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{{Infobox U.S. state
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| Name = Florida
| Fullname = State of Florida
Clicking on the link on this page will redirect to Wikipedia's {{pagename}} article.
| Flag = Flag of Florida.svg
| Flaglink = [[Flag of Florida|Flag]]
| Seal = Seal of Florida.svg
| Map =Florida in United States.svg
| Nickname = The Sunshine State
| Demonym = Floridian
| Motto = [[In God We Trust]]
| StateAnthem = [[Florida (Where the Sawgrass Meets the Sky)|Florida, Where the Sawgrass Meets the Sky]]
| Former = Florida Territory
| Capital = [[Tallahassee, Florida|Tallahassee]]
| Senators = [[Bill Nelson (politician)|Bill Nelson]] ([[Democratic Party (United States)|D]])<br />[[Marco Rubio]] (R)
| Representative = 19 Republicans, 6 Democrats
| LargestCity = [[Jacksonville, Florida|Jacksonville]] <!-- Jacksonville is the largest city proper, not Miami -->
| LargestMetro = [[South Florida metropolitan area]]
| Governor = [[Rick Scott]] ([[Republican (politician)|R]])
| Lieutenant Governor = [[Jennifer Carroll]] (R)
| Legislature = [[Florida Legislature]]
| Upperhouse = [[Florida Senate|Senate]]
| Lowerhouse = [[Florida House of Representatives|House of Representatives]]
| PostalAbbreviation = FL
| TradAbbreviation = Fla.
| OfficialLang = [[American English|English]]<ref name="Article 2, Section 9, Constitution of the State of Florida"/>
| Languages = English 74.5%<br />[[Spanish language|Spanish]] 18.7%<ref>{{Cite book| url=http://http%3A//| title= Florida&nbsp;— Languages| publisher=MLA| accessdate=2010-04-15| archiveurl=| archivedate= 2007-12-01}}</ref>
| AreaRank = 22nd
| TotalArea = 170,304<ref name="census"/>
| TotalAreaUS = 65,755<ref name=census/>
| LandArea = 139,670<ref name=census/>
| LandAreaUS = 53,927<ref name=census/>
| WaterArea = 30,634<ref name=census/>
| WaterAreaUS = 11,828<ref name=census/>
| PCWater = 17.9
| PopRank = 4th
| 2010Pop = 18,801,310 ([[2010 United States Census|2010 Census]])<ref name=10CenDens>{{cite web | title = Population Density|work=2010 Census: Resident Population Data| publisher=United States Census Bureau | accessdate = October 9, 2011 | url =}}</ref>
| DensityRank = 10th
| 2010DensityUS = 350.6
| 2010Density = 135.4 <!-- 350.6 div by 2.589988110336 = 135.37 -->
| MedianHouseholdIncome = $47,778
| IncomeRank = 33rd
| AdmittanceOrder = 27th
| AdmittanceDate = March 3, 1845
| TimeZone = [[Eastern Time Zone (North America)|Eastern]]: [[Coordinated Universal Time|UTC]]-5/[[Daylight saving time|-4]]
| TZ1Where = Peninsula and "[[Big Bend (Florida)|Big Bend]]" region
| TimeZone2 = [[North American Central Time Zone|Central]]: UTC-6/-5
| TZ2Where = [[Florida Panhandle|Panhandle]]
| Latitude = 24° 27′ N to 31° 00' N
| Longitude = 80° 02′ W to 87° 38′ W
| Width = 582
| WidthUS = 361
| Length = 721
| LengthUS = 447
| HighestPoint = [[Britton Hill]]<ref name=USGS>{{cite web|url=|title=Elevations and Distances in the United States|publisher=[[United States Geological Survey]]|date=2001|accessdate=October 21, 2011}}</ref><ref name=NAVD88>Elevation adjusted to [[North American Vertical Datum of 1988]].</ref>
| HighestElev = 105
| HighestElevUS = 345
| MeanElev = 30
| MeanElevUS = 100
| LowestPoint = Atlantic Ocean<ref name=USGS/>
| LowestElev = 0
| LowestElevUS = 0
| ISOCode = US-FL
| Website =
{{Infobox U.S. state symbols
| Flag = Flag of Florida.svg
| Name = Florida
| Bird = [[Northern Mockingbird]]
| Butterfly = [[Heliconius charithonia|Zebra Longwing]]
| Fish = [[Largemouth bass|Florida largemouth bass]], [[Sailfish|Atlantic sailfish]]
| Flower = [[Orange (fruit)|Orange blossom]]
| Mammal = [[Florida panther]], [[Manatee]], [[Bottle-nosed dolphin]]
| Reptile = [[American Alligator]]
| Tree = [[Sabal palmetto|Sabal Palmetto]]
| Beverage = [[Orange juice]]
| Food = [[Key lime pie]], [[Orange (fruit)|Orange]]
| Gemstone = [[Moonstone (gemstone)|Moonstone]]
| StateRock = [[agate|agatized]] [[Coral]]
| Shell = [[Pleuroploca gigantea|Horse conch]]
| Soil = [[Myakka (soil)|Myakka]]
| Song = "[[Old Folks at Home]]" ("Way Down Upon The Swanee River")
| Route Marker = Florida 27.svg
| Quarter = 2004 FL Proof.png
| QuarterReleaseDate = 2004
'''Florida''' {{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Florida.ogg|ˈ|f|l|ɒr|ɪ|d|ə}} is a [[U.S. state|state]] in the [[southeastern United States|southeastern]] [[United States]], located on the nation's [[East Coast of the United States|Atlantic]] and [[Gulf Coast of the United States|Gulf]] coasts. It is bordered to the west by the [[Gulf of Mexico]], to the north by [[Alabama]] and [[Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia]] and to the east by the [[Atlantic Ocean]]. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the [[2010 United States Census|2010 census]], it is the [[List of U.S. states by population|fourth most populous]] state in the country.<ref>behind [[California]], [[Texas]], and [[New York]]</ref><ref>[ United States population by states], United States Census Bureau.</ref> With an area of {{convert|65755|sqmi|km2|0}}, Florida [[List of U.S. states and territories by area|ranks 22nd in size]] among the 50 U.S. states. The state capital is [[Tallahassee, Florida|Tallahassee]], its largest city is [[Jacksonville, Florida|Jacksonville]], and the [[South Florida metropolitan area]] is the largest metropolitan area in the southeastern U.S.
Much of Florida is situated on a peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Straits of Florida. Its geography is marked by a coastline, by the omnipresence of water and the threat of [[hurricane]]s. Florida [[List of U.S. states by coastline|has the longest coastline]] in the [[contiguous United States]], encompassing approximately {{convert|1350|mi}}, and is the only state to border both the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is at or near sea level and its terrain is characterized by sedimentary soils. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south.<ref name="abbott"/> Its symbolic animals like the American alligator, Florida panther and the manatee, can be found in the [[Everglades]], one of the most famous national parks in the world.
Since the first [[Europe]]an contact was made in 1513 by [[Spain|Spanish]] explorer [[Juan Ponce de León]] – who named it ''La Florida'' ("Flowery Land") upon landing there during the [[Easter]] season, ''[[Pascua Florida]]''<ref>[ "Historic Feature: Juan Ponce de Leon Landing – Brevard County Parks and Recreation Department on Florida's Beautiful Space Coast"]. Brevard County Parks & Recreation. Retrieved 2011-04-03.</ref> – Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845. It was a principal location of the [[Seminole Wars]] against the [[Native Americans in the United States|Indians]], and racial segregation after the [[American Civil War]]. Today, it is distinguished by its large [[Hispanic]] community, and high population growth, as well as its rising environmental concerns. Its economy relies mainly on tourism, agriculture and [[transportation in Florida|transportation]], which developed in the late 19th century. Florida is also known for its [[amusement park]]s, the production of [[Orange (fruit)|oranges]] and the [[Kennedy Space Center]].
