles]] on March 15 and 16, 1980. 45,152 spectators watched the Yankees beat the Orioles 9–3 on March 15, 1980. The following day, 43,339 fans saw [[Floyd Rayford]] lead the Orioles to a 7–1 win over the Yankees.<ref>{{cite news |agency=Associated Press|title=Big Crowds See Baseball at Superdome|url=https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=ln0UAAAAIBAJ&sjid=LQMEAAAAIBAJ&pg=4892,4343235&dq=superdome+yankees|newspaper=[[The Blade (Toledo)|Toledo Blade]]|date=March 17, 1980|accessdate=June 19, 2009}}</ref> In 1981, the [[1981 New York Yankees season|Yankees]] played the [[1981 New York Mets season|New York Mets]], [[1981 Philadelphia Phillies season|Philadelphia Philles]] and [[1981 Pittsburgh Pirates season|Pittsburgh Pirates]] in the dome. In 1982, the [[1982 New York Yankees season|Yankees]] played the [[1982 Montreal Expos season|Montreal Expos]] and [[1982 Texas Rangers season|Texas Rangers]] and late in 1982, the Yankees considered opening the 1983 regular season at the Superdome if Yankee Stadium would not be ready yet after renovations.<ref>{{cite news |title=SPORTS PEOPLE; Yankees, Southern Style|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1982/10/15/sports/sports-people-yankees-southern-style.html|newspaper=[[The New York Times]]|date=October 15, 1982|accessdate=June 19, 2009}}</ref> The [[1983 New York Yankees season|1983 New York Yankees]] also played the [[1983 Montreal Expos season|Montreal Expos]] and [[1983 Toronto Blue Jays season|Toronto Blue Jays]] in the Superdome that year.<ref>{{cite news |title=Yanks' Alexander Impressive in Win Over Jays|url=https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=ISAMAAAAIBAJ&sjid=yV0DAAAAIBAJ&pg=3818,5134859&dq=superdome+yankees|newspaper=[[St. Petersburg Times]]|date=March 28, 1983|accessdate=June 19, 2009}}</ref> The [[1984 Philadelphia Phillies season|Philadelphia Phillies]] and [[1984 St. Louis Cardinals season|St. Louis Cardinals]] closed the 1984 spring training season with two games at the dome on March 31, 1984 and April 1, 1984.<ref>{{cite news |title=Phillies Full of Questions for Opener|newspaper=[[The Philadelphia Inquirer]]|date=April 2, 1984}}</ref> In what was a preview of the [[1989 World Series]], the [[1989 Oakland Athletics season|Oakland A's]] played the [[1989 San Francisco Giants season|San Francisco Giants]] in two games on March 28–29, 1989.<ref name="thetenthinning.com">{{cite web| title=Marlins' Upcoming Game In New Orleans Triggers a Look Back|publisher=thetenthinning.com|url=http://thetenthinning.com/blog.php?s=marlins-upcoming-game-in-new-orleans-triggers-a-look-back|accessdate=2015-03-29}}</ref> In 1991, the [[1991 Los Angeles Dodgers season|Los Angeles Dodgers]] played the [[1991 Oakland Athletics season|Oakland A's]] in two games on March 22–23, 1991. The [[1993 Oakland Athletics season|A's]] also played the [[1993 New York Mets season|New York Mets]] in two contests on March 26–27, 1993. In 1994, the [[1994 Boston Red Sox season|Boston Red Sox]] played the [[1994 New York Yankees season|New York Yankees]] in two games on April 1–2, 1994. The last professional baseball games played in the Superdome occurred on April 3–4, 1999, when the [[1999 Chicago Cubs season|Chicago Cubs]] and [[1999 Minnesota Twins season|Minnesota Twins]] played a two-game series dubbed the "New Orleans Major League Baseball Classic."<ref name="thetenthinning.com"/>
   
===20th century special events===
+
'''Busch Challenge/Winn-Dixie Showdown'''<br />The Busch Challenge/Winn-Dixie Showdown was a college baseball tournament held in the Superdome from 1987 to 1999. [[LSU Tigers baseball|LSU]], [[Tulane Green Wave baseball|Tulane]] and [[New Orleans Privateers baseball|University of New Orleans]] played an in-state team and out-of-state teams from Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma and Texas in the annual tournament. The in-state team was [[Louisiana–Lafayette Ragin' Cajuns baseball|Louisiana-Lafayette]]. The out-of-state teams were [[University of Alabama|Alabama]], [[Arkansas Razorbacks baseball|Arkansas]], [[Auburn Tigers baseball|Auburn]], [[Cal State Fullerton Titans baseball|Cal State Fullerton]], [[Duke Blue Devils baseball|Duke]], [[Florida Gators baseball|Florida]], [[Florida State Seminoles baseball|Florida State]], [[Georgia Bulldogs baseball|Georgia]], [[Georgia Southern Eagles baseball|Georgia Southern]], [[Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets baseball|Georgia Tech]], [[Houston Cougars baseball|Houston]], [[Lamar Cardinals baseball|Lamar]], [[Miami Hurricanes baseball|Miami (FL)]], [[Mississippi State Bulldogs baseball|Mississippi State]], [[NC State Wolfpack baseball|NC State]], [[North Carolina Tar Heels baseball|North Carolina]], [[Oklahoma Sooners baseball|Oklahoma]], [[Oklahoma State Cowboys baseball|Oklahoma State]], [[Ole Miss Rebels baseball|Ole Miss]], [[Oral Roberts Golden Eagles baseball|Oral Roberts]], [[South Alabama Jaguars baseball|South Alabama]], [[USC Trojans baseball|Southern California]], [[Southern Miss Golden Eagles baseball|Southern Mississippi]], [[Texas A&M Aggies baseball|Texas A&M]], [[UCLA Bruins baseball|UCLA]].<ref>{{cite web| title=LSU Baseball Media Guide|publisher=lsusports.net|url=http://www.lsusports.net/ViewArticle.dbml?SPSID=27865&SPID=2173&DB_OEM_ID=5200&ATCLID=209882628|accessdate=2015-03-21}}</ref>
   
In [[boxing]], [[Muhammad Ali]] defeated [[Leon Spinks]], in Ali's last professional win, in front of a crowd of 65,000 in 1978.<ref name=Timeline />
+
===Basketball===
  +
The NCAA has hosted the [[NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Championship|Men's Final Four]] at the Superdome five times in [[1982 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament|1982]], [[1987 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament|1987]], [[1993 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament|1993]], [[2003 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament|2003]], and [[2012 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament|2012]]. The stadium hosted regional semifinals and finals in [[1981 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament|1981]] and [[1990 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament|1990]], as well as first- and second-round games in [[1999 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament|1999]] and [[2001 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament|2001]].
   
A 1981 [[The Rolling Stones|Rolling Stones]] concert attracted more than 87,500 spectators, with attendees filling the floor area as well as the regular seating sections.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.superdome.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=20&Itemid=38|title=The Mercedes-Benz Superdome Home|publisher=Superdome.com|accessdate=December 14, 2011}}</ref>
+
The NBA's [[New Orleans Jazz (NBA team)|New Orleans Jazz]] used the Superdome as their home court, from 1975 to 1979. In [[1976–77 NBA season|1977]], the Jazz set a then-record in attendance for an NBA game, with 35,077 watching the Jazz led by [[Pete Maravich|Pete "Pistol Pete" Maravich]] against the [[1976–77 Philadelphia 76ers season|Philadelphia 76ers]],<ref name=Timeline>{{cite web|title=Timeline|url=http://www.superdome.com/time|publisher=Louisiana Superdome|accessdate=October 4, 2011|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111101130421/http://www.superdome.com/time|archivedate=November 1, 2011|df=}}</ref> led by fellow future Hall of Famer [[Julius Erving]].
   
[[Pope John Paul II]] addressed 80,000 children at the stadium in 1987.<ref name=Timeline />
+
[[Tulane Green Wave men's basketball|Tulane]] used the Superdome as its primary home court from its opening in 1975 through 1982. It played occasional games there in the 1990s against high-profile opponents before the opening of the [[New Orleans Arena]] (now the Smoothie King Center) in 1999.
   
The [[Republican National Convention]] was held there in 1988.<ref name=Timeline />
+
In 1996, the stadium hosted the [[Amateur Athletic Union|AAU]] Junior Olympics basketball competition.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.aauresults.org/jogames/pdf/1996/19961243447586.pdf|title=Basketball|publisher=aauresults.org|accessdate=2018-06-20}}</ref>
   
