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The following is a list of halftime shows held at the National Football League's championship game, the Super Bowl. While halftime shows are a tradition during football games at all levels of competition, the Super Bowl halftime show represents a fundamental link to pop culture, which helps broaden the television audience and nationwide interest.

In most years since the mid-1980s, the halftime show of the Super Bowl has featured popular recording artists and other well-known celebrities. It has measurably increased television viewers during and after the halftime show.[1] The performance is regarded one of the most-watched events in American television annually with over 100 million viewers in the United States alone. Musical genres over the years have represented a broad range of music types, including pop, rock, classic rock, country, hip hop, rap, blues, and soul. In some years, short skits or drama scenes are acted out on a stage. The performance group Up with People has performed at the most Super Bowl halftime shows, starring in four during the 1970s and 1980s.[2]

According to Nielsen ratings, Super Bowl XLVI halftime show headlined by Madonna in 2012 remains the most-watched halftime show in history, with 114 million viewers or about 3 million more than the actual game.[3][4][5] It is listed on the Guinness World Records as the largest TV audience for a Super Bowl half-time performance.[6]

BackgroundEdit

During most of the Super Bowl's first decade, the halftime show featured a college marching band. The show's second decade featured a more varied show, with Up with People producing and starring in four of the performances. The middle of the third decade, in an effort to counter other networks' efforts to counterprogram the game,[7] saw the introduction of popular music acts such as New Kids on the Block, Gloria Estefan, Michael Jackson, Prince, Clint Black, Patti LaBelle, and Tony Bennett. Starting with Super Bowl XXXII, commercial sponsors presented the half-time show; within five years, the tradition of having a theme—begun with Super Bowl III—ended, replaced by major music productions by arena rock bands and other high-profile acts. In the six years immediately following the 2004 halftime show controversy, all of the halftime shows consisted of a performance by one artist or group, with the musicians in that era primarily being rock artists from the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. The show changed directions beginning with Super Bowl XLV by shifting to contemporary R&B, pop and hip hop artists, also allowing for the return of collaborations.

The NFL does not pay the halftime show performers an appearance fee, though it covers all expenses for the performers and their entourage of stagehands, family, and friends.[8] According to Nielsen SoundScan data, the halftime performers regularly experience significant spikes in weekly album sales and paid digital downloads due to the exposure.[9]

HistoryEdit

The following is a list of the performers, producers, themes, and sponsors for each Super Bowl game's show.

1960sEdit

Super Bowl Show details
I
II
III

1970sEdit

Super Bowl Show details
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII

1980sEdit

Super Bowl Show details
XIV
XV
XVI
XVII
XVIII
XIX
XX
XXI
XXII
XXIII

1990sEdit

Super Bowl Show details
XXIV
XXV
XXVI
XXVII
XXVIII
XXIX
XXX
XXXI
XXXII
XXXIII

2000sEdit

Super Bowl Show details
XXXIV
XXXV
XXXVI
XXXVII
XXXVIII
XXXIX
XL
XLI
XLII
XLIII

2010sEdit

Super Bowl Show details
XLIV
XLV
XLVI
XLVII

Details on specific showsEdit

Super Bowl XLEdit

For The Rolling Stones, the stage was in the form of the group's iconic tongue logo (first used in 1971 on their Sticky Fingers album). It was the largest stage ever assembled for a Super Bowl Halftime Show, with 28 separate pieces assembled in five minutes by a 600-member volunteer stage crew. The group performed three songs: "Start Me Up", "Rough Justice", and "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction". The show was viewed by 89.9 million people, more than the audiences for the Oscars, Grammys and Emmy Awards combined.[51] In the wake of the Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show controversy with Janet Jackson and Justin Timberlake, ABC and the NFL imposed a five-second delay and censored lyrics considered too sexually explicit in the first two songs by briefly turning off Mick Jagger's microphone—censoring to which the group had previously agreed.[52] However, the choice of The Rolling Stones sparked controversy in the Detroit community because the band did not represent the traditional Detroit "Motown Sound", and no artists from the area were included.[53]

Other championship performances Edit

Shania Twain is the first artist to have performed at both the Super Bowl and the CFL championship, the Grey Cup, having done so in 2002. The Black Eyed Peas joined Twain in 2011, having performed at the Grey Cup in 2005.