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[[Culture of Florida|Florida culture]] is a reflection of influences and multiple inheritance; [[Native Americans in the United States|Native American]], [[European American]], [[African American]] and [[Hispanic and Latino Americans|Hispanic]] heritages can be found in the architecture and cuisine. Florida has attracted many writers such as [[Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings]], [[Ernest Hemingway]] and [[Tennessee Williams]], and continues to attract celebrities and athletes. It is internationally known for [[tennis]], [[golf]], [[auto racing]] and [[list of water sports|water sports]].
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{{Main|History of Florida}}
Archaeological research indicates that Florida was first inhabited by [[Paleo-Indians]], the first human inhabitants of the Americas, perhaps as early as 14 thousand years ago. The region was continuously inhabited through the [[Archaic period in the Americas|Archaic period]] (to about 2000&nbsp;BC). After about 500&nbsp;BC the previously relatively uniform Archaic culture began to coalesce into distinctive local cultures.<ref>Milanich, Jerald T. (1998). ''Florida's Indians From Ancient Time to the Present'', pp. 12–37. University Press of Florida.</ref> By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major [[Native Americans in the United States|Native American]] groups included the [[Apalachee]] (of the [[Florida Panhandle]]), the [[Timucua]] (of northern and central Florida), the [[Ais (tribe)|Ais]] (of the central Atlantic coast), the [[Tocobaga]] (of the [[Tampa Bay]] area), the [[Calusa]] (of southwest Florida) and the [[Tequesta]] (of the southeastern coast).
Florida was the first part of what is now the [[continental United States]] to be visited by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish [[conquistador]] [[Juan Ponce de León]], who spotted the peninsula on April 2, 1513. According to his chroniclers, Ponce de León named the region ''La Florida'' ("flowery land") because it was then the [[Easter Season]], known in Spanish as ''[[Pascua Florida]]'' (roughly "Flowery [[Easter]]"), and because the vegetation was in bloom.<ref name="Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States"/> It is possible Juan Ponce de León was not the first European to reach Florida, however; reportedly, at least one indigenous tribesman whom he encountered in Florida in 1513 spoke Spanish.<ref>Smith, Hale G., and Gottlob, Marc (1978). "Spanish-Indian Relationships: Synoptic History and Archaeological Evidence, 1500–1763". In ''Tacachale: Essays on the Indians of Florida and Southeastern Georgia during the Historic Period''. Edited by Jerald Milanich and Samuel Proctor. Gainesville, Florida: University Presses of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-0535-5</ref> From 1513 onward, the land became known as "La Florida", although after 1630 and throughout the 18th century, Tegesta (after the [[Tequesta]] tribe) was an alternate name of choice for the Florida peninsula following publication of a [ map] by the Dutch cartographer [[Hessel Gerritsz]] in [[Joannes de Laet]]'s ''History of the New World''.<ref>Ehrenberg, Ralph E. [ {{"'}}Marvellous countries and lands' Notable Maps of Florida, 1507–1846"], {{Wayback|url=|date =20080803204621}}</ref><ref name="De Bow's Review, Vol. XXII Third Series Vol. II"/>
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[[File:Five flags of Florida.jpg|thumb|The five flags of Florida from the right, [[Cross of Burgundy flag|Spain]] (1565–1763), the [[Kingdom of Great Britain]], Spain (1784–1821), the [[Confederate States of America|Confederacy]], and the United States. France (flag not shown) also controlled part of Florida.]]
Things to think about:
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Over the following century, both the Spanish and French established settlements in Florida with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don [[Tristán de Luna y Arellano]] established a colony at present-day [[Pensacola, Florida|Pensacola]], one of the first European attempts at settlement in the continental United States. It was abandoned by 1561 due to hurricanes, famine and warring tribes, and the area was not re-inhabited until the 1690s. French Protestant [[Huguenots]] founded [[Fort Caroline]] in modern-day Jacksonville in 1564. The following year, the Spanish colony of [[St. Augustine, Florida|St. Augustine]] (San Agustín) was established, and forces from there conquered Fort Caroline that same year. The Spanish maintained tenuous control over the region by converting the local tribes, briefly with [[Society of Jesus|Jesuits]] and later with [[Franciscan]] friars.
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The area of Spanish Florida diminished with the establishment of English colonies to the north and French colonies to the west. The English weakened Spanish power in the area by supplying their [[Creek people|Creek]] and [[Yamasee]] allies with firearms and urging them to raid the Timucuan and Apalachee client-tribes of the Spanish. The English attacked St. Augustine, burning the city and its cathedral to the ground several times, while the citizens hid behind the walls of the [[Castillo de San Marcos]].
[[File:Flindians1723.JPG|thumb|left|[[Bernard Picart]] copper plate engraving of Florida Indians, Circa 1721 "Ceremonies and Religious Dress of all the People of the World"<ref>"Cérémonies et Coutumes Religieuses de tous les Peuples du Monde"</ref>]]
Florida was attracting a large number of Africans and African Americans from British-occupied North America who sought freedom from slavery. Once in Florida, the Spanish Crown converted them to Roman Catholicism and gave them freedom. Those ex-slaves settled in a community north of St. Augustine, called [[Fort Mose Historic State Park|Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose]], the first freedom settlement of its kind in what became the United States. Many of those slaves were also welcomed by Creek and Seminole Native Americans who had established settlements there at the invitation of the Spanish government.
Great Britain gained control of Florida and other territory diplomatically in 1763 through the [[Treaty of Paris (1763)|Peace of Paris]]. The British divided their new acquisitions into [[East Florida]], with its capital at St. Augustine, and [[West Florida]], with its capital at Pensacola. Britain tried to develop the Floridas through the importation of immigrants for labor, but this project ultimately failed. Spain received both Floridas after Britain's defeat by the American colonies and the subsequent [[Treaty of Versailles (1783)|Treaty of Versailles]] in 1783, continuing the division into East and West Florida. They offered land grants to anyone who settled in the colonies, and many Americans moved to them.
After settler attacks on Indian towns, [[Seminole]] Indians based in [[East Florida]] began raiding [[Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia]] settlements, purportedly at the behest of the Spanish. The [[United States Army]] led increasingly frequent incursions into Spanish territory, including the 1817–1818 campaign against the Seminole Indians by [[Andrew Jackson]] that became known as the [[First Seminole War]]. Following the war, the United States effectively controlled East Florida. In 1819, by terms of the [[Adams-Onís Treaty]], Spain ceded Florida to the United States in exchange for the American renunciation of any claims on [[Texas]] that they might have from the [[Louisiana Purchase]] and $5 million.
In 1830, the [[Indian Removal Act]] was passed and as settlement increased, pressure grew on the United States government to remove the Indians from their lands in Florida. To the chagrin of Georgia landowners, the Seminoles harbored and integrated runaway blacks, known as the [[Black Seminoles]], and clashes between whites and Indians grew with the influx of new settlers. In 1832, the United States government signed the [[Treaty of Payne's Landing]] with some of the Seminole chiefs, promising them lands west of the Mississippi River if they agreed to leave Florida voluntarily. Many of the Seminoles left at this time, while those who remained prepared to defend their claims to the land. The U.S. Army arrived in 1835 to enforce the treaty under pressure from white settlers, and the [[Second Seminole War]] began at the end of the year with the [[Dade Massacre]], when Seminoles ambushed and killed or mortally wounded all but one in a group of 110 Army troops, plus Major Dade and seven officers, marching from [[Fort Brooke]] (Tampa) to reinforce [[Fort King]] (Ocala).<ref>[ "From Florida"], ''Daily National Intelligencer'', January 27, 1836 (Library of Congress)</ref> Between 900 and 1,500 Seminole Indian warriors employed guerrilla tactics against United States Army troops for seven years until 1842. The U.S. government is estimated to have spent between $20 million and $40 million on the war, at the time an astronomical sum.