[[Metallica]] and [[Guns N' Roses]] brought the [[Guns N' Roses/Metallica Stadium Tour]] to the Superdome on August 29, 1992, with [[Faith No More]] as their opening act.
+
===Boxing===
  +
On October 14, 1975, the Dome hosted [[Muhammad Ali]] Appreciation Day. The Muhammad Temple of Islam 46 in New Orleans organized the activities, with Ali's appearance as the day's highlight. Speakers included Dr. [[Na'im Akbar]], [[Warith Deen Muhammad|Wallace D. Muhammad]] and [[Louis Farrakhan]].<ref>''Louisiana Superdome Newsletter'' IV:11 (November 15, 1975). [http://larc.tulane.edu Louisiana Research Collection, Tulane University Libraries.]</ref>
  +
  +
The Superdome hosted the September 15, 1978 fight some called the '''[[Leon Spinks vs. Muhammad Ali II|Ali rematch]]''' where [[Muhammad Ali]] won the world Heavyweight title for the third time by beating [[Leon Spinks]] in front of a crowd of 65,000. It was Ali's last professional win.
  +
  +
[[Leonard–Durán II]], also known as the ''No Más Fight'', took place on November 25, 1980 at the [[Mercedes-Benz|Louisiana Superdome]]. In the match, [[Sugar Ray Leonard]] defeated [[Roberto Durán]] to regain the WBC Welterweight Championship. The match gained its famous appellation in the end of the eighth round when Durán turned away from Leonard, towards the referee and quit by saying "No más" (Spanish for "No more").
  +
  +
On December 3, 1982, the Superdome hosted the [[Carnival of Champions]]. In the first of two co-main events, [[Wilfredo Gómez]] would defend his WBC world Jr Featherweight championship against WBC's world Bantamweight champion [[Lupe Pintor]]. In the second, [[Wilfred Benítez]] defended his WBC world Jr Middleweight championship against the former WBA Welterweight champion of the world [[Thomas Hearns]].<ref>[http://boxrec.com/location.php?country_code=US&region_name=LA&towncity_name=&towncity_id=19136&venue_name=&venue_id=34822&yyyy=&submit=Go BoxRec Boxing Records]. Boxrec.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-29.</ref>
  +
  +
===Gymnastics===
  +
The USSR National Gymnastics Team performed for the first time in Louisiana in 1976. The Superdome event featured [[Olga Korbut]], [[Nelli Kim]], [[Nicolai Andrianov]] and [[Alexander Dityatin]].
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  +
At the 1995 U.S. Gymnastics National Championships,<ref>{{cite web |title=Gymnastics Results |url=http://usagym.org/PDFs/Results/nationals_artistic_1995.pdf |work=[[USA Gymnastics]] |date=September 1995 |accessdate=January 20, 2019}}</ref> [[Dominique Moceanu]] became the youngest Women's All-Around National Champion in U.S. history at 13 years old, a record that still stands.<ref>{{cite web |title=Dominique Moceanu |url=https://usagym.org/pages/athletes/archivedbios/m/dmoceanu.pdf |work=USA Gymnastics |accessdate=January 20, 2019}}</ref> [[John Roethlisberger]] also won his fourth and final U.S. Men's All-Around National Championship.
  +
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In 1996, the stadium hosted the [[Amateur Athletic Union|AAU]] Junior Olympics gymnastics competition.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.aauresults.org/jogames/pdf/1996/19961243447630.pdf|title=Gymnastics|publisher=aauresults.org|accessdate=2018-06-20}}</ref>
  +
  +
===Motocross===
  +
  +
The Superdome hosted an [[AMA Supercross Championship]] round from 1977 to 1980, 1998 to 2002, 2009 and 2012. On June 4, 1977, 40,000 fans watched [[Jimmy Weinert]] win the sixth of 12 races for a $250,000 purse. 20 million pounds of dirt were piled into the center of the Superdome for the event.<ref>"Superdome Supercross is Super." ''Louisiana Superdome Newsletter'' 6:7 (July 1977).[http://larc.tulane.edu Louisiana Research Collection, Tulane University Libraries.]</ref>
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===Rugby Union===
  +
The Superdome was scheduled to host a rugby union match on August 1, 2015 between English Premiership team [[Saracens F.C.|Saracens]] and New Zealand's Super Rugby team [[Crusaders (rugby union)|Crusaders]].<ref>[http://www.thisisamericanrugby.com/2015/05/saracens-crusaders-to-play-in-new.html "Saracens, Crusaders To Play In New Orleans"], This Is American Rugby, May 19, 2015.</ref> The match was organized by RugbyLaw, organizers of the [[National Rugby Football League]]. The match was cancelled, however, as [[USA Rugby]], the governing body of the sport in the United States, refused to approve the artificial turf playing surface.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.hemispherecup.world/ |title=Hemispheres Cup |accessdate=2016-03-10 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160311075135/http://www.hemispherecup.world/ |archivedate=2016-03-11 |df= }}</ref>
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===Soccer===
  +
The first soccer match to be held in the Superdome, on September 5, 1976, pitted New Orleans local club teams, The Costa Rica Soccer Club and The Olympia Soccer Club. This match was immediately followed by the second soccer match to be held in the Superdome which pitted The [[New York Cosmos (1970–85)|New York Cosmos]] and the [[Dallas Tornado]]. The Brazilian star [[Pelé]] and [[Kyle Rote, Jr.]] led their respective teams. The [[USWNT]] played their Final Victory Tour game against China on December 16, 2015 in what was the final match for [[Abby Wambach]]. China won 1-0 with the attendance of 32,950, making it a record setting attendance for a soccer match in Louisiana. On October 19, 2017, the [[USWNT]] played an international friendly against the Korea Republic, defeating them 3-1. Alex Morgan scored in the 40th minute for the United States, tallying her 78th career goal.<ref>{{cite web |title=WNT Downs Korea Republic 3-1 in New Orleans |url=https://www.ussoccer.com/stories/2017/10/20/01/54/20171019-recap-wnt-usa-vs-korea-republic-new-orleans |work=[[United States Soccer Federation|U.S. Soccer]] |date=October 19, 2017 |accessdate=January 20, 2019}}</ref>
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  +
====International Soccer Matches====
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{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:left; width:95%;" style="text-align:center"
  +
|-
  +
!style="text-align:center; {{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};"|Date
  +
!style="text-align:center; {{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};"|Winning Team
  +
!style="text-align:center; {{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};"|Result
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!style="text-align:center; {{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};"|Losing Team
  +
!style="text-align:center; {{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};"|Tournament
  +
!style="text-align:center; {{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};"|Spectators
  +
|-
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|style="text-align:center;"|December 16, 2015 ||'''{{fbw|CHN}}'''||style="text-align:center;"|1-0 ||{{fbw|USA}}||style="text-align:center;"|U.S. Final Victory Tour || style="text-align:center;"|32,950
  +
|-
  +
|style="text-align:center;"|October 17, 2017 ||'''{{fbw|USA}}'''||style="text-align:center;"|3-1 ||{{fbw|KOR}}||style="text-align:center;"|International Friendly || style="text-align:center;"|9,371
  +
  +
|}
  +
  +
===Professional wrestling===
  +
The Superdome was renowned for hosting many of [[Universal Wrestling Federation (Bill Watts)|Mid-South Wrestling]]'s large, "Blow Off" events that were culminations of weeks or months of feuds and rivalries. [[Bill Watts]] was the promoter of this territory and gained much notoriety from promotion of his events in the Superdome.
  +
  +
April 19, 1986 saw [[Jim Crockett Promotions]] (in association with Bill Watts' UWF and [[All Japan Pro Wrestling]]) host the first of three annual Jim Crockett Sr. Memorial Cup Tag Team Tournaments. 24 teams competed in a single day show with an afternoon 1st rounds and finals in the evening. The tournament final saw The Road Warriors prevail over [[Magnum T.A.]] and [[Ron Garvin]]. Besides tag team tournament the Superdome attendance of 13,000 saw NWA World Champion [[Ric Flair]] retain the title via disqualification from [[Dusty Rhodes (wrestler)|Dusty Rhodes]] and [[Mid-South North American Heavyweight Championship|Mid-South North American Champion]] [[Jim Duggan|Hacksaw Jim Duggan]] beat [[Buzz Sawyer]].
  +
  +
[[World Championship Wrestling]] held its sixth [[Clash of the Champions]] on April 2, 1989. The event saw [[Ricky Steamboat]] defeat [[Ric Flair]] in a [[Professional wrestling match types#Series variations|two out of three falls match]] 2–1 to retain the [[NWA World Heavyweight Championship]]. Clash VI was held on the same day as [[WrestleMania V]] and on free TV in an attempt to hurt the PPV rating.
  +
  +
====WWE WrestleMania XXX====
  +
The 30th annual [[WrestleMania]] pay-per-view event, [[WrestleMania XXX]], was held at the Superdome on April 6, 2014. This was the first time [[WWE]] held its annual event in New Orleans. At the event, [[The Undertaker]]'s WrestleMania winning streak was ended by [[Brock Lesnar]] in front of 75,167 in attendance. [[Daniel Bryan]] won two matches. The first match was won against [[Triple H]] for a spot in the Triple Threat match for the [[WWE Championship|WWE World Heavyweight Championship]], which he went on to win later in the evening against [[Randy Orton]] and [[Dave Bautista|Batista]]. Also the [[WWE Divas Championship]] was defended for the very first time at WrestleMania with the champion [[AJ Lee]] retaining her title.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.wwe.com/shows/wrestlemania/30/wrestlemania-30-results-26218843|title=WrestleMania 30|publisher=}}</ref>
  +
  +
{{wide image|WrestleMania XXX panorama.jpg|800px|A panorama shot of WrestleMania XXX (pre-show) within the Mercedes-Benz Superdome}}
  +
  +
====WWE WrestleMania 34====
  +
The 34th annual [[WrestleMania]] pay-per-view event, [[WrestleMania 34]], returned to the Superdome on April 8, 2018. At the event, [[Charlotte Flair]] defeated the [[Royal Rumble (2018)|2018 Women's Royal Rumble]] winner [[Asuka (wrestler)|Asuka]], ending her 2-year undefeated streak as well as retaining the [[WWE SmackDown Women's Championship|SmackDown Women's Championship]], [[Brock Lesnar]] defeated [[Roman Reigns]] to retain the [[WWE Universal Championship|Universal Championship]] in the main event, also [[A.J. Styles|AJ Styles]] defeated the [[Royal Rumble (2018)|2018 Men's Royal Rumble]] winner [[Shinsuke Nakamura]] to retain the [[WWE Championship]] which was also promoted as the main event. In the event, former [[Ultimate Fighting Championship|UFC]] star [[Ronda Rousey]] made her WWE debut in a mixed tag team match with her partner [[Kurt Angle]] to defeat [[Stephanie McMahon]] and [[Triple H]]. [[Daniel Bryan]] returned to in-ring action for the first time in nearly 3 years, when he teamed with [[Shane McMahon]] to defeat [[Kevin Owens]] and [[Sami Zayn]]. It also featured the return of [[The Undertaker]] since his previous loss at [[WrestleMania 33]], who defeated [[John Cena]] in an impromptu match lasting under three minutes. The show took place in front of 78,133 people.
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  +
===Tennis===
  +
The [[New Orleans Sun Belt Nets]] were a charter franchise of [[World TeamTennis]] (WTT). The Nets played in the Superdome during the 1978 season.
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  +
===Wrestling===
  +
In 1996, the stadium hosted the [[Amateur Athletic Union|AAU]] Junior Olympics wrestling competition.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.aauresults.org/jogames/pdf/1996/19961243447882.pdf|title=Wrestling|publisher=aauresults.org|accessdate=2018-06-20}}</ref> In February 1997, the Dome hosted the [[Louisiana High School Athletic Association]] state wrestling championships.
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  +
==Special events==
  +
The Superdome held its official dedication ceremonies on August 3, 1975. Jazz musicians [[Al Hirt]] and [[Pete Fountain]] played for the event.
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  +
===Entertainment===
  +
Between August 28 and September 14, 1975, the Superdome continued to celebrate its grand opening, with appearances by [[Bob Hope]], [[Chayl Jhuren]], [[Telly Savalas]], [[Dorothy Lamour]], [[Karen Valentine]], and [[Raquel Welch]]. [[The Allman Brothers Band|The Allman Brothers]], the Marshall Tucker band, [[Wet Willie]], the [[Charlie Daniels]] band, the [[The O'Jays|O'Jays]], the [[The Isley Brothers|Isley Brothers]], [[the Temptations]], [[Donald Byrd]] and [[the Blackbyrds]], and the [[Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus|Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus]] also performed.<ref>"Thousands View Dome Dedication." ''Louisiana Superdome Newsletter'' IV:8 (15 August 1975). [http://larc.tulane.edu Louisiana Research Collection, Tulane University Libraries.]</ref>
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On October 3, 1975, [[June Carter]], [[Johnny Cash]], [[Merle Haggard]], [[Waylon Jennings]] and [[Jessi Colter]] performed in the Dome. Fans included then Governor [[Edwin Edwards]], wife Elaine, children Anna, Victoria, Steven and David, and Edwards' grandchildren.<ref>''Louisiana Superdome Newsletter'' IV:10 (October 15, 1975). [http://larc.tulane.edu Louisiana Research Collection, Tulane University Libraries.]</ref>
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The Superdome's 1977 New Year's Eve celebration opened with [[The Emotions]] and [[Deniece Williams]], followed by [[Earth, Wind and Fire]].
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On May 29, 1977, the First Annual Superdome KOOL Jazz Spectacular featured [[Aretha Franklin]], [[Al Green]], [[The Spinners (American R&B group)|The Spinners]] and [[The Mighty Clouds of Joy]]. [[Jimmie Walker|Jimmie "J.J." Walker]] from the TV series ''[[Good Times]]'' was the guest M.C.
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The Superdome hosted [[Jimmy Buffett]] (born in MS) in '76, [[Willie Nelson]] in '77, [[The Commodores]] in '78, [[Fats Domino]] (from New Orleans) in '78, [[Kenny Rogers]] (from Houston) in '79, [[Hank Williams Jr.]] (from Louisiana) in '81, and [[Lil Wayne]] (from New Orleans) in 2018.
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[[Governor of Louisiana|Governor]] Edwin Edwards held his third inaugural ball at the Superdome March 12, 1984. Headline acts included [[Doug Kershaw]] and [[Susan Anton]].
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Because of a booking mixup, [[The Jets (Minnesota band)|the Jets]] performed a full set to an empty Superdome in the summer of 1987.<ref>{{cite AV media | people=Kasem, Casey | date=February 27, 1988 | title=American Top 40 | medium=Radio broadcast | location=United States | publisher=Premiere Networks}}</ref>
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The annual [[Essence Music Festival]] has been held in the Superdome every year since 1995 except for 2006, when it was held in Houston, Texas due to [[Hurricane Katrina]] repairs.
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{| class="wikitable" style=font-size:100% style="text-align:center"
  +
|-
  +
! width=12% style="text-align:center;{{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};|Date
  +
! width=10% style="text-align:center;{{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};|Artist
  +
! width=10% style="text-align:center;{{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};|Opening act(s)
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! width=16% style="text-align:center;{{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};|Tour / Concert name
  +
! width=10% style="text-align:center;{{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};|Attendance
  +
! width=10% style="text-align:center;{{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};|Revenue
  +
! width=20% style="text-align:center;{{NFLPrimaryStyle|New Orleans Saints|border=2}};|Notes
  +
|-
  +
| July 13, 1978 || [[The Rolling Stones]] || [[Van Halen]]<br>[[Doobie Brothers]] || [[The Rolling Stones US Tour 1978|US Tour 1978]] || — || — ||
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|-
  +
| December 5, 1981 || [[The Rolling Stones]] || [[George Thorogood]]<br>[[The Neville Brothers]] || [[The Rolling Stones American Tour 1981|American Tour 1981]] || 87,500 / 87,500 || $1,531,250 || Attendees filled the floor area, as well as the regular seating sections.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.superdome.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=20&Itemid=38|title=The Mercedes-Benz Superdome – Home|publisher=Superdome.com|accessdate=December 14, 2011}}</ref>
  +
|-
  +
| February 14, 1983 || [[Kiss (band)|Kiss]] || [[Zebra (American band)|Zebra]] || [[Creatures of the Night Tour/10th Anniversary Tour]] || — || — ||
  +
|-
  +
| February 1, 1985 || [[Prince (musician)|Prince]] || [[Apollonia 6]]<br>[[Sheila E.]] || [[Purple Rain Tour]] || — || — ||
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|-
  +
| October 6, 1987 || [[David Bowie]] || — || [[Glass Spider Tour]] || — || — ||
  +
|-
  +
| November 27, 1987 || [[Whitney Houston]] || [[Kenny G]] || [[Moment of Truth World Tour]] || — || — ||
  +
|-
  +
| October 18, 1988 || [[George Michael]] || — || [[Faith World Tour]] || 24,000 / 30,000 || $450,555 ||
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|-
  +
| November 13, 1989 || [[The Rolling Stones]] || [[Living Colour]] || [[Steel Wheels Tour]] || 59,339 / 59,339 || $1,682,220 ||
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|-
  +
| July 8, 1990 || [[Janet Jackson]] || [[Chuckii Booker]] || [[Rhythm Nation World Tour 1990]] || — || — ||
  +
|-
  +
| August 23, 1990 || [[New Kids on the Block]] || — || [[The Magic Summer Tour]] || — || — ||
  +
|-
  +
| August 29, 1992 || [[Guns N' Roses]]<br>[[Metallica]] || [[Faith No More]] || [[Guns N' Roses/Metallica Stadium Tour]] || 39,278 / 39,278 || $1,080,145 ||
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|-
  +
| April 24, 1993 || [[Paul McCartney]] || — || [[The New World Tour]] || 38,971 / 41,211 || $843,850 ||
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|-
  +
| May 14, 1994 || [[Pink Floyd]] || — || [[The Division Bell Tour]] || 41,475 / 41,475 || $1,401,445 ||
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|-
  +
| October 10, 1994 || [[The Rolling Stones]] || [[Bryan Adams]] || [[Voodoo Lounge Tour]] || 32,687 / 40,000 || $1,464,250 ||
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|-
  +
| July 9, 1996 || [[Kiss (band)|Kiss]] || [[The Melvins]] || [[Alive/Worldwide Tour]] || — || — ||
  +
|-
  +
| November 21, 1997 || [[U2]] || [[Third Eye Blind]] || [[PopMart Tour]] || 21,465 / 25,000 || $911,528 ||
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|-
  +
| October 28, 1998 || [[Janet Jackson]] || — || [[The Velvet Rope Tour]] || — || — ||
  +
|-
  +
| April 12, 1999 || [[Celine Dion]] || — || [[Let's Talk About Love World Tour]] || 20,047 / 20,047 || $1,153,562 ||
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|-
  +
| June 23, 1999 || [[Cher]] || [[Cyndi Lauper]]<br>[[Wild Orchid (band)|Wild Orchid]] || [[Do You Believe? (tour)|Do You Believe?]] || 12,754 / 16,000 || $712,529 ||
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|-
  +
| February 26, 2000 || [[Backstreet Boys]] || [[Jungle Brothers]]<br>[[Willa]] || [[Into the Millennium Tour]] || 54,365 / 56,211 || $2,286,582 ||
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|-
  +
| May 27, 2000 || [[NSYNC]] || [[P!nk]]<br>[[Sisqó]] || [[No Strings Attached Tour]] || 32,516 / 32,516 || $1,456,245 ||
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|-
  +
| September 20, 2000 || [[Britney Spears]] || [[BBMak]] || [[Oops!... I Did It Again Tour]] || — || — || This concert was taped for a [[Fox Broadcasting Company|Fox]] TV special titled ''There's No Place Like Home''.<ref name=neworleans>{{cite news|url=http://www.nydailynews.com/archives/entertainment/2000/11/30/2000-11-30_tv_tonight.html|title=TV TONIGHT|date=November 30, 2000|accessdate=January 21, 2010|last=Bianculli|first=David|work=[[New York Daily News]]}} {{Dead link|date=April 2012|bot=H3llBot}}</ref>
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|-
  +
| August 22, 2001 || [[NSYNC]] || [[Amanda (singer)|Amanda]] || [[PopOdyssey Tour]] || — || — || This show was filmed and released on VHS and DVD.<ref>{{Cite web|publisher = Amazon| tld=|url=https://www.amazon.com/dp/B00005RG69 |asin=B00005RG69|title='N Sync: PopOdyssey Live}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://video.barnesandnoble.com/DVD/NSYNC-Popodyssey-Live/NSYNC/e/12414177896#TABS |title=*NSYNC: Popodyssey Live |author= |work=[[Barnes & Noble]] |publisher=All Media Guide, LLC |accessdate=3 October 2011|archiveurl=http://www.freezepage.com/1317680219GTSZKWEGCG?url=http://video.barnesandnoble.com/DVD/NSYNC-Popodyssey-Live/NSYNC/e/12414177896%23TABS |archivedate=3 October 2011}}</ref>
  +
|-
  +
| August 25, 2004 || [[Usher (singer)|Usher]] || [[Kanye West]]<br>[[Christina Milian]] || [[Truth Tour]] || — || — ||
  +
|-
  +
| July 2, 2005 || [[Destiny's Child]] || — || [[Destiny Fulfilled... and Lovin' It]] || — || — || This concert was part of the [[Essence Music Festival]]<ref>{{cite press release |author=<!--Staff writer(s); no by-line.--> |title=Coca-Cola Presents the 2005 Essence Music Festival|url=http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/coca-cola-presents-the-2005-essence-music-festival-54178772.html|location=New York City |publisher=PR Newswire |date=April 4, 2005 |accessdate=November 15, 2013}}</ref>
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|-
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| July 7, 2007 || [[Kelly Rowland]] || — || — || — || — || This concert was part of the Essence Music Festival.<ref name=autogenerated1>[http://kellyrowlandweb.com/gallery/index.php?cat=68 Home > Live Performances & Tours > 2007 – Kelly Rowland Web<!-- Bot generated title -->] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150208135907/http://kellyrowlandweb.com/gallery/index.php?cat=68 |date=2015-02-08 }}</ref><ref>[http://www.mtv.com/artists/kelly-rowland/photos/2517971/ Kelly Rowland performs at the Essence Music Festival presented by Coca-Cola on July 7, 2007 in New Orleans, Louisiana. VH1 Soul was a proud sponsor of the 2007 ESSENCE Music F...<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
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|-
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| July 4, 2008 || [[Rihanna]] || — || [[Good Girl Gone Bad Tour]] || — || — || This show was part of the 2008 Essence Music Festival.
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|-
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| July 3, 2010 || [[Alicia Keys]] || [[Robin Thicke]]<br>[[Melanie Fiona]] || [[Freedom Tour]] || — || — || This concert was part of the Essence Music Festival <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.billboard.com/articles/news/959285/alicia-keys-joins-mary-j-blige-as-headliner-of-2010-essence-festival|title=Alicia Keys Joins Mary J. Blige As Headliner Of 2010 Essence Festival|work=Billboard}}</ref>
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|-
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| August 3, 2012 || [[Kenny Chesney]]<br>[[Tim McGraw]] || [[Grace Potter and the Nocturnals]]<br>[[Jake Owen]] || [[Brothers of the Sun Tour]] || 37,916 / 40,876 || $3,385,855 ||
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|-
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| July 7, 2013 || [[Beyoncé]] || — || [[The Mrs. Carter Show World Tour]] || 38,441 / 38,441 || $5,766,150 || This concert was a part of the [[Essence Music Festival]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/the-2013-essence-festival-theres-nothing-like-it-190660051.html |title=Beyonce Makes Her Triumphant Return to the Superdome! |agency=PR Newswire |date=February 11, 2013 |accessdate=February 11, 2013}}</ref><ref>
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*{{cite web|url=http://rollingout.com/music/beyonce-closes-out-the-essence-music-festival/|title=Beyoncé closes out the Essence Music Festival|work=rollingout.com|first=Danielle|last=Canada|date=July 8, 2013|accessdate=July 8, 2013}}
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*{{cite web|url=http://www.atlnightspots.com/beyonce-smashes-essence-festival-attendance-record/|title=Beyoncé smashes Essence Festival attendance record|work=ATLnightspots.com|date=July 8, 2013|accessdate=July 8, 2013}}</ref>
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|-
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| July 20, 2014 || [[Beyoncé]]<br>[[Jay-Z]] || — || [[On the Run Tour (Beyoncé and Jay-Z)|On the Run Tour]] || 42,374 / 42,374 || $5,206,490 ||
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|-
  +
| September 25, 2014 || [[One Direction]] || [[5 Seconds of Summer]] || [[Where We Are Tour (One Direction)|Where We Are Tour]] || 50,349 / 50,349 || $4,258,450 ||
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|-
  +
| July 2, 2015 || [[Kevin Hart]] || — || [[What Now? Tour]] || — || — ||
  +
|-
  +
| July 31, 2016 || [[Guns N' Roses]] || [[The Cult]] || [[Not In This Lifetime... Tour]] || 32,894 / 40,215 || $3,447,362 ||
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|-
  +
| September 24, 2016 || [[Beyoncé]] || [[DJ Khaled]] || [[The Formation World Tour]] || 46,474 / 46,474 || $5,349,960 || Beyoncé was introduced to the stage by New Orleans native and "[[Formation (song)|Formation]]" rapper [[Big Freedia]].<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.nola.com/music/index.ssf/2016/09/beyonce_superdome_big_freedia.html|title=Beyoncé gets introduction from Big Freedia in New Orleans for Formation World Tour|newspaper=NOLA.com|date=September 25, 2016|accessdate=September 26, 2016}}</ref>
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|-
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| May 27, 2017 || [[Miranda Lambert]] || — || [[Highway Vagabond Tour]] || — || — || This concert was part of '''[[Bayou Country Superfest]]'''.
  +
|-
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| September 14, 2017 || [[U2]] || [[Beck]] || [[The Joshua Tree Tour 2017]] || 34,536 / 34,536 || $3,873,405 || <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nola.com/music/index.ssf/2017/06/u2_new_orleans_september_14_20.html|title=U2 blazes into the Mercedes-Benz Superdome on Sept. 14|work=[[NOLA.com]]|publisher=[[Advance Publications]]|first=Doug|last=MacCash|date=12 June 2017|accessdate=12 June 2017}}</ref>
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|-
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| September 13, 2018 || [[Beyoncé]]<br>[[Jay-Z]] || [[Chloe X Halle]] and [[DJ Khaled]] || [[On the Run II Tour]] || 40,939 / 40,939 || $5,437,147 ||
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|-
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| September 22, 2018 || [[Taylor Swift]] || [[Camila Cabello]]<br>[[Charli XCX]] || [[Taylor Swift's Reputation Stadium Tour]] || 53,172 / 53,172 || $6,491,546 || The highest grossing concert at the stadium to date.
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|-
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| October 31, 2018 || [[Ed Sheeran]] || [[Snow Patrol]]<br>[[Lauv]] || [[÷ Tour]] || 42,295 / 42,295 || $2,827,815 ||
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|}
  +
  +
===Other events===
  +
The [[Seventh-day Adventist Church]] held its 54th [[General Conference session]] at the Superdome in June and July 1985.
  +
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[[Pope John Paul II]] addressed 80,000 children at the stadium in 1987.<ref name=Timeline />
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The [[Republican National Convention]] was held there in 1988, nominating then-[[Vice President of the United States|Vice President]] [[George H. W. Bush]] for President and [[United States Senate|U.S. Senator]] [[Dan Quayle]] of [[Indiana]] as Vice President.<ref name=Timeline />
   
