File:Hervey Cleckley.jpg

Hervey Milton Cleckley, M.D.(1903 - January 28, 1984) was an American psychiatrist and pioneer in the field of psychopathy. His book, The Mask of Sanity, originally published in 1941, provided the most influential clinical description of psychopathy in the twentieth century. The term "mask of sanity" derived from Cleckley's observations that, unlike people with major mental disorders, a psychopath can appear normal and even engaging even when suffering from hallucinations or delusions.[1] The "mask", however, conceals a disorder.[2]


Cleckley was born in Augusta, Georgia, and graduated from the Academy of Richmond County in 1921. He was graduated in 1924 summa cum laude with a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Georgia (UGA) in Athens where he was a member of the varsity football and track and field teams.[3] Cleckley won a Rhodes Scholarship and graduated from Oxford University with a Bachelor of Arts in 1926.

Cleckley then earned his M.D. from the University of Georgia Medical School (now known as the Medical College of Georgia) in Augusta in 1929 and was named professor of psychiatry and neurology at the Medical College of Georgia and the Chief of psychiatry and neurology at University Hospital in Augusta in 1937. In 1955, Cleckley was appointed clinical professor of psychiatry and neurology at the medical college and became founding chairman of the Department of Psychiatry and Health Behavior.

In 1941, Cleckley authored his magnum opus The Mask of Sanity: An Attempt to Clarify Some Issues About the So-Called Psychopathic Personality. This became a landmark in psychiatric studies and was repeatedly reprinted in subsequent editions, the most recent being in 2003. Cleckley revised and expanded the work with each edition published; the second American edition published in 1950 underwent significant revision.

The Mask of Sanity is distinguished by its central thesis, that the psychopath exhibits normal function according to standard psychiatric criteria, yet privately engages in destructive behavior. The book was intended to assist with detection and diagnosis of the elusive psychopath for purposes of palliation and offered no cure for the condition itself. The idea of a master deceiver secretly possessed of no moral or ethical restraints, yet behaving in public with excellent function, electrified American society and led to heightened interest in both psychological introspection and the detection of hidden psychopaths in society at large, leading to a refinement of the word itself into what was perceived to be a less stigmatizing term, "sociopath".[4]

Robert D. Hare devised the "Psychopathy Checklist (PCL)" to assess the main characteristics of psychopathic behavior, based in part on Cleckley's work.

In 1956, Cleckley co-authored The Three Faces of Eve with Corbett H. Thigpen, which served as the basis for a 1957 film starring Joanne Woodward about Multiple Personality Disorder.

Other notable professional distinctions of Cleckley include Fellow of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and psychiatrist in the trial of Ted Bundy. Cleckley also authored The Caricature of Love: A Discussion of Social, Psychiatric, and Literary Manifestations of Pathologic Sexuality.[5]

See alsoEdit


  1. "Psychopathy - What Is Psychopathy?". Retrieved 2007-12-14.
  2. Meloy, J. Read (1988). The Psychopathic Mind: Origins, Dynamics, and Treatment. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson Inc.. p. 9. ISBN 0-87668-311-1.
  3. Stegeman, John F.; Willingham, Robert M. Jr.. Touchdown: A Pictorial History of the Georgia Bulldogs. Athens, Georgia: Agee Publishers, Inc.. pp. 29–31. LCCN 83070625.
  4. Seabrook, John (10 November 2008). "Suffering Souls: The search for the roots of psychopathy". The New Yorker. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
  5. "Open". Retrieved 2008-11-19.

Further readingEdit

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