[[File:Flagler College 2005-Sept fl 104.JPEG|thumb|right|200px|[[St. Augustine, Florida|St. Augustine]] is the oldest city in the United States, established in 1565 by Spain.]]
On March 3, 1845, Florida became the 27th state of the [[United States of America]], although initially its population grew slowly. White settlers continued to encroach on lands used by the Seminoles, and the United States government resolved to make another effort to move the remaining Seminoles to the West. The [[Seminole Wars#Third Seminole War|Third Seminole War]] lasted from 1855 to 1858, and resulted in the removal of most of the remaining Seminoles. Even after three bloody wars, the U.S. Army failed to force all of the Seminole Indians in Florida to the West.<ref>Tindall, George Brown, and David Emory Shi. (edition unknown) ''America: A Narrative History''. W. W. Norton & Company. 412. ISBN 978-0-393-96874-3</ref> Though most of the Seminoles were [[Trail of Tears|forcibly exiled to Creek lands]] west of the Mississippi, hundreds, including Seminole leader [[Aripeka]] (Sam Jones), remained in the [[Everglades]] and refused to leave the native homeland of their ancestors. Their descendants remain there to this day.
[[File:Battle of Olustee.jpg|thumb|200px|left|The [[Battle of Olustee]] during the [[American Civil War]] in 1864]]
White settlers began to establish cotton plantations in Florida, which required numerous laborers. By 1860 Florida had only 140,424 people, of whom 44% were enslaved. There were fewer than 1000 free [[free black|African Americans]] before the Civil War.<ref>[ Historical Census Browser, accessed October 31, 2007]{{Dead link|date=April 2010}}</ref>
[[File:Winter in Florida.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Winter in Florida, 1893]]
On January 10, 1861, before the start of the American Civil War, Florida declared its secession from the [[Union (American Civil War)|Union]]; ten days later, the state became a founding member of the [[Confederate States of America]]. The war ended in 1865. On June 25, 1868, Florida's [[United States Congress|congressional]] representation was restored. After Reconstruction, white Democrats succeeded in regaining power in the state legislature. In 1885 they created a new constitution, followed by statutes through 1889 that effectively disfranchised most blacks and many poor whites over the next several years. Provisions included [[poll taxes]], [[literacy tests]], and residency requirements. Disfranchisement for most African Americans in the state persisted until the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s gained federal legislation to protect their suffrage.
[[File:Flaglerstreet Miami 1945.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Soldiers and crowds in [[Downtown Miami]] 20&nbsp;minutes after surrender during World War II]]
Until the mid-20th century, Florida was the least populous Southern state. In 1900 its population was only 528,542, of whom nearly 44% were African American.<ref>Historical Census Browser, 1900 Federal Census, University of Virginia []{{Dead link|date=April 2010}}. Retrieved March 15, 2008.</ref> The [[boll weevil]] devastated cotton crops, and early 20th century lynchings and racial violence caused a record number of African Americans to leave the state in the [[Great Migration (African American)|Great Migration]] to northern and midwestern industrial cities. Forty thousand blacks, roughly one-fifth of their 1900 population, left for better opportunities.<ref>Rogers, Maxine D.; Rivers, Larry E.; Colburn, David R.; Dye, R. Tom & Rogers, William W. (December 1993), [ "Documented History of the Incident Which Occurred at Rosewood, Florida in January 1923"], p.5. Retrieved April 9, 2011.</ref> National economic prosperity in the 1920s stimulated tourism to Florida. Combined with its sudden elevation in profile was the [[Florida land boom of the 1920s]], which brought a brief period of intense land development. Devastating hurricanes in [[1926 Miami hurricane|1926]] and [[1928 Okeechobee hurricane|1928]], followed by the stock market crash and [[Great Depression]], brought that period to a halt.
Florida's economy did not fully recover until the buildup for [[World War II]]. The climate, tempered by the growing availability of [[air conditioning]], and low cost of living made the state a haven. Migration from the [[Rust Belt]] and the Northeast sharply increased the population after the war. In recent decades, more migrants have come for the jobs in a developing economy. With a population of more than 18 million according to the 2010 census, Florida is the most populous state in the Southeastern United States, the second most populous state in the South behind Texas, and the fourth most populous in the United States.
{{See also|Seminole Wars|Florida in the American Civil War}}
[[File:Florida topographic map-en.svg|thumb|right|200px|Topographic map of Florida]]
{{main|Geography of Florida}}
{{See also|List of counties in Florida|List of Florida state parks}}
Much of the state of Florida is situated on a [[peninsula]] between the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic Ocean and the [[Straits of Florida]]. Spanning two [[time zone]]s, It extends to the northwest into a [[panhandle]], extending along the northern Gulf of Mexico. It is bordered on the north by the states of [[Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia]] and [[Alabama]], and on the west, at the end of the panhandle, by Alabama. It is near several Caribbean countries, particularly [[The Bahamas]] and [[Cuba]]. Florida is one of the largest states east of the [[Mississippi River]], and only [[Alaska]] and [[Michigan]] are larger in water area.
[[File:Everglades National Park cypress.jpg|200px|thumb|left|[[Everglades National Park]] in [[Southern Florida]]]]
[[File:Crandon Park Modified.jpg|thumb|left|200px|[[Crandon Park]] in [[Key Biscayne, Florida|Key Biscayne]]]]
[[File:Florida counties map.png|200px|thumb|right|A map of Florida showing county names and boundaries]]
[[File:BahiaHonda.jpg|thumb|right|200px|The beach at [[Bahia Honda Key|Bahia Honda]] in the [[Florida Keys]]]]
At 345&nbsp;feet (105&nbsp;m) [[above mean sea level]], [[Britton Hill]] is the highest point in Florida and the lowest highpoint of any U.S. state.<ref name="Britton">{{cite web|url= |title=The Florida Environment: An Overview |month=July|year=2007 |last=Main |first=Martin B. |last2=Allen |first2=Ginger M.|publisher=[[University of Florida]], [[Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences]] |accessdate=2008-01-23|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref> Much of the state south of [[Orlando, Florida|Orlando]] is low-lying and fairly level; however, some places, such as [[Clearwater, Florida|Clearwater]], feature vistas that rise 50 to 100&nbsp;feet (15{{ndash}} 30&nbsp;m) above the water. Much of Central and North Florida, typically 25&nbsp;miles (40&nbsp;km) or more away from the coastline, features rolling hills with elevations ranging from 100 to 250&nbsp;feet (30{{ndash}} 76&nbsp;m). The highest point in peninsular Florida, [[Sugarloaf Mountain (Florida)|Sugarloaf Mountain]], is a {{convert|312|ft|m|0|sing=on}} peak in [[Lake County, Florida|Lake County]].<ref name="Sugarloaf">{{cite web|url= |title=Green Mountain Scenic Byway |publisher=[[Florida Department of Transportation]] |accessdate=2008-01-23}} {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref>
The state line begins in the Atlantic Ocean, traveling west, south, and north up the [[thalweg]] of the [[Saint Mary's River (Florida/Georgia)|Saint Mary's River]]. At the origin of that river, it then follows a straight line nearly due west and slightly north, to the point where the [[confluence (geography)|confluence]] of the [[Flint River (Georgia)|Flint River]] (from Georgia) and the [[Chattahoochee River]] (down the Alabama/Georgia line) used to form Florida's Apalachicola River. (Since Woodruff Dam was built, this point has been under Lake Seminole.) The border with Georgia continues north through the lake for a short distance up the former thalweg of the Chattahoochee, then with Alabama runs due west along [[latitude]] [[31st parallel north|31°N]] to the [[Perdido River]], then south along its thalweg to the Gulf via Perdido Bay. The water boundary is {{convert|3|nmi|mi km}} offshore in the Atlantic Ocean<ref name="NOAA">{{cite web |url= |title=State Costal Zone Boundaries |author= Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management |publisher = National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |date=July 1, 2011 |accessdate= October 28, 2011 }}</ref> and {{convert|9|nmi|mi km}} offshore in the Gulf of Mexico.<ref name="NOAA"/> Much of the state is at or near [[sea level]].