 
In June 1996, ''[[The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996 film)|The Hunchback of Notre Dame]]'', [[The Walt Disney Company|Disney]]'s 34th animated feature, had a gala world premiere at this stadium, with over 65,000 people attending the event.
 
In June 1996, ''[[The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996 film)|The Hunchback of Notre Dame]]'', [[The Walt Disney Company|Disney]]'s 34th animated feature, had a gala world premiere at this stadium, with over 65,000 people attending the event.
   
===2000s===
+
In August 2001, the [[Bassmaster Classic XXXI]] final weigh-in was held in the stadium.
The Superdome converted its artificial grass surface to [[Field Turf]] midway through the [[2003 NFL season|2003]] football season on November 16. As part of the major renovation for the [[2010 NFL season|2010]] football season the Superdome installed UBU Sports Speed S5-M synthetic turf system.
+
  +
==Stadium history==
  +
  +
===Planning===
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Sports visionary [[David Dixon (businessman)|David Dixon]] (who decades later founded the [[United States Football League]]) conceived of the Superdome while attempting to convince the NFL to award a franchise to New Orleans. After hosting several exhibition games at [[Tulane Stadium]] during typical New Orleans summer thunderstorms, Dixon was told by NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle that the NFL would never expand into New Orleans without a domed stadium. Dixon then won the support of the [[list of Governors of Louisiana|governor]] of [[Louisiana]], [[John McKeithen]]. When they toured the [[Astrodome]] in [[Houston]], [[Texas]] in 1966, McKeithen was quoted as saying, "I want one of these, only bigger", in reference to the Astrodome itself. Bonds were passed for construction of the Superdome on November 8, 1966, seven days after commissioner [[Pete Rozelle]] awarded New Orleans the 25th professional football franchise. The stadium was conceptualized to be a multifunctional stadium for football, baseball and basketball [with moveable field level stands that would be arranged specifically for each sport and areas with dirt (for the bases and pitchers mound) covered with metal plates on the stadium floor (they were covered by the artificial turf during football games)] and there are also Meeting Rooms that could be rented for many different purposes. Dixon imagined the possibilities of staging simultaneous high school football games side-by-side and suggested that the synthetic surface be white.<ref>{{cite news |title=Louisiana Plans Functional Stadium|newspaper=[[The New York Times]]|date=June 11, 1967|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1967/06/11/archives/louisiana-plans-functional-stadium.html|page=215}}</ref> Blount International of [[Montgomery, Alabama]] was chosen to build the stadium.<ref name="Air University">{{cite web |url=http://www.au.af.mil/au/goe/eagle_bios/2001/blount_2001.asp|title=Air University: Eagle Biography: Winton M. "Red" Blount|publisher=Au.af.mil|accessdate=December 14, 2011}}</ref>
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  +
As the dome was being constructed, various individuals developed eccentric models of the structure: one was of sugar, another consisted of pennies. The so-called "penny model" traveled to the Philadelphia Bicentennial '76 exhibition. New Orleanian Norman J. Kientz built the model with 2,697 pennies and donated it to the Superdome Board of Commissioners in April 1974.<ref>''Louisiana Superdome Newsletter'' 5:7 (August 1976) and III:4 (April 15, 1974).</ref>
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  +
It was hoped the stadium would be ready in time for the [[1972 NFL season]], and the final cost of the facility would come in at $46&nbsp;million. Instead, due to political delays, construction did not start until August 11, 1971, and was not finished until August 1975, seven months after [[Super Bowl IX]] was scheduled to be played in the stadium. Since the stadium was not finished in time for the Super Bowl, the game had to be moved to [[Tulane Stadium]], and was played in cold and rainy conditions. Factoring in inflation, construction delays, and the increase in transportation costs caused by the [[1973 oil crisis]], the final price tag of the stadium skyrocketed to $165&nbsp;million. Along with the [[Louisiana State Police|state police]], [[Elward Thomas Brady, Jr.]], a [[Louisiana House of Representatives|state representative]] from [[Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana|Terrebonne Parish]] and a New Orleans native, conducted an investigation into possible financial irregularities, but the Superdome went forward despite the obstacles.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.houmatoday.com/article/20070408/NEWS/704080322?p=3&tc=pg|title=Robert Morris, "Local businessman, former legislator dies", April 8, 2007|publisher=houmatoday.com|accessdate=July 14, 2013}}</ref>
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  +
===Early history (1975–2003)===
  +
'''First Saints game'''<br />The [[New Orleans Saints]] opened the [[1975 NFL season]] at the Superdome, losing 21–0 to the [[Cincinnati Bengals]] in the first regular-season game in the facility. [[Tulane Stadium]], the original home of the Saints, was condemned for destruction on the day the Superdome opened.
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  +
'''First Super Bowl'''<br />The first Super Bowl played in the stadium was [[Super Bowl XII]] in January [[1977 NFL season|1978]], the first in [[prime time]].
  +
  +
'''Original turf'''<br />The original artificial turf playing surface in the Superdome was produced and developed by Monsanto (which made the first artificial playing surface for sports, AstroTurf) specifically for the Superdome and was named "Mardi Grass."<ref name="ballparks1"/>[[File:Superdome during National Lutheran Youth Gathering.jpeg|thumb|150px|right|The exterior of the Superdome during the 2001 [[Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod#LCMS National Youth Gathering|National Lutheran Youth Gathering]].]]'''New turf installation'''<br />The Superdome replaced the first generation "Mardi Grass" surface to the next-generation FieldTurf surface midway through the [[2003 NFL season|2003]] football season on November 16.
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  +
=== Shelter of last resort during Hurricane Katrina ===
  +
{{Main article|Effect of Hurricane Katrina on the Louisiana Superdome}}
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The Superdome was used as a "shelter of last resort" for those in New Orleans unable to evacuate from [[Hurricane Katrina]] when it struck on August 29, 2005. During the storm on August 29, 2005, a large section of the outer covering was peeled off by high winds. The photos of the damage, in which the concrete underneath was exposed, quickly became an iconic image of Hurricane Katrina. A few days later the dome was closed until September 25, 2006.
   
===Effect of Hurricane Katrina===
+
As of August 31, there had been three deaths in the Superdome: two elderly medical patients and a man who is believed to have committed suicide by jumping from the upper level seats. There were also unconfirmed reports of rape, vandalism, violent assaults, crack dealing/drug abuse, and gang activity inside the Superdome. After a National Guardsman was attacked and shot in the dark by an assailant, the National Guard inside the Superdome used barbed wire barricades to separate themselves from the other people in the dome.<sup>[[Effect of Hurricane Katrina on the Louisiana Superdome#cite%20note-5|[5]]]</sup> On September 11, New Orleans Police Superintendent Eddie Compass reported there were "no confirmed reports of any type of sexual assault."<sup>[[Effect of Hurricane Katrina on the Louisiana Superdome#cite%20note-6|[6]]]</sup>
{{Main|Effect of Hurricane Katrina on the Louisiana Superdome}}
 
The Superdome was used as a "shelter of last resort" for those in New Orleans unable to evacuate from [[Hurricane Katrina]] when it struck in late August 2005. During the storm, a large section of the outer covering was peeled off by high winds. The photos of the damage, in which the concrete underneath was exposed, quickly became an iconic image of Hurricane Katrina. A few days later the dome was closed until September 25, 2006.
 