ReferencesEdit

  1. Campbell (1995), pp. 14–16
  2. Williams, Doug. "When Up With People dominated halftime". ESPN.com. http://espn.go.com/blog/playbook/fandom/post/_/id/17649/when-up-with-people-dominated-halftime. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  3. Levin, Gary (2012-02-06). "Super Bowl, Madonna halftime most-watched in TV history". USA Today. http://content.usatoday.com/communities/entertainment/post/2012/02/super-bowl-the-voice-draw-big-ratings-for-nbc/1#.URO5yoHC7IU. Retrieved 2013-02-07.
  4. Gallo, Phil (2012-02-06). "Madonna's Super Bowl Performance Watched By 114 Million". Billboard. http://www.billboard.com/articles/news/506406/madonnas-super-bowl-performance-watched-by-114-million. Retrieved 2013-02-07.
  5. "Super Bowl Ratings Record: Giants-Patriots Game Is Highest-Rated TV Show In US History". Huffington Post. 2012-02-06. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/02/06/super-bowl-ratings-record-tv-giants-patriots_n_1258107.html.
  6. "Madonna beats Elvis’s No.1 albums record as MDNA tops UK chart". Guinness World Records (London: Craig Glenday). April 2, 2012. http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/news/2012/4/madonna-beats-elviss-no1-albums-record-as-mdna-tops-uk-chart/. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
  7. Florio, Mike (February 5, 2013). "If NFL doesn’t put on a halftime show, someone else will". ProFootballTalk.com. http://profootballtalk.nbcsports.com/2013/02/05/if-nfl-doesnt-put-on-a-halftime-show-someone-else-will/. Retrieved 2013-02-06.
  8. Belson, Ken (2010-02-02). "The Who, and the Super Bowl's Evolving Halftime Show". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/03/sports/football/03halftime.html?ref=sports. Retrieved 2010-02-07.
  9. The Arizona Republic (2009-01-26). "The Nielsen Company's Guide To Super Bowl XLIII". tvbythenumbers.com. http://tvbythenumbers.com/2009/01/26/the-nielsen-companys-guide-to-super-bowl-xliii/11548. Retrieved 2009-01-27.
  10. 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 10.16 10.17 10.18 10.19 10.20 10.21 10.22 10.23 10.24 10.25 10.26 10.27 10.28 10.29 10.30 10.31 10.32 10.33 10.34 10.35 10.36 10.37 10.38 10.39 10.40 10.41 10.42 10.43 10.44 "Super Bowl History - Entertainment". NFL.com. 2011. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/history/entertainment. Retrieved 12-12-2011.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 Krasnow, Lonny. "Top 10 Super Bowl Halftime Shows". Photos (SI.com). http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/multimedia/photo_gallery/0901/top.10.super.bowl.halftime.shows/content.1.html. Retrieved 12-12-2011.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 "GSU Tiger Marching Band". History of Tiger Marching Band (Grambling State University). http://www.gram.edu/academics/majors/arts%20and%20sciences/departments/music/band/history.php. Retrieved 12-12-2011.
  13. "Golden Eagles Marching Band". Southeast Missouri State University. http://www.semo.edu/marchingband/. Retrieved 12-12-2011.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 "History of Up with People". UpWithPeople.org. http://upwithpeople.org/about/history/. Retrieved 12-12-2011.
  15. Up With People UWP SuperBowl X Halftime 1976 - StevenOchoa3 on YouTube
  16. Up With People UWP SuperBowl XVI 16 Halftime82 StevenOchoa3 on YouTube
  17. 1984 Super Bowl XVIII Disney Half Time Show Documentary Part 1 on YouTube
  18. 1984 Super Bowl XVIII Disney Half Time Show Documentary Part 2 on YouTube
  19. 1984 Super Bowl XVIII Disney Half Time Show Part 3 on YouTube
  20. Super Bowl XX telecast. Youtube. NBC. 01-26-1986.
  21. Super Bowl XXI telecast. Youtube. CBS. 01-25-1987.
  22. "Super Bowl 23 Half Time Show Introduction - 1/22/89". http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=peFCDEDoEHs. Retrieved 12-12-2011.
  23. Super Bowl XXIII telecast. Youtube. NBC. 01-22-1989.