[[File:Royal Poinciana.jpg|thumb|right|[[Royal Poinciana]] tree in full bloom in the [[Florida Keys]], an indication of [[South Florida]]'s [[tropical climate]].]]
{{Main|Climate of Florida}}
{{See also|List of Florida hurricanes|List of all-time high and low temperatures by state}}
The climate of Florida is tempered somewhat by the fact that no part of the state is very distant from the ocean. North of Lake Okeechobee, the prevalent climate is [[humid subtropical climate|humid subtropical]] ([[Köppen climate classification|Köppen]]: ''Cfa''), while coastal areas south of the lake (including the [[Florida Keys]]) have a true [[tropical climate]] (Köppen: ''Aw'').<ref name="Ritter">{{cite web|url= |title=Wet/Dry Tropical Climate |author=Ritter, Michael |publisher=University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point |accessdate=2007-07-18|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref> Mean high temperatures for late July are primarily in the low 90s Fahrenheit (32–34&nbsp;°C). Mean low temperatures for early to mid January range from the low 40s Fahrenheit (4–7&nbsp;°C) in northern Florida to the mid-50s (≈13&nbsp;°C) in southern Florida. With an average daily temperature of {{convert|70.7|F}}, it is the warmest state in the country.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Average Annual Temperature for Each US State|publisher=[[Current Results Nexus]]|accessdate=August 19, 2011}}</ref>
In the summer, high temperatures in the state seldom exceed 100 °F (38 °C). Several record cold maxima have been in the 30s °F (−1 to 4&nbsp;°C) and record lows have been in the 10s (−12 to −7&nbsp;°C). These temperatures normally extend at most a few days at a time in the northern and central parts of Florida. Southern Florida, however, rarely encounters sub-freezing temperatures.
[[File:Lake Alice Winter.jpg|thumb|left|[[Fall foliage]] in North Florida.]]
[[File:Miamisummershower.png|thumb|right|Typical summer afternoon shower from the [[Everglades]] traveling eastward over [[Downtown Miami]].]]
[[File:Jacksonville Snow 2.jpg|thumb|left|[[Snow]] is very uncommon in Florida, but has occurred in every major Florida city at least once. Snow does fall very occasionally in North Florida.]]
The hottest temperature ever recorded in Florida was {{convert|109|°F|0}}, which was set on June 29, 1931 in [[Monticello, Florida|Monticello]]. The coldest temperature was {{convert|−2|°F|0}}, on February 13, 1899, just {{convert|25|mi|0}} away, in Tallahassee.
The [[USDA]] Plant [[hardiness zone]]s for the state range from zone 8a (no colder than {{convert|10|F}}) in the inland western [[Florida panhandle|panhandle]] to zone 11 (no colder than {{convert|40|F}}) in the lower [[Florida Keys]].<ref>{{cite web|last=United States National Arboretum|title=Florida Hardiness Zones|url=|publisher=St Johns River Water Management District|accessdate=25 March 2011}}</ref>
Florida's nickname is the "Sunshine State", but severe weather is a common occurrence in the state. Central Florida is known as the [[lightning]] capital of the United States, as it experiences more lightning strikes than anywhere else in the country.
<ref name="lightning">{{cite web|url= |title=Lightning Information Center |publisher=[[National Weather Service]] |accessdate=2008-01-23|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref> Florida has the highest average precipitation of any state,{{citation needed|I thought it was Hawaii|date=March 2011}} in large part because afternoon [[thunderstorm]]s are common in most of the state from late spring until early autumn. A narrow eastern part of the state including Orlando and Jacksonville receives between 2,400 and 2,800 hours of [[sunshine]] annually. The rest of the state, including [[Miami]], receives between 2,800 and 3,200 hours annually.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=united states annual sunshine map|publisher=HowStuffWorks, Inc|accessdate=2011-03-14}}</ref>
Florida leads the United States in tornadoes per square mile (when including [[waterspouts]])<ref name="waterspout">{{Cite news|url= |title=Waterspouts common off coastal Florida in summer |last=Aten |first=Tim |date=July 1, 2007 |work=[[Naples Daily News]] |accessdate=2008-01-23|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref> but they do not typically reach the intensity of those in the [[Midwest]] and [[Great Plains]]. [[Hail]] often accompanies the most severe thunderstorms.
[[File:Andrew 23 aug 1992 1231Z.jpg|right|thumb|[[Hurricane Andrew]] bearing down on Florida on August 23, 1992.]]
[[tropical cyclone|Hurricanes]] pose a severe threat during hurricane season, which lasts from June 1 to November 30, although some storms have been known to form out of season. Florida is the most hurricane-prone US state, with subtropical or tropical water on a lengthy coastline. From 1851 to 2006, Florida has been struck by 114 hurricanes, 37 of them major—[[Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale#Category 3|category 3]] and above.<ref name="fltoday fact"/> It is rare for a hurricane season to pass without any impact in the state by at least a tropical storm. For storms, [[Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale#Category 4|category 4]] or higher, 83% have either hit Florida or Texas.<ref name="fltoday fact">{{Cite journal|first=|last=Doe|title=Florida is US lightning capital| url=|work =Florida Today Factbook|location=Melbourne, Florida|page= 34|date=March 28, 2009|id=|accessdate=}}</ref> August to October is the most likely period for a hurricane in Florida.
In 2004, Florida was hit by a record four hurricanes. Hurricanes [[Hurricane Charley|Charley]] (August 13), [[Hurricane Frances|Frances]] (September 4–5), [[Hurricane Ivan|Ivan]] (September 16), and [[Hurricane Jeanne|Jeanne]] (September 25–26) cumulatively cost the state's economy $42 billion. Additionally, the four storms caused an estimated $45 billion in damage.