   
===Reopening after Katrina===
+
'''Reopening after Katrina'''
[[File:Superdome.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Contractors repair the roof to prepare for the reopening of the Superdome. (July 10, 2006)]]
+
[[File:Louisiana Superdome damage repair.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Contractors repair the roof to prepare for the reopening of the Superdome. (July 10, 2006)]]
The Superdome cost $185&nbsp;million to repair and refurbish. To repair the Superdome, [[Federal Emergency Management Agency|FEMA]] put up $115&nbsp;million,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cbssports.com/nfl/story/9673908/1|title=Superdome returns with glitz, glamor and Monday night football|date=2006-09-20|publisher=CBS Sports|accessdate=2009-08-06}}</ref> the state spent $13&nbsp;million, the Louisiana Stadium & Expedition District refinanced a bond package to secure $41&nbsp;million and the NFL contributed $15&nbsp;million.
+
The Superdome cost $185&nbsp;million to repair and refurbish. To repair the Superdome, [[Federal Emergency Management Agency|FEMA]] put up $115&nbsp;million,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cbssports.com/nfl/story/9673908/1|title=Superdome returns with glitz, glamor and Monday night football|date=September 20, 2006|publisher=CBS Sports|accessdate=August 6, 2009}}</ref> the state spent $13&nbsp;million, the Louisiana Stadium & Exposition District refinanced a bond package to secure $41&nbsp;million and the NFL contributed $15&nbsp;million.
   
 
After being damaged from the flooding disaster, a new Sportexe MomentumTurf surface was installed for the [[2006 NFL season|2006]] season.
 
After being damaged from the flooding disaster, a new Sportexe MomentumTurf surface was installed for the [[2006 NFL season|2006]] season.
   
On [[Super Bowl XL]] Sunday (February 5, 2006), the [[National Football League|NFL]] announced that the Saints would play their home opener on September 24, [[2006 NFL season|2006]] in the Superdome against the [[Atlanta Falcons]]. The game was later moved to Monday night, September 25, [[2006 NFL season|2006]].
+
On [[Super Bowl XL]] Sunday (February 5, 2006), the [[National Football League|NFL]] announced that the Saints would play their home opener on September 24, [[2006 NFL season|2006]] in the Superdome against the [[Atlanta Falcons]]. The game was later moved to Monday night, September 25.
   
The reopening of the dome was celebrated with festivities including a free outdoor concert by the [[Goo Goo Dolls]] before fans were allowed in, a pre-game performance by the rock bands [[U2]] and [[Green Day]] performing a [[cover version|cover]] of [[The Skids]]' "[[The Saints Are Coming]]", and a coin toss conducted by former [[President of the United States|President]] [[George H. W. Bush]]. In front of [[ESPN]]'s largest-ever audience at that time, the Saints won the game 23–3 with 70,003 in attendance and went on to a successful season reaching their first ever [[NFC Championship Game]].
+
The reopening of the dome was celebrated with festivities including a free outdoor concert by the [[Goo Goo Dolls]] before fans were allowed in, a pre-game performance by the rock bands [[U2]] and [[Green Day]] performing a [[cover version|cover]] of [[The Skids]]' "[[The Saints Are Coming]]", and a coin toss conducted by former President [[George H. W. Bush]]. In front of [[ESPN]]'s largest-ever audience at that time, the Saints won the game 23–3 with 70,003 in attendance and went on to a successful season reaching their first ever [[NFC Championship Game]].
   
The first bowl game played in the Superdome after Katrina was the [[New Orleans Bowl]] won by the [[Troy University]] Trojans 41–17 over the [[Rice University]] Owls.
+
The first bowl game played in the Superdome after Katrina was the [[2006 New Orleans Bowl|New Orleans Bowl]] won by the [[Troy Trojans football|Troy Trojans]] 41–17 over the [[2006 Rice Owls football team|Rice Owls]].
   
===Renovations===
+
=== 2008–present ===
  +
'''Further renovations'''
 
[[File:Superdome Renovations.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Construction workers replace the Superdome's 30 plus year-old siding]]
 
[[File:Superdome Renovations.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Construction workers replace the Superdome's 30 plus year-old siding]]
In early 2006, the Superdome began a $320 million renovation in three phases. First, the stadium was repaired and refurbished from damage suffered during Hurricane Katrina. In 2008, new windows were installed to bring natural light into the building. The roof-facing of the Superdome was remodeled with a solid white hue. Between 2009 and 2010, the entire outer layer of the stadium, more than {{convert|400000|sqft|m2}} of aluminum siding, was replaced with new [[aluminum]] panels and insulation, returning the building to its original champagne bronze color. An innovative barrier system for drainage was added. The dome now resembles its original facade.
+
[[File:Mercedes-Benz Superdome Poydras bike.JPG|right|thumb|The inscription "Mercedes-Benz Superdome" went on to the sides of the stadium in late October 2011]]
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In 2008, new windows were installed to bring natural light into the building. Later that year, the roof-facing of the Superdome was also remodeled, restoring the roof with a solid white hue. Between 2009 and 2010, the entire outer layer of the stadium, more than {{convert|400000|sqft|m2}} of aluminum siding, was replaced with new aluminum panels and insulation, returning the building to its original champagne bronze colored exterior. An innovative barrier system for drainage was also added, allowing the dome to resemble its original facade.
   
In addition, [[escalator]]s were added to the outside of the club rooms. Each suite has modernized rooms with raised ceilings, leather sofas and flat-screen TVs, as well as glass, brushed aluminum and wood-grain furnishings. A new $600,000 point-of-sale system was also installed, allowing fans to purchase concessions with credit cards throughout the stadium for the first time.
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In addition, escalators were added to the outside of the club rooms. Each suite includes modernized rooms with raised ceilings, leather sofas, and flat-screen TVs, as well as glass brushed aluminum and wood-grain furnishings. A new $600,000 point-of-sale system was also installed, allowing fans to purchase concessions with credit cards throughout the stadium for the first time.
   
During the summer of 2010 the Superdome installed {{convert|111831|sqft|m2}} of the Speed S5-M synthetic turf system by UBU Sports, the Superdome now has the largest continuous synthetic turf system in the NFL.
+
==== New turf installation ====
  +
During the summer of 2010 the Superdome installed {{convert|111831|sqft|m2}} of the UBU Speed S5-M synthetic turf system, an Act Global brand. In 2017 Act Global installed a new turf in time for the NFL Season. The Superdome has, as of 2017, the largest continuous synthetic turf system in the NFL.
   
Beginning in 2011, demolition and new construction began to the lower bowl of the stadium, reconfiguring it to increase seating by 3,500, widening the plaza concourse, building two bunker club lounges and adding additional concession stands. Crews tore down the temporary stairs that lead from [[Champions Square]] to the Dome, and replaced them with permanent steps. Installation of express elevators that take coaches and media from the ground level of the stadium to the press box was completed. New {{convert|7500|sqft|m2|adj=on}} bunker lounges on each side of the stadium were built. The lounges are equipped with flat-screen TVs, granite counter tops and full-service bars. The lounges can serve 4,500 fans, whose old plaza seats were upgraded to premium tickets, giving those fans leather chairs with cup-holders. The plaza level was extended, closing in space between the concourse and plaza seating, adding new restrooms and concession areas. The renovations also ended the stadium's ability to convert to a baseball configuration.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.cbssports.com/nfl/story/14605228/superdome-gets-makeover-with-big-games-ahead|title=Superdome gets makeover with big games ahead|publisher=CBS}}</ref> The renovations were completed in late June 2011 in time for the [[Essence Music Festival]]. Now that all three phases of the renovation are complete, the Superdome is one of the most up-to-date facilities in the U.S.
+
==== Renovations ====
  +
Beginning in 2011, demolition and new construction began to the lower bowl of the stadium, reconfiguring it to increase seating by 3,500, widening the plaza concourse, building two bunker club lounges and adding additional concession stands. Crews tore down the temporary stairs that lead from [[Champions Square]] to the Dome, and replaced them with permanent steps. Installation of express elevators that take coaches and media from the ground level of the stadium to the press box were also completed. New {{convert|7500|sqft|m2|adj=on}} bunker lounges on each side of the stadium were built. The lounges are equipped with flat-screen TVs, granite counter tops and full-service bars. These state-of-the-art lounges can serve 4,500 fans, whose old plaza seats were upgraded to premium tickets, giving those fans leather chairs with cup-holders. The plaza level was extended, closing in space between the concourse and plaza seating, adding new restrooms and concession areas. The renovations also ended the stadium's ability to convert to a baseball configuration.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.cbssports.com/nfl/story/14605228/superdome-gets-makeover-with-big-games-ahead|title=Superdome gets makeover with big games ahead|publisher=CBS}}</ref> The renovations were completed in late June 2011 in time for the [[Essence Music Festival]].
   
===Naming rights===
+
==== Naming rights ====
[[File:Mercedes-Benz Superdome Poydras bike.JPG|right|thumb|The inscription "Mercedes-Benz Superdome" went on to the sides of the stadium in late October 2011]]
+
The Superdome had not taken on corporate naming rights until Mercedes-Benz USA acquired the rights in 2011. Though the stadium is owned by the state of Louisiana, the New Orleans Saints' lease gives the team the authority to sell the rights.<ref>{{cite news|title=Mercedes-Benz has Superdome deal|url=http://espn.go.com/nfl/story/_/id/7058178/mercedes-benz-buys-naming-rights-superdome-home-new-orleans-saints|agency=Associated Press|publisher=ESPN|accessdate=October 4, 2011|date=October 4, 2011}}</ref> Saints owner [[Tom Benson]] also owns Mercedes-Benz dealerships in New Orleans and [[San Antonio]].<ref name="USA_Today_naming_rights" /> At that time, it was the third stadium that has naming rights from Mercedes-Benz (and first in the United States), after the [[Mercedes-Benz Arena (Stuttgart)|Mercedes-Benz Arena]], the stadium of [[Bundesliga]] club [[VfB Stuttgart]], in Stuttgart, Germany, and the [[Mercedes-Benz Arena (Shanghai)|Mercedes-Benz Arena]] in Shanghai, China.{{cn|date=October 2018}}
The Superdome had not taken on corporate naming rights, until Mercedes-Benz acquired the rights in 2011. Though the stadium is owned by the state of Louisiana, the New Orleans Saints' lease gives the team the authority to sell the rights.<ref>{{cite news|title=Mercedes-Benz has Superdome deal|url=http://espn.go.com/nfl/story/_/id/7058178/mercedes-benz-buys-naming-rights-superdome-home-new-orleans-saints|agency=Associated Press|work=ESPN.com|accessdate=October 4, 2011|date=October 4, 2011}}</ref> Saints owner [[Tom Benson]] also owns Mercedes-Benz dealerships in New Orleans and [[San Antonio|San Antonio, Texas]].<ref name=USA_Today_naming_rights />
 
   
==See also==
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Despite Mercedes-Benz acquiring the naming rights for the [[Mercedes-Benz Stadium|Atlanta Falcons' new stadium]] in 2015, the naming rights contract for the Superdome will remain in place until 2021.<ref>{{cite news|last1=Woodbery|first1=Evan|title=Saints president on Mercedes-Benz relationship: 'We're very happy, they're very happy'|url=http://www.nola.com/saints/index.ssf/2015/08/mercedes-benz_superdome_naming_rights_new_orleans_saints.html|accessdate=9 February 2017|work=The Times-Picayune|date=28 August 2015}}</ref> Atlanta's stadium opened in 2017 and became the fifth stadium (and second in the NFL) to bear the Mercedes-Benz name.{{cn|date=October 2018}}
* [[New Orleans Arena]]
 
* [[Champions Square]]
 