  24. "Super Bowl XXIV telecast". http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3hdDGsmmCV0.
  25. Log in om een reactie te plaatsen. (2008-04-15). "NKOTB Super Bowl Halftime 1991". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zGpJjqB4nnY. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
  26. part-1
  27. part-2
  28. [1][dead link]
  29. [2][dead link]
  30. Log in om een reactie te plaatsen. (2007-01-03). "Diana Ross at Super Bowl". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q0LTe3zEXiU. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
  31. "HowStuffWorks "17 Notable Super Bowl Halftime Shows"". Entertainment.howstuffworks.com. 2007-09-15. http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/17-notable-super-bowl-halftime-shows.htm. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
  32. [3][dead link]
  33. Log in om een reactie te plaatsen. (2009-02-02). "Video Clip Superbowl Halftime Show 2001 Aerosmith Nsync Britney Spears Mary J Blige Nelly Perform". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HjpQVx7wOkk. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
  34. Log in om een reactie te plaatsen. (2006-11-18). "U2 First Part Superbowl halftime show". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oYYpTh8K48E. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
  35. Log in om een reactie te plaatsen. (2006-11-18). "U2 Second Part Superbowl halftime show". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5f1sHk1Kttw. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
  36. Shania Twain
  37. Super Bowl 2002 · Shania Twain & Gwen Stefani HQ. YouTube. Event occurs at 4:10-6:53. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Xjeh7svDd4. Retrieved 2010-02-13.
  38. Super Bowl 2002 · Shania Twain & Gwen Stefani HQ. YouTube. Event occurs at 6:54. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Xjeh7svDd4. Retrieved 2010-02-13.
  39. "Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show - Decalz - BMW of TX (vodpod) | Lockerz". vodpod. http://vodpod.com/watch/667756-super-bowl-xxxviii-halftime-show-full. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
  40. Log in om een reactie te plaatsen. (2007-08-31). "Paul McCartney Halftime Show 2005". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YFBMZhtXuRw. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
  41. Log in om een reactie te plaatsen. (2008-02-04). "Tom Petty Half Time Show TOM PETTY Super Bowl XLII". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SD0VbMGSDaE. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
  42. [4][dead link]
  43. Stengle, Jamie (2011-02-04). Halftime gig 'dream come true' for Black Eyed Peas. Associated Press. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 Aquí está el setlist de la Super Bowl de Madonna
  45. Madonna to perform at halftime of Super Bowl. Associated Press. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  46. Nicki Minaj To Perform During Super Bowl With M.I.A & Madonna. Yahoo! News. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
  47. [5]. Billboard.com
  48. [6]. Five Ten.
  49. 49.0 49.1 Beyoncé to perform at Super Bowl XLVII Halftime
  50. Fekadu, Mesfin (October 16, 2012). AP source: Beyonce set for Super Bowl halftime. Associated Press. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
  51. Unknown. "The Rolling Stones Super Bowl XL halftime show"; Feb. 6, 2006, Don Mischer Productions; URL accessed May 24, 2008.
  52. Unknown. "Rolling Stones agreed to censor Super Bowl show: NFL"; Feb. 6, 2006, Agence France-Presse; URL accessed July 3, 2006.
  53. McGraw, Bill. "JOURNAL: No R-E-S-P-E-C-T for Motown halftime"; Dec. 1, 2005, Detroit Free Press; URL accessed July 3, 2006.

External linksEdit


pt:Anexo:Lista de atrações do Halftime Show

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