<ref name="ft091231">{{Cite news|first=|last=|title=Weather, politics shook things up|url=|work=Florida Today|location=Melbourne, Florida|page= 1A|date=December 31, 2009|id=|accessdate=}}</ref> In 2005, [[Hurricane Dennis]] (July 10) became the fifth storm to strike Florida within eleven months. Later, [[Hurricane Katrina]] (August 25) passed through South Florida and [[Hurricane Rita]] (September 20) swept through the [[Florida Keys]]. [[Hurricane Wilma]] (October 24) made landfall near [[Cape Romano]], just south of [[Marco Island, Florida|Marco Island]], finishing another very active hurricane season. Wilma is the second most expensive hurricane in Florida history, due in part to a five year window in which to file claims.<ref name="Watchdog">{{Cite news|first=Matt|last=Read|title=Watchdog:Discounts may boost price for insurance|url=| work =Florida Today|location=Melbourne, Florida|page= 1B|date=February 2, 2010|id=|accessdate=}}</ref>
Florida was the site of the second costliest weather disaster in U.S. history, [[Hurricane Andrew]], which caused more than US$25 [[1000000000 (number)|billion]] in damage when it struck on August 24, 1992. In a long list of other infamous hurricane strikes are the [[1926 Miami hurricane]], the [[1928 Okeechobee hurricane]], the [[Labor Day Hurricane of 1935]], [[Hurricane Donna]] in 1960, and [[Hurricane Opal]] in 1995. Recent research suggests the storms are part of a natural cycle and not a result of [[global warming]].<ref name="Many More Hurricanes To Come">{{Cite news|url= |title=Many More Hurricanes To Come |last=Than |first=Ker |date=August 31, 2005 |publisher=[[Imaginova|Live Science]] |accessdate=2007-12-03|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref name="NOAA Attributes Recent Increase In Hurricane Activity To Naturally Occurring Multi-Decadal Climate Variability">{{cite web|url= |title=NOAA Attributes Recent Increase In Hurricane Activity To Naturally Occurring Multi-Decadal Climate Variability |publisher=[[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]] |accessdate=2007-12-03|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
| colspan="13" style="text-align:center;font-size:120%;background:#E8EAFA;"|Average High and Low temperatures for various Florida Cities
|- style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000"
| '''City'''
| '''Jan'''
| '''Feb'''
| '''Mar'''
| '''Apr'''
| '''May'''
| '''Jun'''
| '''Jul'''
| '''Aug'''
| '''Sep'''
| '''Oct'''
| '''Nov'''
| '''Dec'''
|- style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000"
|[[Jacksonville, Florida|Jacksonville]]
<ref name="jaxweather">{{cite web|url= |title=JACKSONVILLE WSO AP, FLORIDA—Climate Summary |publisher=Southeast Regional Climate Center |accessdate=2008-01-26|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
| 65/43
| 68/45
| 74/50
| 80/56
| 86/64
| 90/70
| 92/73
| 91/73
| 87/70
| 80/61
| 73/51
| 66/44
|- style="background:#c5dfe1; color:#000"
| [[Key West, Florida|Key West]]<ref name="eywweather">{{cite web|url= |title=KEY WEST WSO AIRPORT, FLORIDA—Climate Summary |publisher=Southeast Regional Climate Center |accessdate=2008-01-26|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
| 75/65
| 76/66
| 79/69
| 82/72
| 85/76
| 88/78
| 89/80
| 90/80
| 88/78
| 85/76
| 80/71
| 76/67
|- style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000"
| [[Melbourne, Florida|Melbourne]]<ref name="mlbweather"/>
| 72/51
| 73/53
| 77/57
| 81/61
| 85/67
| 88/71
| 90/73
| 90/73
| 88/72
| 83/67
| 78/60
| 73/53
|- style="background:#c5dfe1; color:#000"
|[[Miami, Florida|Miami]]<ref name="mlbweather">{{cite web|url= |title=MELBOURNE WSO, FLORIDA—Climate Summary |publisher=Southeast Regional Climate Center |accessdate=2008-01-26|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
| 76/60
| 77/61
| 80/64
| 83/68
| 86/72
| 88/75
| 90/77
| 90/77
| 88/76
| 85/72
| 81/67
| 77/62
|- style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000"
| [[Pensacola, Florida|Pensacola]]<ref name="pnsweather"/>
| 61/43
| 64/46
| 70/51
| 76/58
| 84/66
| 89/72
| 90/74
| 90/74
| 87/70
| 80/60
| 70/50
| 63/45
|- style="background:#c5dfe1; color:#000"
| [[Tallahassee, Florida|Tallahassee]]<ref name="tlhweather"/>
| 64/40
| 67/42
| 73/48
| 80/53
| 87/62
| 91/69
| 91/72
| 91/72
| 88/68
| 81/57
| 72/47
| 66/41
|- style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000"
| [[Tampa, Florida|Tampa]]<ref name="tpaweather"/>
| 71/51
| 72/52
| 77/57
| 82/62
| 88/68
| 90/73
| 90/75
| 90/75
| 89/73
| 84/66
| 77/58
| 72/52
[[File:Anhingatrailalligator.png|thumb|right|[[American Alligator]] in the [[Florida Everglades]]]]
[[File:Key deer male.jpg|thumb|right|[[Key Deer]] in the lower [[Florida Keys]]]]
[[File:Florida Scrub Jay.jpg|thumb|right|The [[Florida Scrub Jay]] is found only in Florida.]]
Florida is host to many types of wildlife including:
* Marine Mammals: [[Bottlenose Dolphin]], [[Short-finned Pilot Whale]], [[North Atlantic Right Whale]], [[West Indian Manatee]]
* Reptiles: [[American Alligator]] and [[American Crocodile|Crocodile]], [[Crotalus adamanteus|Eastern Diamondback]] and [[Sistrurus miliarius barbouri|Pygmy Rattlesnakes]], [[Gopherus polyphemus|Gopher Tortoise]], [[Green turtle|Green]] and [[Leatherback Sea Turtle]]s, [[Drymarchon|Eastern Indigo Snake]]
* Mammals: [[Florida panther]], [[Northern River Otter]], [[Mink]], [[Eastern Cottontail Rabbit]], [[Marsh Rabbit]], [[Raccoon]], [[Striped Skunk]], [[Squirrel]], [[White-tailed deer]], [[Key Deer]], [[Bobcat]]s, [[Gray Fox]], [[Coyote]], [[Wild Boar]], [[Florida Black Bear]], [[Nine-banded Armadillo]]s
* Birds: [[Bald Eagle]], [[Northern Caracara]], [[Snail Kite]], [[Osprey]], [[American White Pelican|White]] and [[Brown Pelican]]s, [[Larus|Sea Gulls]], [[Whooping Crane|Whooping]] and [[Sandhill Crane]]s, [[Roseate Spoonbill]], [[Florida Scrub Jay]] (state [[endemism|endemic]]), and others. One subspecies of Wild Turkey, ''[[Meleagris gallopavo]]'', namely subspecies ''osceola'', is found only in the state of Florida.<ref>C. Michael Hogan. 2008. [ ''Wild turkey: Meleagris gallopavo'',, ed. N. Stromberg]</ref> The state is a wintering location for many species of eastern North American birds.
*Invertebrates: [[carpenter ants]], [[termites]], [[American cockroach]], [[Africanized bee]]s, the [[Miami blue]] butterfly, and the [[gonatista grisea|grizzled mantis]].
The only known calving area for the Northern Right Whale is off the coasts of Florida and Georgia.<ref name="Whale habitat could grow"/><!---the url does ''not'' give box figures which had the right whale text imbedded. It is listed here for "credibility" only but only the print text supports this fact--->
Since their accidental importation from South America into North America in the 1930s, the [[Red imported fire ant]] population has increased its territorial range to include most of the [[Southern United States]], including Florida. They are more aggressive than most native ant species and have a painful sting.<ref name="Not all alien invaders are from outer space"/>
A number of non-native snakes and lizards have been released in the wild. In 2010 the state created a hunting season for [[Burmese python|Burmese]] and [[Indian python]]s, [[African rock python]]s, [[green anaconda]]s, and [[Nile monitor lizard]]s.<ref name="State creates season for hunting pythons"/> [[Green iguana]]s have also established a firm population in the southern part of the state.