   
  +
==== Statue ====
  +
On July 27, 2012, a statue was unveiled at a plaza next to the Superdome. The work, titled ''Rebirth'', depicts one of the most famous plays in Saints history—[[Steve Gleason]]'s block of a [[Michael Koenen]] punt that the Saints recovered for a touchdown early in the first quarter of the team's first post-Katrina game in the Superdome.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://espn.go.com/nfl/story/_/id/8207214/new-orleans-saints-unveil-statue-steve-gleason-blocked-punt |title=Steve Gleason statue unveiled |agency=Associated Press |publisher=''ESPN.com'' |date=July 28, 2012 |accessdate=August 25, 2015}}</ref>
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==== {{Visible anchor|Super Bowl XLVII power failure}} ====
  +
The Superdome hosted the [[Super Bowl XLVII]] football game on February 3, 2013. A partial power failure halted game play for about 34 minutes in the third quarter between the [[2012 Baltimore Ravens season|Baltimore Ravens]] and the [[2012 San Francisco 49ers season|San Francisco 49ers]]. It caused [[CBS Sports|CBS]], who was broadcasting the game, to lose some of its cameras as well as voiceovers by the commentators. At no point did the game go off the air, though the game had no audio for about two minutes. While the lights were coming back on, CBS reporters deployed around the stadium reported on the outage as a breaking news situation until power was restored enough for play to continue.
  +
  +
On February 8, 2013 it was reported that a relay device intended to prevent an electrical overload had caused the failure.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://espn.go.com/nfl/playoffs/2012/story/_/id/8929106/super-bowl-xlvii-utility-says-bad-device-caused-super-bowl-blackout|title=Super Vowl XLVII: Device setting caused SB outage|publisher=ESPN|agency=Associated Press|accessdate=9 April 2013}}</ref> The device was located in an electrical vault owned and operated by [[Entergy]], the electrical utility for the New Orleans area. That vault is approximately one quarter mile away from the Superdome. A subsequent report from an independent auditor confirmed the relay device as the cause.<ref>{{cite web|last=Thompson|first=Richard|title=Reporter|url=http://www.nola.com/business/index.ssf/2013/03/analysis_of_super_bowl_blackou.html|publisher=NOLA Media Group|accessdate=9 April 2013}}</ref> The Superdome's own power system was never compromised.
  +
  +
The Superdome was listed on the [[National Register of Historic Places]] in 2016.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nps.gov/nr/listings/20160205.htm|title=Weekly listing of actions 1/25/16 through 1/29/16|publisher=National Park Service|accessdate=2016-02-07}}</ref>
  +
  +
==== {{Visible anchor|End zone scoreboards and new lighting}} ====
  +
During the 2016 off-season, the smaller videoboards formerly located along the end zone walls above the upper seating bowl were replaced with two large [[Panasonic]] [[high-definition television|high definition]] [[light emitting diode|LED]] displays that stretch {{convert|330|ft|m}} wide and {{convert|35|ft|m}} tall that are much easier to see throughout the bowl.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.nola.com/saints/index.ssf/2016/05/massive_video_boards_in_superd.html|title=Massive new video boards in Superdome almost ready to shine|last=Duncan|first=Jeff|date=27 May 2016|work=[[The Times-Picayune]]|accessdate=2 September 2016}}</ref> Other upgrades included a complete upgrade to the Superdome's interior [[floodlight]]ing system to an efficient LED system with programmable coloring, [[Laser lighting display|light show]] effects, and instant on-off; in normal mode the stadium will have a more vibrant and naturally pleasing system resembling natural daylight.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://sportsnola.com/saints-unveil-new-high-definition-end-zone-boards-superdome-renovations/|title=Saints unveil new high-definition end zone boards, other Superdome renovations|last=Trahan|first=Sabrina|date=24 August 2016|publisher=SportsNOLA.com|accessdate=2 September 2016|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160914223907/http://sportsnola.com/saints-unveil-new-high-definition-end-zone-boards-superdome-renovations/|archive-date=14 September 2016|dead-url=yes|df=dmy-all}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.wwl.com/pages/22855954.php?|title=Superdome About To Put On A Show With New Attractions|last=Ames|first=Don|date=26 August 2016|publisher=[[WWL (AM)|WWL Radio]]|accessdate=2 September 2016|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160919011237/http://www.wwl.com/pages/22855954.php|archivedate=19 September 2016|df=}}</ref>
  +
  +
==See also==
  +
*[[Champions Square]]
  +
*[[Smoothie King Center]]
  +
*[[Sports in New Orleans]]
  +
*[[List of convention centers in the United States]]
  +
*[[List of music venues]]
  +
*[[List of soccer stadiums in the United States]]
  +
*[[National Register of Historic Places listings in Orleans Parish, Louisiana]]
   
{{clear}}
 
 
==Notes==
 
==Notes==
{{Portal|New Orleans}}
 
 
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
{{Reflist|30em}}
   
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
 
{{Commons|Louisiana Superdome}}
 
{{Commons|Louisiana Superdome}}
* [http://www.superdome.com/ Official Mercedes-Benz Superdome website]
+
*[http://www.superdome.com/ Official Mercedes-Benz Superdome website]
* [http://www.nola.com/175years/index.ssf/2011/12/1975_the_superdome_opens_in_ne.html The Times-Picayune in 175 years – 1975: The Superdome opens in New Orleans]
+
*[http://stadiumdb.com/stadiums/usa/superdome Mercedes-Benz Superdome] at StadiumDB.com
* {{Structurae|id=s0000384|title=Louisiana Superdome}}
+
*[http://www.nola.com/175years/index.ssf/2011/12/1975_the_superdome_opens_in_ne.html The Times-Picayune in 175 years – 1975: The Superdome opens in New Orleans]
* [http://www.tulanegreenwave.com/facilities/tul-superdome.html Tulane Green Wave – Louisiana Superdome]
+
*[http://api.ning.com/files/s9ooXBzZK2cj-5Q3nLu2H7Y6kURI9fRgBUmLMPRBaCLPHgusRlzYOfSh2AzJ11w-iUi-frTbL-8XpV*91jPhfXUoZgaS7sAT/TASTEOF19.jpg Stadium picture]
* [http://seaa.tulane.edu/ Southeastern Architectural Archive, Special Collections Division, Tulane University Libraries]
+
*{{Structurae|id=20000384|title=Louisiana Superdome}}
<!---->
+
*[http://www.tulanegreenwave.com/facilities/tul-superdome.html Tulane Green Wave – Louisiana Superdome]
  +
*[http://seaa.tulane.edu/ Southeastern Architectural Archive, Special Collections Division, Tulane University Libraries]
  +
*[http://seatingchartview.com/mercedes-benz-superdome/ Mercedes-Benz Superdome Seating Charts]
 
{{s-start-collapsible|header={{s-sta|et}}}}
 
{{s-start-collapsible|header={{s-sta|et}}}}
 
{{Succession box
 
{{Succession box
 
| title = Home of the [[New Orleans Saints]]
 
| title = Home of the [[New Orleans Saints]]
| years = 1975 – 2004<br>2006 – present
+
| years = 1975–2004<br />2006–present
| before = [[Tulane Stadium]]<br>[[Giants Stadium]], [[Tiger Stadium (LSU)|Tiger Stadium]], and the [[Alamodome]]
+
| before = [[Tulane Stadium]]<br />[[Giants Stadium]], [[Tiger Stadium (LSU)|Tiger Stadium]], and the [[Alamodome]]
| after = [[Giants Stadium]], [[Tiger Stadium (LSU)|Tiger Stadium]], and the [[Alamodome]]<br>current
+
| after = [[Giants Stadium]], [[Tiger Stadium (LSU)|Tiger Stadium]], and the [[Alamodome]]<br />current
  +
}}
  +
{{Succession box
  +
| title = Home of the<br />[[Tulane Green Wave football|Tulane Green Wave]]
  +
| years = 1975–2004<br />2006–2013
  +
| before = [[Tulane Stadium]]<br />No permanent home in 2005
  +
| after = No permanent home in 2005<br />[[Yulman Stadium]]
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Succession box
 
{{Succession box
 
| title = Home of the [[Sugar Bowl]]
 
| title = Home of the [[Sugar Bowl]]
| years = 1975 – 2005<br>2007 – present
+
| years = 1975–2005<br />2007–present
| before = [[Tulane Stadium]]<br>[[Georgia Dome]]
+
| before = [[Tulane Stadium]]<br />[[Georgia Dome]]
| after = [[Georgia Dome]]<br>incumbent
+
| after = [[Georgia Dome]]<br />incumbent
  +
}}
  +
{{Succession box
  +
| title = Home of the<br />[[College Football Playoff National Championship]]
  +
| years = 2020
  +
| before = [[Levi's Stadium]]
  +
| after = [[Hard Rock Stadium]]
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Succession box
 
{{Succession box
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}}
 
}}
 
{{Succession box
 
{{Succession box
| title = Home of the [[Utah Jazz|New Orleans Jazz]]
+
| title = Home of the [[New Orleans Jazz (NBA team)|New Orleans Jazz]]
 
| years = 1975–1979
 
| years = 1975–1979
 
| before = [[Municipal Auditorium (New Orleans)|Municipal Auditorium]] & [[Loyola Field House]]
 
| before = [[Municipal Auditorium (New Orleans)|Municipal Auditorium]] & [[Loyola Field House]]
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}}
 
}}
 
{{Succession box
 
{{Succession box
| title = Host of the [[Pro Bowl|NFL Pro Bowl]]
+
| title = Host of the [[Pro Bowl|NFL Pro Bowl]]
| years = [[1976 Pro Bowl|1976]]
+
| years = [[1976 Pro Bowl|1976]]
| before = [[Miami Orange Bowl]]
+
| before = [[Miami Orange Bowl]]
| after = [[Kingdome|The Kingdome]]
+
| after = [[Kingdome|The Kingdome]]
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Succession box
 
{{Succession box
| title = Host of the [[Super Bowl]]
+
| title = Host of the [[Super Bowl]]
| years = [[Super Bowl XII|XII]] 1978<br>[[Super Bowl XV|XV]] 1981<br>[[Super Bowl XX|XX]] 1986<br>[[Super Bowl XXIV|XXIV]] 1990<br>[[Super Bowl XXXI|XXXI]] 1997<br>[[Super Bowl XXXVI|XXXVI]] 2002<br>[[Super Bowl XLVII|XLVII]] 2013
+
| years = [[Super Bowl XII|XII]] 1978<br />[[Super Bowl XV|XV]] 1981<br />[[Super Bowl XX|XX]] 1986<br />[[Super Bowl XXIV|XXIV]] 1990<br />[[Super Bowl XXXI|XXXI]] 1997<br />[[Super Bowl XXXVI|XXXVI]] 2002<br />[[Super Bowl XLVII|XLVII]] 2013<br />[[Super Bowl LVIII|LVIII]] 2024
| before = [[Rose Bowl (stadium)|Rose Bowl]]<br>[[Rose Bowl (stadium)|Rose Bowl]]<br>[[Stanford Stadium]]<br>[[Sun Life Stadium|Joe Robbie Stadium]]<br>[[Sun Devil Stadium]]<br>[[Raymond James Stadium]]<br>[[Lucas Oil Stadium]]
+
| before = [[Rose Bowl (stadium)|Rose Bowl]]<br />[[Rose Bowl (stadium)|Rose Bowl]]<br />[[Stanford Stadium]]<br />[[Joe Robbie Stadium]]<br />[[Sun Devil Stadium]]<br />[[Raymond James Stadium]]<br />[[Lucas Oil Stadium]]<br />[[State Farm Stadium]]
| after = [[Miami Orange Bowl|Orange Bowl]]<br>[[Silverdome|Pontiac Silverdome]]<br>[[Rose Bowl (stadium)|Rose Bowl]]<br>[[Tampa Stadium]]<br>[[Qualcomm Stadium]]<br>[[Qualcomm Stadium]]<br>[[MetLife Stadium]]
+
| after = [[Miami Orange Bowl|Orange Bowl]]<br />[[Pontiac Silverdome]]<br />[[Rose Bowl (stadium)|Rose Bowl]]<br />[[Tampa Stadium]]<br />[[Qualcomm Stadium]]<br />[[Qualcomm Stadium]]<br />[[MetLife Stadium]]<br />TBD
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Succession box
 
{{Succession box
| title = Host of the [[NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship|NCAA Men's Division I]] [[NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship|Basketball Tournament]] Finals
+
| title = Host of the [[NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Championship|NCAA Division I Men's]] [[NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Championship|Basketball Tournament]] Finals
| years = 1982<br>1987<br>1993<br>2003<br>2012
+
| years = [[1982 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament|1982]]<br />[[1987 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament|1987]]<br />[[1993 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament|1993]]<br />[[2003 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament|2003]]<br />[[2012 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament|2012]]<br />[[2022 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament|2022]]
| before = [[Spectrum (arena)|The Spectrum]]<br>[[Reunion Arena]]<br>[[Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome|H.H.H. Metrodome]]<br>[[Georgia Dome]]<br>[[Reliant Stadium]]
+
| before = [[Spectrum (arena)|The Spectrum]]<br />[[Reunion Arena]]<br />[[Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome|H.H.H. Metrodome]]<br />[[Georgia Dome]]<br />[[Reliant Stadium]]<br />[[Lucas Oil Stadium]]
| after = [[The Pit (arena)|The Pit]]<br>[[Kemper Arena]]<br>[[Charlotte Coliseum]]<br>[[Alamodome]]<br>[[Georgia Dome]]
+
| after = [[The Pit (arena)|The Pit]]<br />[[Kemper Arena]]<br />[[Charlotte Coliseum]]<br />[[Alamodome]]<br />[[Georgia Dome]]<br />[[NRG Stadium]]
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Succession box
 
{{Succession box
 
| title = Host of the [[BCS National Championship Game]]
 
| title = Host of the [[BCS National Championship Game]]
| years = [[2008 BCS National Championship Game|2008]]
+
| years = 2000<br />2004<br />2008<br />2012
| before = [[University of Phoenix Stadium]]
+
| before = [[Sun Devil Stadium]]<br />[[Sun Devil Stadium]]<br />[[University of Phoenix Stadium]]<br />[[University of Phoenix Stadium]]
| after = [[Sun Life Stadium|Dolphin Stadium]]
+
| after = [[Pro Player Stadium]]<br />[[Pro Player Stadium]]<br />[[Dolphin Stadium]]<br />[[Sun Life Stadium]]
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Succession box
 
{{Succession box
| title = Host of the [[Republican National Convention]]
+
| title = Host of [[NFC Championship Game]]
| years = [[1988 Republican National Convention|1988]]
+
| years = 2010<br />2019
| before = [[Reunion Arena]]
+
| before = [[University of Phoenix Stadium]]<br />[[Lincoln Financial Field]]
| after = [[Reliant Astrodome|Astrodome]]
+
| after = [[Soldier Field]]<br />TBD
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Succession box
 
{{Succession box
| title = Host of [[NFC Championship Game]]
+
| title = Host of [[WrestleMania]]
| years = 2010
+
| years = 2014 ([[WrestleMania XXX|XXX]])<br>2018 ([[WrestleMania 34|34]])
| before = [[University of Phoenix Stadium]]
+
| before = [[MetLife Stadium]]<br>[[Camping World Stadium]]
| after = [[Soldier Field]]
+
| after = [[Levi's Stadium]]<br>[[MetLife Stadium]]
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{End}}
 
{{End}}
 
{{Tulane Green Wave football navbox}}
 
{{Tulane University}}
 
 
{{New Orleans Saints}}
 
{{New Orleans Saints}}
{{Utah Jazz}}
 
 
{{NFL Stadiums}}
 
{{NFL Stadiums}}
{{Conference USA football venue navbox}}
+
{{Super Bowl stadiums}}
  +
{{College Football Playoff navbox}}
  +
{{BCS National Championship Game navbox}}
  +
{{Southeastern Conference football venue navbox}}
  +
{{Sugar Bowl navbox}}
  +
{{New Orleans Bowl navbox}}
 
{{NCAA Division I FBS bowl game stadium navbox}}
 
{{NCAA Division I FBS bowl game stadium navbox}}
 
{{Louisiana college football venues}}
 
{{Louisiana college football venues}}
{{Super Bowl venues}}
+
{{Tulane Green Wave football navbox}}
{{Sugar Bowl navbox}}
+
{{New Orleans Night}}
{{BCS National Championship Game navbox}}
+
{{New Orleans VooDoo}}
  +
{{Utah Jazz}}
  +
{{AMA Supercross venues}}
  +
{{Republican National Convention venues}}
  +
{{Music venues of Louisiana}}
  +
{{Authority control}}
   
[[Category:Event venues established in 1975]]
+
[[Category:Mercedes-Benz Superdome|*]]
[[Category:American football venues in Louisiana]]
+
[[Category:American football venues in New Orleans]]
[[Category:Basketball venues in Louisiana]]
+
[[Category:New Orleans Saints stadiums]]
[[Category:Covered stadiums|Superdome]]
 
[[Category:NCAA bowl game venues]]
 
 
[[Category:National Football League venues]]
 
[[Category:National Football League venues]]
[[Category:Sports venues in New Orleans, Louisiana]]
+
[[Category:NCAA bowl game venues]]
[[Category:Tulane Green Wave football]]
+
[[Category:Tulane Green Wave football venues]]
[[Category:Defunct National Basketball Association venues]]
 
 
[[Category:United States Football League venues]]
 
[[Category:United States Football League venues]]
[[Category:Structures affected by Hurricane Katrina]]
+
[[Category:Arena football venues]]
[[Category:Boxing venues]]
+
[[Category:New Orleans VooDoo]]
[[Category:New Orleans Jazz arenas]]
+
[[Category:New Orleans Night]]
[[Category:New Orleans Saints stadiums]]
+
[[Category:High school football venues in Louisiana]]
[[Category:Buildings and structures completed in 1975]]
+
[[Category:Baseball venues in New Orleans]]
  +
[[Category:New Orleans Pelicans (baseball) stadiums]]
  +
[[Category:Defunct baseball venues in the United States]]
  +
[[Category:Defunct minor league baseball venues]]
  +
[[Category:Basketball venues in New Orleans]]
  +
[[Category:New Orleans Jazz venues]]
  +
[[Category:Former National Basketball Association venues]]
  +
[[Category:Boxing venues in New Orleans]]
  +
[[Category:Gymnastics venues in New Orleans]]
  +
[[Category:Indoor soccer venues in Louisiana]]
  +
[[Category:Professional wrestling venues in Louisiana]]
  +
[[Category:Rodeo venues in the United States]]
  +
[[Category:Soccer venues in New Orleans]]
  +
[[Category:Tennis venues in New Orleans]]
  +
[[Category:Wrestling venues in New Orleans]]
  +
[[Category:Covered stadiums in the United States|Superdome]]
  +
[[Category:Multi-purpose stadiums in the United States]]
  +
[[Category:Convention centers in Louisiana]]
  +
[[Category:Buildings and structures in New Orleans]]
  +
[[Category:Event venues established in 1975]]
  +
[[Category:Sports venues completed in 1975]]
  +
[[Category:1975 establishments in Louisiana]]
  +
[[Category:Music venues in Louisiana]]
 
[[Category:Mercedes-Benz]]
 
[[Category:Mercedes-Benz]]
+
[[Category:Event venues on the National Register of Historic Places in Louisiana]]
{{Wikipedia}}
+
[[Category:National Register of Historic Places in New Orleans]]
  +
[[Category:Sports venues on the National Register of Historic Places]]
  +
[[Category:Portland Breakers stadiums]]
  +
[[Category:NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament Final Four venues]]

Latest revision as of 02:09, August 28, 2019

Mercedes-Benz Superdome
File:Mercedes-Benz Superdome logo.svg
Former namesLouisiana Superdome (1975–2011)
Address1500 Sugar Bowl Drive
LocationNew Orleans, Louisiana
Coordinates<span class="geo-dms" title="Maps, aerial photos, and other data for Expression error: Unexpected < operator.°Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected >= operator. Expression error: Unexpected < operator.°Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected >= operator.">Expression error: Unexpected < operator.°Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected >= operator. Expression error: Unexpected < operator.°Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected >= operator. / ,
Public transitTemplate:Rint Template:Rint Poydras Street Template:Rint Template:Rint New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal
OwnerLouisiana Stadium and Exposition District
OperatorSMG
CapacityAmerican football: 73,208 (expandable to 76,468)[1]
Basketball: 73,432
Baseball: 56,941
Record attendance78,133 (WrestleMania 34, April 8, 2018)
SurfaceMonsanto "Mardi Grass" turf (1975–2003)[2]
FieldTurf (2003–2006)
Sportexe Momentum Turf (2006–2009)
UBU Speed Series S5 (2010-2016)
Act Global UBU Speed S5-M Synthetic Turf (2017–2018)
Turf Nation S5 (2019-present)
Construction
Broke groundAugust 12, 1971
OpenedAugust 3, 1975
ReopenedSeptember 25, 2006
Construction costUS$134 million (Initial)
($547 million in 2018 dollars[3])

Renovations: US$193 million (2005–06 repairs)
($210 million in 2018 dollars[3])
ArchitectCurtis and Davis Associated[4]
Edward B. Silverstein & Associates[4]
Nolan, Norman & Nolan[4]
Structural engineerSverdrup & Parcel[4]
Thornton Tomasetti (2006 repairs)
General contractorHuber, Hunt, & Nichols/Blount Joint Venture[5]
Tenants
New Orleans Saints (NFL) (1975–2004, 2006–present)
Sugar Bowl (NCAA) (1975–2005, 2007–present)
Tulane Green Wave (NCAA) (1975–2004, 2006–2013)
New Orleans Jazz (NBA) (1975–1979)
New Orleans Pelicans (AA) (1977)
New Orleans Breakers (USFL) (1984)
New Orleans Night (AFL) (1991–1992)
New Orleans Bowl (NCAA) (2001–2004, 2006–present)
New Orleans VooDoo (AFL) (2013)
Script error

The Mercedes-Benz Superdome, often referred to simply as the Superdome, is a domed sports and exhibition venue located in the Central Business District of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States. It primarily serves as the home venue for the New Orleans Saints of the National Football League (NFL), the home stadium for the Sugar Bowl, New Orleans Bowl in college football and the longtime rivalry football game of the SWAC Conference’s Southern University and Grambling State University, known as the Bayou Classic (held yearly, every Thanksgiving Weekend). It also houses their schools’ Battle of the Bands between The Southern University "The Human Jukebox" and Grambling State’s Tiger Marching Band.

Plans were drawn up in 1967 by the New Orleans modernist architectural firm of Curtis and Davis and the building opened as the Louisiana Superdome in 1975. Its steel frame covers a Script error expanse and the Script error dome is made of a lamellar multi-ringed frame and has a diameter of Script error, making it the largest fixed domed structure in the world.[1] It is adjacent to the Smoothie King Center.

Because of the building's size and location in one of the major tourist destinations of the United States, the Superdome routinely hosts major sporting events, including the Super Bowl, College Football Championship Game, and the Final Four in college basketball. The stadium was also the long-time home of the Tulane Green Wave football team of Tulane University until 2014 (when they returned on-campus at Yulman Stadium) and was the home venue of the New Orleans Jazz of the National Basketball Association (NBA) from 1975 until 1979.

The Superdome gained international attention of a different type in 2005 when it housed thousands of people seeking shelter from Hurricane Katrina. The building suffered extensive damage as a result of the storm, and was closed for many months afterward. It was eventually decided the building would be fully refurbished and reopened in time for the Saints' 2006 home opener on September 25.

On October 3, 2011, it was announced that German automaker Mercedes-Benz purchased naming rights to the stadium. The new name took effect on October 23, 2011.[2]

DescriptionEdit

The Superdome is located on Script error of land, including the former Girod Street Cemetery. The dome has an interior space of Script error, a height of Script error, a dome diameter of Script error, and a total floor area of Script error.

CapacityEdit

The Superdome has a listed football seating capacity of 76,468 (expanded) or 73,208 (not expanded) and a maximum basketball seating capacity of 73,432. However, published attendance figures from events such as the Super Bowl football game have exceeded 79,000. The basketball capacity does not reflect the NCAA's new policy on arranging the basketball court on the 50-yard line on the football field, per 2009 NCAA policy.[1] In 2011, 3,500 seats were added, increasing the Superdome's capacity to 76,468. The Superdome's capacity was 78,133 for WWE WrestleMania 34.[2] The actual capacity is 73,208 people.

The chronology of the capacity for football is as follows:

Years Capacity
1975–1978 74,452[3]
1979–1984 71,330[4]
1985–1986 71,647[5]
1987–1990 69,723[6]
1991–1994 69,065[7]
1995 70,852[8]
1996 64,992[9]
1997 69,420[10]
1998 69,028[11]
1999 70,054[12]
2000 64,900[13]
2001 70,020[14]
2002–2003 68,500[15]
2004–2005 64,900[16]
2006 68,354[17]
2007–2010 72,968[18]
2011–present 73,208 (expandable to 76,468)

SportsEdit

FootballEdit

File:The Dome New Orleans Man Trip.jpg

The Superdome's primary tenant is the NFL's New Orleans Saints. The team regularly draws capacity crowds.[20]

The NFL has hosted seven Super Bowls at the Superdome, most recently Super Bowl XLVII in 2013. The Superdome is scheduled to host its eighth Super Bowl in 2024.

The 1976 Pro Bowl was held at the Superdome on Monday, January 26, 1976. It was the NFL's 26th annual all-star game.[21]

Tulane University played their home games at the stadium from 1975 to 2013 (except 2005) before moving to on-campus Yulman Stadium.[22]

The BCS National Championship Game was played at the Superdome four times. The College Football Playoff semifinal game is played every three years in the stadium. Two other bowl games are also played there annually: the Sugar Bowl and New Orleans Bowl. The Superdome also hosts the Bayou Classic, a major regular-season game between two of the state's historically black colleges and universities, Grambling State and Southern.

In 2013, the Arena Football League New Orleans VooDoo played their last six home games of the season at the stadium. From 1991 to 1992, the New Orleans Night of the AFL played at the stadium.

The annual Louisiana Prep Classic state championship football games organized by the Louisiana High School Athletic Association have been held at the Superdome since 1981, except in 2005 following the extreme damage of Hurricane Katrina. The first state championship game in the stadium matched New Orleans Catholic League powers St. Augustine and Jesuit on December 15, 1978. The Purple Knights won their second Class AAAA title in four seasons by ousting the Blue Jays, 13–7, in front of over 42,000 fans.

Date Super Bowl Team (Visitor) Points Team (Home) Points Spectators
January 15, 1978 XII Dallas Cowboys 27 Denver Broncos 1076,400
January 25, 1981 XV Oakland Raiders 27 Philadelphia Eagles 1076,135
January 26, 1986 XX Chicago Bears 46 New England Patriots 1073,818
January 28, 1990 XXIV San Francisco 49ers 55 Denver Broncos 1072,919
January 26, 1997 XXXI New England Patriots 21 Green Bay Packers 3572,301
February 3, 2002 XXXVI St. Louis Rams 17 New England Patriots 2072,922
February 3, 2013 XLVII Baltimore Ravens 34 San Francisco 49ers 3171,024

Home field advantage
Since the Superdome's reopening in the wake of Hurricane Katrina and the increased success of the New Orleans Saints, the Superdome has developed a reputation for having a very strong home field advantage. While all domed stadiums possess this quality to some degree, the Superdome is known to get extremely loud during games, especially during offensive drives by the visiting team.

During a pregame interview before the Minnesota Vikings' opening game of the 2010 NFL season against the Saints, Brett Favre, reflecting on the Vikings' loss to the Saints in the 2009–10 NFC Championship Game, said of the Superdome: "That was, by far, the most hostile environment I've ever been in. You couldn't hear anything." It was during that loss that some of the Vikings players elected to wear earplugs, including Favre. It was the first game of the season that they had chosen to do so.[23]

BaseballEdit

When the plaza level seats remained moveable, the capacity for baseball was 63,525 and the field size was as followed: 325 feet to both left field and right field, 365 feet to both left-center field and right-center field, 421 feet to center field, and 60 feet to the backstop. The bowl was reconfigured in a renovation from 2006–2011, which replaced the moveable seats with a pre-cast concrete deck and moved the seating closer to the field, creating 3,500 new seats in the lower bowl. This made the bowl more suitable for football, but less accommodating for baseball.[24]

The first baseball game in the Superdome was an exhibition between the Minnesota Twins and the Houston Astros on April 6, 1976.[25]

Superdome officials pursued negotiations with Oakland Athletics officials during the 1978–79 baseball off-season about moving the Athletics to the Superdome. The Athletics were unable to break their lease at the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum and remained in Oakland.[26] Superdome officials met with the Pittsburgh Pirates in April 1981 about moving the club to New Orleans when the Pirates were unhappy with their lease at Three Rivers Stadium.[27]

Minor League Baseball
The American Association New Orleans Pelicans played at the Superdome during the 1977 season. The Pelicans' season attendance was 217,957 at the dome.[28]

Major League Baseball Exhibitions
The Minnesota Twins and the Houston Astros played an exhibition game on April 6, 1976.[25] The New York Yankees played exhibition games at the Superdome in 1980, 1981, 1982, and 1983. The Yankees hosted the Baltimore Orioles on March 15 and 16, 1980. 45,152 spectators watched the Yankees beat the Orioles 9–3 on March 15, 1980. The following day, 43,339 fans saw Floyd Rayford lead the Orioles to a 7–1 win over the Yankees.[29] In 1981, the Yankees played the New York Mets, Philadelphia Philles and Pittsburgh Pirates in the dome. In 1982, the Yankees played the Montreal Expos and Texas Rangers and late in 1982, the Yankees considered opening the 1983 regular season at the Superdome if Yankee Stadium would not be ready yet after renovations.[30] The 1983 New York Yankees also played the Montreal Expos and Toronto Blue Jays in the Superdome that year.[31] The Philadelphia Phillies and St. Louis Cardinals closed the 1984 spring training season with two games at the dome on March 31, 1984 and April 1, 1984.[32] In what was a preview of the 1989 World Series, the Oakland A's played the San Francisco Giants in two games on March 28–29, 1989.[33] In 1991, the Los Angeles Dodgers played the Oakland A's in two games on March 22–23, 1991. The A's also played the New York Mets in two contests on March 26–27, 1993. In 1994, the Boston Red Sox played the New York Yankees in two games on April 1–2, 1994. The last professional baseball games played in the Superdome occurred on April 3–4, 1999, when the Chicago Cubs and Minnesota Twins played a two-game series dubbed the "New Orleans Major League Baseball Classic."[33]

Busch Challenge/Winn-Dixie Showdown
The Busch Challenge/Winn-Dixie Showdown was a college baseball tournament held in the Superdome from 1987 to 1999. LSU, Tulane and University of New Orleans played an in-state team and out-of-state teams from Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma and Texas in the annual tournament. The in-state team was Louisiana-Lafayette. The out-of-state teams were Alabama, Arkansas, Auburn, Cal State Fullerton, Duke, Florida, Florida State, Georgia, Georgia Southern, Georgia Tech, Houston, Lamar, Miami (FL), Mississippi State, NC State, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oklahoma State, Ole Miss, Oral Roberts, South Alabama, Southern California, Southern Mississippi, Texas A&M, UCLA.[34]

BasketballEdit

The NCAA has hosted the Men's Final Four at the Superdome five times in 1982, 1987, 1993, 2003, and 2012. The stadium hosted regional semifinals and finals in 1981 and 1990, as well as first- and second-round games in 1999 and 2001.