===Environmental issues===
{{Main|Environment of Florida}}
Florida ranks 45th out of 50 states in total energy consumption per capita, despite the heavy reliance on air conditioners and pool pumps. This includes coal, natural gas, petroleum, and retail electricity sales.<ref name="Energy Consumption by Source and Total Consumption per Capita, Ranked by State, 2004"/> It is estimated that approximately 4% of energy in the state is generated through renewable resources.<ref name="DoE-profile"/> Florida's energy production is 6% of the nation's total energy output, while total production of pollutants is lower, with figures of 5.6% for [[nitrogen oxide]], 5.1% for [[carbon dioxide]], and 3.5% for [[sulfur dioxide]].<ref name=DoE-profile />
It is believed that significant petroleum resources are located off Florida's western coast in the [[Gulf of Mexico]], but that region has been closed to exploration since 1981.<ref name="iht"/>
[[Red tide]] has been an issue on the southwest coast of Florida, as well as other areas. While there has been a great deal of conjecture over the cause of the toxic algae bloom, there is no evidence that it is being caused by pollution or that there has been an increase in the duration or frequency of red tides.<ref name="Tide's toxins trouble lungs ashore"/>
The [[Florida panther]] is close to [[extinction]]. A record 23 were killed in 2009 predominately by automobile collisions, leaving only about 100 individuals in the wild. The [[Center for Biological Diversity]] and others have therefore called for a special [[protected area]] for the panther to be established.<ref name="Record number of panthers killed by vehicles in 2009"/> [[Manatees]] are also dying at a rate higher than their reproduction.
Prior to instituting [[controlled burn]]s, the state forests and pastures burned for months during the dry season. From the 1940s to the 1970s, the state and federal government assumed control of burning that largely prevented uncontrolled fires.<ref>{{cite web|title=DoF: Florida’s Fire Fulcrum|url=|first=Stephen J.|last=Pyne|authorlink=Stephen J. Pyne|month=February|year=2011|work=A Fire History of America (1960–2010)|publisher=[[Arizona State University]]|separator=,|postscript=|accessdate=March 19, 2011}}</ref> In 2010, the state burned a record {{convert|2600000|acre|km2}}.<ref>{{Cite news | first=Jim | last=Waymer | title=Despite burns, fire threat still high | url=| newspaper=[[Florida Today]] | location=Melbourne, Florida | page= 1A | date=March 14, 2011 | accessdate=March 19, 2011}}{{dead link|date=November 2011}}</ref>
==== Recycling ====
The recycling rate in Florida is estimated at 28% in 2000.<ref>{{cite web|last=Cummings |first=Larry |url= |title=Recycling In The State of Florida | |date=2007-04-27 |accessdate=2011-11-04}}</ref> In 2008, The Energy, Climate Change, and Economic Security Act of 2008 set a goal of progressively improving recycling to reach a 75 percent rate by the year 2020.
It directs public entities (schools, state and local public agencies) to report the amount they recycle annually to their counties. Private businesses are encouraged (but not mandated) to report the amount they recycle to their counties. Finally, the section directs DEP to create the Recycling Business Assistance Center.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Recycling Program Statutes and Rules Page &#124; Solid & Hazardous Waste &#124; Waste Mgmt &#124; Florida DEP | |date=2011-06-02 |accessdate=2011-11-04}}</ref>
Under the new law, each county must implement a recyclable materials recycling program that shall have a goal of recycling recyclable solid waste by 40 percent by December 31, 2012, 50 percent by 2014, 60 percent by 2016, 70 percent by 2018, and 75 percent by 2020.<ref>{{cite web|author=|url= |title=WTE features in Florida recycling law | |date=2010-05-28 |accessdate=2011-11-04}}</ref>
The county with the highest recycling rate is [[Lee County, Florida|Lee County]] with a 43% recycling rate as of 2008.<ref></ref>
The Florida peninsula is a porous [[plateau]] of [[karst]] [[limestone]] sitting atop [[bedrock]] known as the [[Florida Platform]]. The emergent portion of the platform was created during the [[Eocene]] to [[Oligocene]] as the [[Gulf Trough]] filled with silts, clays, and sands. Flora and fauna began appearing during the [[Miocene]]. No land animals were present in Florida prior to the Miocene.
The largest deposits of [[potash]] in the United States are found in Florida.<ref name="Industry overview"/>
Extended systems of underwater caves, [[sinkholes]] and [[spring (hydrosphere)|springs]] are found throughout the state and supply most of the water used by residents. The limestone is topped with [[sand]]y soils deposited as ancient [[beach]]es over millions of years as global sea levels rose and fell. During the [[last glacial period]], lower sea levels and a drier climate revealed a much wider peninsula, largely [[Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands|savanna]].<ref name="Florida's Geological History"/> The [[Everglades]], an enormously wide, very slow-flowing river encompasses the southern tip of the peninsula. Sinkhole damage claims on property in the state exceeded a total of $2 billion from 2006 through 2010.<ref>{{Cite news | first= | last= | title=State Farm seeks 28% rate hike | url=| work= | newspaper=[[Florida Today]] | location=Melbourne, Florida | page= 8B | date=February 16, 2011 | accessdate=}}{{dead link|date=November 2011}}</ref><!---soft copy source does not match hard copy but is the same article--->
Florida is tied for last place<ref>with North Dakota</ref> as having the fewest earthquakes of any US state.<ref name="More earthquakes than usual? Not really."/><!----url does not contain box statistics that print edition does and is included for info only----> Because Florida is not located near any [[plate tectonics|tectonic plate]] boundaries, earthquakes are very rare, but not totally unknown.
In January, 1879, a shock of [[Mercalli intensity scale]] VI occurred near [[St. Augustine, Florida|St. Augustine]]. There were reports of heavy shaking that knocked plaster from walls and articles from shelves. Similar effects were noted at [[Daytona Beach, Florida|Daytona Beach]] {{convert|50|mi|km}} south. The tremor was felt as far south as Tampa and as far north as [[Savannah, Georgia]].