The NBA's New Orleans Jazz used the Superdome as their home court, from 1975 to 1979. In 1977, the Jazz set a then-record in attendance for an NBA game, with 35,077 watching the Jazz led by Pete "Pistol Pete" Maravich against the Philadelphia 76ers,[35] led by fellow future Hall of Famer Julius Erving.

Tulane used the Superdome as its primary home court from its opening in 1975 through 1982. It played occasional games there in the 1990s against high-profile opponents before the opening of the New Orleans Arena (now the Smoothie King Center) in 1999.

In 1996, the stadium hosted the AAU Junior Olympics basketball competition.[36]

BoxingEdit

On October 14, 1975, the Dome hosted Muhammad Ali Appreciation Day. The Muhammad Temple of Islam 46 in New Orleans organized the activities, with Ali's appearance as the day's highlight. Speakers included Dr. Na'im Akbar, Wallace D. Muhammad and Louis Farrakhan.[37]

The Superdome hosted the September 15, 1978 fight some called the Ali rematch where Muhammad Ali won the world Heavyweight title for the third time by beating Leon Spinks in front of a crowd of 65,000. It was Ali's last professional win.

Leonard–Durán II, also known as the No Más Fight, took place on November 25, 1980 at the Louisiana Superdome. In the match, Sugar Ray Leonard defeated Roberto Durán to regain the WBC Welterweight Championship. The match gained its famous appellation in the end of the eighth round when Durán turned away from Leonard, towards the referee and quit by saying "No más" (Spanish for "No more").

On December 3, 1982, the Superdome hosted the Carnival of Champions. In the first of two co-main events, Wilfredo Gómez would defend his WBC world Jr Featherweight championship against WBC's world Bantamweight champion Lupe Pintor. In the second, Wilfred Benítez defended his WBC world Jr Middleweight championship against the former WBA Welterweight champion of the world Thomas Hearns.[38]

GymnasticsEdit

The USSR National Gymnastics Team performed for the first time in Louisiana in 1976. The Superdome event featured Olga Korbut, Nelli Kim, Nicolai Andrianov and Alexander Dityatin.

At the 1995 U.S. Gymnastics National Championships,[39] Dominique Moceanu became the youngest Women's All-Around National Champion in U.S. history at 13 years old, a record that still stands.[40] John Roethlisberger also won his fourth and final U.S. Men's All-Around National Championship.

In 1996, the stadium hosted the AAU Junior Olympics gymnastics competition.[41]

MotocrossEdit

The Superdome hosted an AMA Supercross Championship round from 1977 to 1980, 1998 to 2002, 2009 and 2012. On June 4, 1977, 40,000 fans watched Jimmy Weinert win the sixth of 12 races for a $250,000 purse. 20 million pounds of dirt were piled into the center of the Superdome for the event.[42]

Rugby UnionEdit

The Superdome was scheduled to host a rugby union match on August 1, 2015 between English Premiership team Saracens and New Zealand's Super Rugby team Crusaders.[43] The match was organized by RugbyLaw, organizers of the National Rugby Football League. The match was cancelled, however, as USA Rugby, the governing body of the sport in the United States, refused to approve the artificial turf playing surface.[44]

SoccerEdit

The first soccer match to be held in the Superdome, on September 5, 1976, pitted New Orleans local club teams, The Costa Rica Soccer Club and The Olympia Soccer Club. This match was immediately followed by the second soccer match to be held in the Superdome which pitted The New York Cosmos and the Dallas Tornado. The Brazilian star Pelé and Kyle Rote, Jr. led their respective teams. The USWNT played their Final Victory Tour game against China on December 16, 2015 in what was the final match for Abby Wambach. China won 1-0 with the attendance of 32,950, making it a record setting attendance for a soccer match in Louisiana. On October 19, 2017, the USWNT played an international friendly against the Korea Republic, defeating them 3-1. Alex Morgan scored in the 40th minute for the United States, tallying her 78th career goal.[45]

International Soccer MatchesEdit

Date Winning Team Result Losing Team Tournament Spectators
December 16, 2015 22x20px China PR1-0 Flag of the United States.svg.png United StatesU.S. Final Victory Tour 32,950
October 17, 2017 Flag of the United States.svg.png United States3-1 22x20px South KoreaInternational Friendly 9,371

Professional wrestlingEdit

The Superdome was renowned for hosting many of Mid-South Wrestling's large, "Blow Off" events that were culminations of weeks or months of feuds and rivalries. Bill Watts was the promoter of this territory and gained much notoriety from promotion of his events in the Superdome.

April 19, 1986 saw Jim Crockett Promotions (in association with Bill Watts' UWF and All Japan Pro Wrestling) host the first of three annual Jim Crockett Sr. Memorial Cup Tag Team Tournaments. 24 teams competed in a single day show with an afternoon 1st rounds and finals in the evening. The tournament final saw The Road Warriors prevail over Magnum T.A. and Ron Garvin. Besides tag team tournament the Superdome attendance of 13,000 saw NWA World Champion Ric Flair retain the title via disqualification from Dusty Rhodes and Mid-South North American Champion Hacksaw Jim Duggan beat Buzz Sawyer.

World Championship Wrestling held its sixth Clash of the Champions on April 2, 1989. The event saw Ricky Steamboat defeat Ric Flair in a two out of three falls match 2–1 to retain the NWA World Heavyweight Championship. Clash VI was held on the same day as WrestleMania V and on free TV in an attempt to hurt the PPV rating.

WWE WrestleMania XXXEdit

The 30th annual WrestleMania pay-per-view event, WrestleMania XXX, was held at the Superdome on April 6, 2014. This was the first time WWE held its annual event in New Orleans. At the event, The Undertaker's WrestleMania winning streak was ended by Brock Lesnar in front of 75,167 in attendance. Daniel Bryan won two matches. The first match was won against Triple H for a spot in the Triple Threat match for the WWE World Heavyweight Championship, which he went on to win later in the evening against Randy Orton and Batista. Also the WWE Divas Championship was defended for the very first time at WrestleMania with the champion AJ Lee retaining her title.[46]

<div class="thumb tnone" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right:auto; width:99%; max-width:Expression error: Unexpected < operator.px;">

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A panorama shot of WrestleMania XXX (pre-show) within the Mercedes-Benz Superdome
</div>

WWE WrestleMania 34Edit

The 34th annual WrestleMania pay-per-view event, WrestleMania 34, returned to the Superdome on April 8, 2018. At the event, Charlotte Flair defeated the 2018 Women's Royal Rumble winner Asuka, ending her 2-year undefeated streak as well as retaining the SmackDown Women's Championship, Brock Lesnar defeated Roman Reigns to retain the Universal Championship in the main event, also AJ Styles defeated the 2018 Men's Royal Rumble winner Shinsuke Nakamura to retain the WWE Championship which was also promoted as the main event. In the event, former UFC star Ronda Rousey made her WWE debut in a mixed tag team match with her partner Kurt Angle to defeat Stephanie McMahon and Triple H. Daniel Bryan returned to in-ring action for the first time in nearly 3 years, when he teamed with Shane McMahon to defeat Kevin Owens and Sami Zayn. It also featured the return of The Undertaker since his previous loss at WrestleMania 33, who defeated John Cena in an impromptu match lasting under three minutes. The show took place in front of 78,133 people.

TennisEdit

The New Orleans Sun Belt Nets were a charter franchise of World TeamTennis (WTT). The Nets played in the Superdome during the 1978 season.

WrestlingEdit

In 1996, the stadium hosted the AAU Junior Olympics wrestling competition.[1] In February 1997, the Dome hosted the Louisiana High School Athletic Association state wrestling championships.

Special eventsEdit

The Superdome held its official dedication ceremonies on August 3, 1975. Jazz musicians Al Hirt and Pete Fountain played for the event.

EntertainmentEdit

Between August 28 and September 14, 1975, the Superdome continued to celebrate its grand opening, with appearances by Bob Hope, Chayl Jhuren, Telly Savalas, Dorothy Lamour, Karen Valentine, and Raquel Welch. The Allman Brothers, the Marshall Tucker band, Wet Willie, the Charlie Daniels band, the O'Jays, the Isley Brothers, the Temptations, Donald Byrd and the Blackbyrds, and the Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus also performed.[2]

On October 3, 1975, June Carter, Johnny Cash, Merle Haggard, Waylon Jennings and Jessi Colter performed in the Dome. Fans included then Governor Edwin Edwards, wife Elaine, children Anna, Victoria, Steven and David, and Edwards' grandchildren.[3]

The Superdome's 1977 New Year's Eve celebration opened with The Emotions and Deniece Williams, followed by Earth, Wind and Fire.

On May 29, 1977, the First Annual Superdome KOOL Jazz Spectacular featured Aretha Franklin, Al Green, The Spinners and The Mighty Clouds of Joy. Jimmie "J.J." Walker from the TV series Good Times was the guest M.C.

The Superdome hosted Jimmy Buffett (born in MS) in '76, Willie Nelson in '77, The Commodores in '78, Fats Domino (from New Orleans) in '78, Kenny Rogers (from Houston) in '79, Hank Williams Jr. (from Louisiana) in '81, and Lil Wayne (from New Orleans) in 2018.

Governor Edwin Edwards held his third inaugural ball at the Superdome March 12, 1984. Headline acts included Doug Kershaw and Susan Anton.

Because of a booking mixup, the Jets performed a full set to an empty Superdome in the summer of 1987.[4]

The annual Essence Music Festival has been held in the Superdome every year since 1995 except for 2006, when it was held in Houston, Texas due to Hurricane Katrina repairs.

Date Artist Opening act(s) Tour / Concert name Attendance Revenue Notes
July 13, 1978 The Rolling Stones Van Halen
Doobie Brothers
US Tour 1978
December 5, 1981 The Rolling Stones George Thorogood
The Neville Brothers
American Tour 1981 87,500 / 87,500 $1,531,250 Attendees filled the floor area, as well as the regular seating sections.[5]
February 14, 1983 Kiss Zebra Creatures of the Night Tour/10th Anniversary Tour
February 1, 1985 Prince Apollonia 6
Sheila E.
Purple Rain Tour
October 6, 1987 David Bowie Glass Spider Tour
November 27, 1987 Whitney Houston Kenny G Moment of Truth World Tour
October 18, 1988 George Michael Faith World Tour 24,000 / 30,000 $450,555
November 13, 1989 The Rolling Stones Living Colour Steel Wheels Tour 59,339 / 59,339 $1,682,220
July 8, 1990 Janet Jackson Chuckii Booker Rhythm Nation World Tour 1990
August 23, 1990 New Kids on the Block The Magic Summer Tour
August 29, 1992 Guns N' Roses
Metallica
Faith No More Guns N' Roses/Metallica Stadium Tour 39,278 / 39,278 $1,080,145
April 24, 1993 Paul McCartney The New World Tour 38,971 / 41,211 $843,850
May 14, 1994 Pink Floyd The Division Bell Tour 41,475 / 41,475 $1,401,445
October 10, 1994 The Rolling Stones Bryan Adams Voodoo Lounge Tour 32,687 / 40,000 $1,464,250
July 9, 1996 Kiss The Melvins Alive/Worldwide Tour
November 21, 1997 U2 Third Eye Blind PopMart Tour 21,465 / 25,000 $911,528
October 28, 1998 Janet Jackson The Velvet Rope Tour
April 12, 1999 Celine Dion Let's Talk About Love World Tour 20,047 / 20,047 $1,153,562
June 23, 1999 Cher Cyndi Lauper
Wild Orchid
Do You Believe? 12,754 / 16,000 $712,529
February 26, 2000 Backstreet Boys Jungle Brothers
Willa
Into the Millennium Tour 54,365 / 56,211 $2,286,582
May 27, 2000 NSYNC P!nk
Sisqó
No Strings Attached Tour 32,516 / 32,516 $1,456,245
September 20, 2000 Britney Spears BBMak Oops!... I Did It Again Tour This concert was taped for a Fox TV special titled There's No Place Like Home.[6]
August 22, 2001 NSYNC Amanda PopOdyssey Tour This show was filmed and released on VHS and DVD.[7][8]
August 25, 2004 Usher Kanye West
Christina Milian
Truth Tour
July 2, 2005 Destiny's Child Destiny Fulfilled... and Lovin' It This concert was part of the Essence Music Festival[9]
July 7, 2007 Kelly Rowland This concert was part of the Essence Music Festival.[10][11]
July 4, 2008 Rihanna Good Girl Gone Bad Tour This show was part of the 2008 Essence Music Festival.
July 3, 2010 Alicia Keys Robin Thicke
Melanie Fiona
Freedom Tour This concert was part of the Essence Music Festival [12]
August 3, 2012 Kenny Chesney
Tim McGraw
Grace Potter and the Nocturnals
Jake Owen
Brothers of the Sun Tour 37,916 / 40,876 $3,385,855
July 7, 2013 Beyoncé The Mrs. Carter Show World Tour 38,441 / 38,441 $5,766,150 This concert was a part of the Essence Music Festival.[13][14]
July 20, 2014 Beyoncé
Jay-Z
On the Run Tour 42,374 / 42,374 $5,206,490
September 25, 2014 One Direction 5 Seconds of Summer Where We Are Tour 50,349 / 50,349 $4,258,450
July 2, 2015 Kevin Hart What Now? Tour
July 31, 2016 Guns N' Roses The Cult Not In This Lifetime... Tour 32,894 / 40,215 $3,447,362
September 24, 2016 Beyoncé DJ Khaled The Formation World Tour 46,474 / 46,474 $5,349,960 Beyoncé was introduced to the stage by New Orleans native and "Formation" rapper Big Freedia.[15]
May 27, 2017 Miranda Lambert Highway Vagabond Tour This concert was part of Bayou Country Superfest.
September 14, 2017 U2 Beck The Joshua Tree Tour 2017 34,536 / 34,536 $3,873,405 [16]
September 13, 2018 Beyoncé
Jay-Z
Chloe X Halle and DJ Khaled On the Run II Tour 40,939 / 40,939 $5,437,147
September 22, 2018 Taylor Swift Camila Cabello
Charli XCX
Taylor Swift's Reputation Stadium Tour 53,172 / 53,172 $6,491,546 The highest grossing concert at the stadium to date.
October 31, 2018 Ed Sheeran Snow Patrol
Lauv
÷ Tour 42,295 / 42,295 $2,827,815

Other eventsEdit

The Seventh-day Adventist Church held its 54th General Conference session at the Superdome in June and July 1985.

Pope John Paul II addressed 80,000 children at the stadium in 1987.[17]

The Republican National Convention was held there in 1988, nominating then-Vice President George H. W. Bush for President and U.S. Senator Dan Quayle of Indiana as Vice President.[17]

In June 1996, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Disney's 34th animated feature, had a gala world premiere at this stadium, with over 65,000 people attending the event.

In August 2001, the Bassmaster Classic XXXI final weigh-in was held in the stadium.

Stadium historyEdit

PlanningEdit

Sports visionary David Dixon (who decades later founded the United States Football League) conceived of the Superdome while attempting to convince the NFL to award a franchise to New Orleans. After hosting several exhibition games at Tulane Stadium during typical New Orleans summer thunderstorms, Dixon was told by NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle that the NFL would never expand into New Orleans without a domed stadium. Dixon then won the support of the governor of Louisiana, John McKeithen. When they toured the Astrodome in Houston, Texas in 1966, McKeithen was quoted as saying, "I want one of these, only bigger", in reference to the Astrodome itself. Bonds were passed for construction of the Superdome on November 8, 1966, seven days after commissioner Pete Rozelle awarded New Orleans the 25th professional football franchise. The stadium was conceptualized to be a multifunctional stadium for football, baseball and basketball [with moveable field level stands that would be arranged specifically for each sport and areas with dirt (for the bases and pitchers mound) covered with metal plates on the stadium floor (they were covered by the artificial turf during football games)] and there are also Meeting Rooms that could be rented for many different purposes. Dixon imagined the possibilities of staging simultaneous high school football games side-by-side and suggested that the synthetic surface be white.[18] Blount International of Montgomery, Alabama was chosen to build the stadium.[19]

As the dome was being constructed, various individuals developed eccentric models of the structure: one was of sugar, another consisted of pennies. The so-called "penny model" traveled to the Philadelphia Bicentennial '76 exhibition. New Orleanian Norman J. Kientz built the model with 2,697 pennies and donated it to the Superdome Board of Commissioners in April 1974.[20]

It was hoped the stadium would be ready in time for the 1972 NFL season, and the final cost of the facility would come in at $46 million. Instead, due to political delays, construction did not start until August 11, 1971, and was not finished until August 1975, seven months after Super Bowl IX was scheduled to be played in the stadium. Since the stadium was not finished in time for the Super Bowl, the game had to be moved to Tulane Stadium, and was played in cold and rainy conditions. Factoring in inflation, construction delays, and the increase in transportation costs caused by the 1973 oil crisis, the final price tag of the stadium skyrocketed to $165 million. Along with the state police, Elward Thomas Brady, Jr., a state representative from Terrebonne Parish and a New Orleans native, conducted an investigation into possible financial irregularities, but the Superdome went forward despite the obstacles.[21]

Early history (1975–2003)Edit

First Saints game
The New Orleans Saints opened the 1975 NFL season at the Superdome, losing 21–0 to the Cincinnati Bengals in the first regular-season game in the facility. Tulane Stadium, the original home of the Saints, was condemned for destruction on the day the Superdome opened.

First Super Bowl
The first Super Bowl played in the stadium was Super Bowl XII in January 1978, the first in prime time.

Original turf
The original artificial turf playing surface in the Superdome was produced and developed by Monsanto (which made the first artificial playing surface for sports, AstroTurf) specifically for the Superdome and was named "Mardi Grass."[22]
File:Superdome during National Lutheran Youth Gathering.jpeg
New turf installation
The Superdome replaced the first generation "Mardi Grass" surface to the next-generation FieldTurf surface midway through the 2003 football season on November 16.

Shelter of last resort during Hurricane Katrina Edit

Script error The Superdome was used as a "shelter of last resort" for those in New Orleans unable to evacuate from Hurricane Katrina when it struck on August 29, 2005. During the storm on August 29, 2005, a large section of the outer covering was peeled off by high winds. The photos of the damage, in which the concrete underneath was exposed, quickly became an iconic image of Hurricane Katrina. A few days later the dome was closed until September 25, 2006.

As of August 31, there had been three deaths in the Superdome: two elderly medical patients and a man who is believed to have committed suicide by jumping from the upper level seats. There were also unconfirmed reports of rape, vandalism, violent assaults, crack dealing/drug abuse, and gang activity inside the Superdome. After a National Guardsman was attacked and shot in the dark by an assailant, the National Guard inside the Superdome used barbed wire barricades to separate themselves from the other people in the dome.[5] On September 11, New Orleans Police Superintendent Eddie Compass reported there were "no confirmed reports of any type of sexual assault."[6]

Reopening after Katrina

File:Louisiana Superdome damage repair.jpg

The Superdome cost $185 million to repair and refurbish. To repair the Superdome, FEMA put up $115 million,[1] the state spent $13 million, the Louisiana Stadium & Exposition District refinanced a bond package to secure $41 million and the NFL contributed $15 million.

After being damaged from the flooding disaster, a new Sportexe MomentumTurf surface was installed for the 2006 season.

On Super Bowl XL Sunday (February 5, 2006), the NFL announced that the Saints would play their home opener on September 24, 2006 in the Superdome against the Atlanta Falcons. The game was later moved to Monday night, September 25.

The reopening of the dome was celebrated with festivities including a free outdoor concert by the Goo Goo Dolls before fans were allowed in, a pre-game performance by the rock bands U2 and Green Day performing a cover of The Skids' "The Saints Are Coming", and a coin toss conducted by former President George H. W. Bush. In front of ESPN's largest-ever audience at that time, the Saints won the game 23–3 with 70,003 in attendance and went on to a successful season reaching their first ever NFC Championship Game.

The first bowl game played in the Superdome after Katrina was the New Orleans Bowl won by the Troy Trojans 41–17 over the Rice Owls.

2008–present Edit

Further renovations

File:Superdome Renovations.jpg
File:Mercedes-Benz Superdome Poydras bike.JPG

In 2008, new windows were installed to bring natural light into the building. Later that year, the roof-facing of the Superdome was also remodeled, restoring the roof with a solid white hue. Between 2009 and 2010, the entire outer layer of the stadium, more than Script error of aluminum siding, was replaced with new aluminum panels and insulation, returning the building to its original champagne bronze colored exterior. An innovative barrier system for drainage was also added, allowing the dome to resemble its original facade.

In addition, escalators were added to the outside of the club rooms. Each suite includes modernized rooms with raised ceilings, leather sofas, and flat-screen TVs, as well as glass brushed aluminum and wood-grain furnishings. A new $600,000 point-of-sale system was also installed, allowing fans to purchase concessions with credit cards throughout the stadium for the first time.

New turf installation Edit

During the summer of 2010 the Superdome installed Script error of the UBU Speed S5-M synthetic turf system, an Act Global brand. In 2017 Act Global installed a new turf in time for the NFL Season. The Superdome has, as of 2017, the largest continuous synthetic turf system in the NFL.

Renovations Edit

Beginning in 2011, demolition and new construction began to the lower bowl of the stadium, reconfiguring it to increase seating by 3,500, widening the plaza concourse, building two bunker club lounges and adding additional concession stands. Crews tore down the temporary stairs that lead from Champions Square to the Dome, and replaced them with permanent steps. Installation of express elevators that take coaches and media from the ground level of the stadium to the press box were also completed. New Script error bunker lounges on each side of the stadium were built. The lounges are equipped with flat-screen TVs, granite counter tops and full-service bars. These state-of-the-art lounges can serve 4,500 fans, whose old plaza seats were upgraded to premium tickets, giving those fans leather chairs with cup-holders. The plaza level was extended, closing in space between the concourse and plaza seating, adding new restrooms and concession areas. The renovations also ended the stadium's ability to convert to a baseball configuration.[1] The renovations were completed in late June 2011 in time for the Essence Music Festival.

Naming rights Edit

The Superdome had not taken on corporate naming rights until Mercedes-Benz USA acquired the rights in 2011. Though the stadium is owned by the state of Louisiana, the New Orleans Saints' lease gives the team the authority to sell the rights.[2] Saints owner Tom Benson also owns Mercedes-Benz dealerships in New Orleans and San Antonio.[3] At that time, it was the third stadium that has naming rights from Mercedes-Benz (and first in the United States), after the Mercedes-Benz Arena, the stadium of Bundesliga club VfB Stuttgart, in Stuttgart, Germany, and the Mercedes-Benz Arena in Shanghai, China.[citation needed]

Despite Mercedes-Benz acquiring the naming rights for the Atlanta Falcons' new stadium in 2015, the naming rights contract for the Superdome will remain in place until 2021.[4] Atlanta's stadium opened in 2017 and became the fifth stadium (and second in the NFL) to bear the Mercedes-Benz name.[citation needed]

Statue Edit

On July 27, 2012, a statue was unveiled at a plaza next to the Superdome. The work, titled Rebirth, depicts one of the most famous plays in Saints history—Steve Gleason's block of a Michael Koenen punt that the Saints recovered for a touchdown early in the first quarter of the team's first post-Katrina game in the Superdome.[5]

Super Bowl XLVII power failure Edit

The Superdome hosted the Super Bowl XLVII football game on February 3, 2013. A partial power failure halted game play for about 34 minutes in the third quarter between the Baltimore Ravens and the San Francisco 49ers. It caused CBS, who was broadcasting the game, to lose some of its cameras as well as voiceovers by the commentators. At no point did the game go off the air, though the game had no audio for about two minutes. While the lights were coming back on, CBS reporters deployed around the stadium reported on the outage as a breaking news situation until power was restored enough for play to continue.

On February 8, 2013 it was reported that a relay device intended to prevent an electrical overload had caused the failure.[6] The device was located in an electrical vault owned and operated by Entergy, the electrical utility for the New Orleans area. That vault is approximately one quarter mile away from the Superdome. A subsequent report from an independent auditor confirmed the relay device as the cause.[7] The Superdome's own power system was never compromised.

The Superdome was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2016.[8]

End zone scoreboards and new lighting Edit

During the 2016 off-season, the smaller videoboards formerly located along the end zone walls above the upper seating bowl were replaced with two large Panasonic high definition LED displays that stretch Script error wide and Script error tall that are much easier to see throughout the bowl.[1] Other upgrades included a complete upgrade to the Superdome's interior floodlighting system to an efficient LED system with programmable coloring, light show effects, and instant on-off; in normal mode the stadium will have a more vibrant and naturally pleasing system resembling natural daylight.[2][3]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

External linksEdit

Script error

Events and tenants
Preceded by
Tulane Stadium
Giants Stadium, Tiger Stadium, and the Alamodome
Home of the New Orleans Saints
1975–2004
2006–present
Succeeded by
Giants Stadium, Tiger Stadium, and the Alamodome
current
Preceded by
Tulane Stadium
No permanent home in 2005
Home of the
Tulane Green Wave

1975–2004
2006–2013
Succeeded by
No permanent home in 2005
Yulman Stadium
Preceded by
Tulane Stadium
Georgia Dome
Home of the Sugar Bowl
1975–2005
2007–present
Succeeded by
Georgia Dome
incumbent
Preceded by
Levi's Stadium
Home of the
College Football Playoff National Championship

2020
Succeeded by
Hard Rock Stadium
Preceded by
first arena
Home of the New Orleans Night
1991–1992
Succeeded by
last arena
Preceded by
Municipal Auditorium & Loyola Field House
Home of the New Orleans Jazz
1975–1979
Succeeded by
Salt Palace (as Utah Jazz)
Preceded by
Miami Orange Bowl
Host of the NFL Pro Bowl
1976
Succeeded by
The Kingdome
Preceded by
Rose Bowl
Rose Bowl
Stanford Stadium
Joe Robbie Stadium
Sun Devil Stadium
Raymond James Stadium
Lucas Oil Stadium
State Farm Stadium
Host of the Super Bowl
XII 1978
XV 1981
XX 1986
XXIV 1990
XXXI 1997
XXXVI 2002
XLVII 2013
LVIII 2024
Succeeded by
Orange Bowl
Pontiac Silverdome
Rose Bowl
Tampa Stadium
Qualcomm Stadium
Qualcomm Stadium
MetLife Stadium
TBD
Preceded by
The Spectrum
Reunion Arena
H.H.H. Metrodome
Georgia Dome
Reliant Stadium
Lucas Oil Stadium
Host of the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament Finals
1982
1987
1993
2003
2012
2022
Succeeded by
The Pit
Kemper Arena
Charlotte Coliseum
Alamodome
Georgia Dome
NRG Stadium
Preceded by
Sun Devil Stadium
Sun Devil Stadium
University of Phoenix Stadium
University of Phoenix Stadium
Host of the BCS National Championship Game
2000
2004
2008
2012
Succeeded by
Pro Player Stadium
Pro Player Stadium
Dolphin Stadium
Sun Life Stadium
Preceded by
University of Phoenix Stadium
Lincoln Financial Field
Host of NFC Championship Game
2010
2019
Succeeded by
Soldier Field
TBD
Preceded by
MetLife Stadium
Camping World Stadium
Host of WrestleMania
2014 (XXX)
2018 (34)
Succeeded by
Levi's Stadium
MetLife Stadium

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