In January 1880, Cuba was the center of two strong earthquakes that sent severe shock waves through the city of [[Key West, Florida]].<ref>See [[List of earthquakes in Cuba]]</ref>
The shock from the [[1886 Charleston earthquake|1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake]] was felt throughout northern Florida, ringing church bells at St. Augustine and severely jolting other towns along that section of Florida's east coast. Jacksonville residents felt many of the strong aftershocks that occurred in September, October, and November 1886.<ref name="Florida:Earthquake History"/>
In 2006, a magnitude 6.0 earthquake centered about {{convert|260|mi|km}} southwest of Tampa in the Gulf of Mexico sent shock waves through southwest and central Florida. The earthquake was too small to trigger a tsunami and no damage was reported.<ref name="6.0 quake in Gulf shakes Southeast"/>|
The [[1755 Lisbon earthquake]] triggered a tsunami that would have struck Central Florida with an estimated {{convert|1.5|m}} wave.<ref>[ ]{{dead link|date=November 2011}}</ref>
<!---please ensure new material is in main article before summarizing it here--->
{{Main|Demographics of Florida}}
|1830 = 34730
|1840 = 54477
|1850 = 87445
|1860 = 140424
|1870 = 187748
|1880 = 269493
|1890 = 391422
|1900 = 528542
|1910 = 752619
|1920 = 968470
|1930 = 1468211
|1940 = 1897414
|1950 = 2771305
|1960 = 4951560
|1970 = 6789443
|1980 = 9746324
|1990 = 12937926
|2000 = 15982378
|2010 = 18801310
|footnote = Sources: 1910–2010<ref>{{cite web|author=Resident Population Data |url= |title=Resident Population Data - 2010 Census | |date= |accessdate=2011-11-04}}</ref>
Florida has the 4th highest state population in the United States. The [[center of population]] of Florida is located in [[Polk County, Florida|Polk County]], in the town of [[Lake Wales, Florida|Lake Wales]].<ref name="Population and Population Centers by State: 2000"/> As of 2009, Florida's population was estimated to be 18,537,969. The state grew 128,814, or 0.7% from 2007. Using the latest population estimates, Florida is the nation's thirtieth-fastest-growing state. During Florida's peak growth year of 2005, it was the nation's fifth fastest growing state and grew at an annual rate of 2.2%.<ref name="2008est"/>
About two-thirds of the population was born in another state, the second highest in the country.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title="A Ponzi State"–Univ. of South Florida Professor Examines the Economic Crisis in Florida|accessdate= |author=Amy Goodman |authorlink= |coauthors= |date=2009-04-06 |year= |month= |work =Democracy Now! |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote= }}</ref>
The state had the third largest illegal immigrant population in the country in 2009.<ref name="Illegals on rise in Southeast"/><!---footnote matches hardcopy, not url---> In 2010, illegal immigrants constituted an estimated 5.7% of the population. This was the sixth highest percentage of any state in the country.<ref name="New Arizona law puts police in 'tenuous' spot"/><!---as often happens, the box score figures listed in Wikipedia article are from print edition and did not appear in the online article---><ref>behind Nevada, Arizona, New Jersey, California and Texas</ref> There were an estimated 675,000 illegal immigrants in the state in 2010.<ref>{{Cite news | first=Matt | last=Reed | title=E-Verify best way to find illegals | url=| work=Florida Today | location=Melbourne, Florida | page= 1B | date=January 18, 2011 | accessdate=}}{{dead link|date=November 2011}}</ref><!---hard copy titles differ but are the same article---><!---paragraph needs to be reworked--->
There were 186,102 military retirees living in the state in 2008.<ref name="Retired Military Personnel"/>
===Racial makeup===
According to the [[2010 U.S. Census]], Florida had a population of 18,801,310. In terms of race and ethnicity, the state was:
*75.0% White (57.9% Non-Hispanic White alone)
*16.0% Black or African American
*0.4% American Indian and Alaska Native
*2.4% Asian
*0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
*3.6% from Some Other Race
*2.5% from Two or More Races
*Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 22.5% of the population.<ref>[ "Race, Hispanic or Latino, Age, and Housing Occupancy: 2010"]. ''2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File''. [[U.S. Census Bureau]]. Retrieved November 14, 2011. </ref>
===Ancestry groups===
The largest reported ancestries in the 2000 Census were [[German people|German]] (11.8%), [[Irish people|Irish]] (10.3%), [[English people|English]] (9.2%), [[American ancestry|American]] (8%), [[Italian people|Italian]] (6.3%), [[Cuban American|Cuban]] (5.2%), [[Puerto Ricans in the United States|Puerto Rican]] (3.0%) [[French people|French]] (2.8%), [[Polish people|Polish]] (2.7%) and [[Scottish people|Scottish]] (1.8%).<ref name="Factstreet"/>
In the 2000 Census, 1,278,586 people in Florida self-identified as having "American" ancestry, most of these people are of English descent and some are of [[Scotch-Irish American|Scots-Irish]] descent however have families that have been in the state so long, in many cases since the colonial period, that they choose to identify simply as having "American" ancestry or do not in fact know their own ancestry.<ref name="Factstreet">{{cite web|url= |title=Florida Factstreet |publisher=US Census Bureau |accessdate=2007-12-03|archiveurl=ttp:// |archivedate=2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>[ Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America] By Dominic J. Pulera.</ref><ref>Reynolds Farley, 'The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?', ''Demography'', Vol. 28, No. 3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421.</ref><ref>Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, 'The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns', ''Social Science Research'', Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44–6.</ref><ref>Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Waters, 'Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites', ''Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science'', Vol. 487, No. 79 (September 1986), pp. 82–86.</ref><ref>Mary C. Waters, ''Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America'' (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990), p. 36.</ref> In the 1980 [[United States census]] the largest ancestry group reported in Florida was [[English American|English]] with 2,232,514 Floridians citing that they were of [[English American|English]] or mostly [[English American|English]] ancestry.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Ancestry of the Population by State: 1980 - Table 3 |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2011-11-04}}</ref> Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original thirteen colonies and for this reason many of them today simply claim "American" ancestry, though they are of predominately [[English American|English]] stock. They were followed by [[Irish American|Irish]] at 1,617,433.
Before the [[American Civil War]], when [[History of slavery in the United States|slavery]] was legal, and during the [[Reconstruction era (United States)|Reconstruction]] era that followed, [[African American|blacks]] made up nearly half of the state's population.<ref name="1870census"/> Their proportion declined over the next century, as many moved north in the [[Great Migration (African American)|Great Migration]] while large numbers of northern [[White people|whites]] moved to the state. Recently, the state's proportion of black residents has begun to grow again. Today, large concentrations of black residents can be found in northern Florida (notably in Jacksonville, [[Gainesville, Florida|Gainesville]], [[Tallahassee, Florida|Tallahassee]], and Pensacola), the [[Tampa Bay]] area, the Orlando area, especially in Orlando and [[Sanford, Florida|Sanford]].
Florida's [[Hispanics in the United States|Hispanic]] population includes large communities of [[Cuban Americans]] in Miami and Tampa, [[Puerto Ricans in the United States|Puerto Ricans]] in Orlando and Tampa, and Central American migrant workers in inland West-Central and South Florida. The Hispanic community continues to grow more affluent and mobile.
[[White American]]s of all European backgrounds are present in all areas of the state. Those of [[English American|English]] and [[Irish American|Irish]] ancestry are present in large numbers in all the urban/suburban areas across the state. Native white Floridians, especially those who have descended from long-time Florida families, affectionately refer to themselves as "[[Florida cracker]]s". Like whites in most of the other Southern states, they descend mainly from [[English American|English]] and [[Scots-Irish American|Scots-Irish]] settlers, as well as some other British settlers.<ref>David Hackett Fischer, ''Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America'', New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, pp.633–639</ref>
===Metropolitan areas===
[[File:Floridamap2.png|right|thumb|400px|Largest cities in Florida]]
{{See also|List of urbanized areas in Florida (by population)|Florida census statistical areas|List of cities in Florida|Florida locations by per capita income}}
{| class="wikitable"
!colspan=3|Largest cities in Florida<ref name="Population Estimates"/>
!colspan=3|City population > 500,000
!|Metropolitan area
[[Jacksonville, Florida|Jacksonville]]
[[Greater Jacksonville Metropolitan Area|Greater Jacksonville]]
!colspan=3|City population > 200,000
!|Metropolitan area
[[Miami, Florida|Miami]]<br />
[[Tampa, Florida|Tampa]]<br />
[[St. Petersburg, Florida|St. Petersburg]]<br />
[[Orlando, Florida|Orlando]]<br />
[[Hialeah, Florida|Hialeah]]
399,457<br />
335,709<br />
244,769<br />
238,300<br />
[[South Florida metropolitan area|South Florida]]<br />
[[Tampa Bay Area|Tampa Bay]]<br />
[[Tampa Bay Area|Tampa Bay]]<br />
[[Greater Orlando]]<br />
[[South Florida metropolitan area|South Florida]]
!colspan=3|City population > 150,000
!|Metropolitan area
[[Tallahassee, Florida|Tallahassee]]<br />
[[Fort Lauderdale, Florida|Fort Lauderdale]]<br />
[[Port Saint Lucie, Florida|Port Saint Lucie]]<br />
[[Pembroke Pines, Florida|Pembroke Pines]]<br />
[[Cape Coral, Florida|Cape Coral]]
181,376<br />
165,521<br />
164,603<br />
154,750<br />
[[Tallahassee, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area|Tallahassee]]<br />
[[South Florida metropolitan area|South Florida]]<br />
[[Port St. Lucie, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area|Port St. Lucie]]<br />
[[South Florida metropolitan area|South Florida]]<br />
[[Cape Coral&nbsp;– Fort Myers, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area|Cape Coral-Fort Myers]]
!colspan=3|City population > 100,000
!|Metropolitan area
[[Hollywood, Florida|Hollywood]]<br />
[[Gainesville, Florida|Gainesville]]<br />
[[Miramar, Florida|Miramar]] <br />
[[Coral Springs, Florida|Coral Springs]] <br />
[[Clearwater, Florida|Clearwater]] <br />
[[Miami Gardens, Florida|Miami Gardens]]<br />
[[Palm Bay, Florida|Palm Bay]]
140,768<br />
124,354 <br />
122,041<br />
121,096<br />
107,685<br />
107,167<br />
[[South Florida metropolitan area|South Florida]]<br />
[[Gainesville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area|Gainesville]]<br />
[[South Florida metropolitan area|South Florida]]<br />
[[South Florida metropolitan area|South Florida]]<br />
[[Tampa Bay Area|Tampa Bay]]<br />
[[South Florida metropolitan area|South Florida]]<br />
[[Palm Bay&nbsp;– Melbourne&nbsp;– Titusville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area|Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville]]
<div style="float:right;" class="center">
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
!colspan=3|Largest metropolitan areas in Florida
! Rank
! Metropolitan Area
! Population
| 1
| [[South Florida metropolitan area|South Florida]]
| 5,564,635
| 2
| [[Tampa Bay Area|Tampa Bay]]
| 2,783,243
| 3
| [[Greater Orlando]]
| 2,134,411
| 4
| [[Greater Jacksonville Metropolitan Area|Greater Jacksonville]]
| 1,345,596
| 5
| [[Bradenton–Sarasota–Venice, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area|Bradenton-Sarasota-Venice]]
| 702,281
The largest [[metropolitan area]] in the state as well as the entire southeastern United States is the [[South Florida metropolitan area]], with about 5.5 million people. The [[Tampa Bay area]], with over 2.7 million people, is the second largest metro area and [[Greater Orlando]], with over 2.1 million people, is the third.
Florida has twenty [[Metropolitan Statistical Area]]s (MSAs) defined by the [[United States Office of Management and Budget]] (OMB). Thirty-nine of Florida's sixty-seven counties are in an MSA. Reflecting the distribution of population in Florida, Metropolitan areas in the state are concentrated around the coast of the peninsula. They form a continuous band on the east coast of Florida, stretching from the Jacksonville MSA to the Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach MSA, including every county on the east coast, with the exception of [[Monroe County, Florida|Monroe County]]. There is also a continuous band of MSAs on the west coast of the peninsula from the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater MSA to the Naples-Marco Island MSA, including all of the coastal counties from [[Hernando County, Florida|Hernando County]] to [[Collier County, Florida|Collier County]]. The interior of the northern half of the peninsula also has several MSAs, connecting the east and west coast MSAs. A few MSAs are scattered across the Florida panhandle.
<center><gallery widths=160px heights=120px>
File:Friendship_Fountain_at_Night.JPG |<center>[[Jacksonville, Florida|Jacksonville]]</center>
File:Downtowntampa08.jpg|<center>[[Tampa, Florida|Tampa]]</center>
File:St Pete Skyline from Pier.jpg|<center>[[St. Petersburg, Florida|St. Petersburg]]</center>
File:Orlando Skyline.jpg|<center>[[Orlando, Florida|Orlando]]</center>
File:TallahasseeSkyline2.JPG|<center>[[Tallahassee, Florida|Tallahassee]]</center>
File:Fort Lauderdale Skyline.jpg|<center>[[Fort Lauderdale, Florida|Fort Lauderdale]]</center>
File:Coral_Springs_One_Charter_Place.JPG|<center>[[Coral Springs, Florida|Coral Springs]]</center>
As of 2005, 74.54% of Florida residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a first language, while 18.65% spoke Spanish, and French Creole (predominantly Haitian Creole) was spoken by 1.73% of the population. In all, 25.45% of Florida's population age 5 and older spoke a language other than English.<ref name="autogenerated1"/>
Florida's climate makes it a popular state for [[immigrant]]s.{{Citation needed|date=July 2011}} Florida's [[public education]] system identified over 150 first languages other than English spoken in the homes of students.{{Citation needed|date=July 2011}} In 1990, the [[League of United Latin American Citizens|League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)]] won a [[class action lawsuit]] against the state [[Florida Department of Education]] that required [[educator]]s to be trained in teaching [[English language learning and teaching|English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL)]].<!--removed non-specific link. -->{{Citation needed|date=July 2011}}
[[Florida Constitution#Article II: "General Provisions"|Article II, Section 9]], of the [[Florida Constitution]] provides that "English is the [[official language]] of the State of Florida." This provision was adopted in 1988 by a vote following an Initiative [[Petition]].
As of the year 2000, the three largest denominational groups in Florida are [[Catholic Church|Catholic]], [[Evangelical Protestant]], and [[Mainline Protestant]].<ref name="thearda"/>
Florida is mostly [[Protestant]], but [[Roman Catholicism]] is the single largest denomination in the state. There is also a sizable [[American Jews|Jewish]] community, located mainly in [[South Florida]]; no other Southern state has such a large Jewish population. Florida's current [[religious]] affiliations are shown in the table below:<ref>[ Religion and Politics 2008:Florida – Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life]{{dead link|date=November 2011}} {{Wayback|url=|date =20080306022052}}{{dead link|date=November 2011}}</ref>
* [[Roman Catholic]], 26%
* [[Protestant]], 48%
** [[Baptist]], 9%
** [[Methodist]], 6%
** [[Pentecostal]], 3%
* [[Jewish]], 3%
* [[Jehovah's Witness]], 1%
* [[Muslim]], 1%
* [[Orthodox Church|Orthodox]], 1%
* other religions, 1%
* non-religious, 16%
{{Main|Government of Florida}}
{{See also|List of Florida Governors|United States Congressional Delegations from Florida|Florida Cabinet}}
[[File:Old Florida Capitol.jpg|thumb|rightt|190px|[[Florida State Capitol|Florida Capitol]] buildings.]]
The basic structure, duties, function, and operations of the government of the state of Florida are defined and established by the [[Florida Constitution]], which establishes the basic law of the state and guarantees various rights and freedoms of the people. The state government consists of three separate branches: judicial, executive, and legislative. The legislature enacts bills, which, if signed by the [[Governor of Florida|governor]], become [[Florida Statutes]].
The [[Florida Legislature]] comprises the [[Florida Senate]], which has 40 members, and the [[Florida House of Representatives]], which has 120 members. The current Governor of Florida is [[Rick Scott]].
The [[Florida Supreme Court]] consists of a Chief Justice and six Justices.
There are 67 [[County (US)|Counties]] in Florida, but some reports show only 66 because of [[Duval County, Florida|Duval County]], which is consolidated with the [[City of Jacksonville]]. There are 379 cities in Florida (out of 411) that report regularly to the Florida Department of Revenue, but there are other incorporated municipalities that do not. The primary source of revenue for the state government is sales tax, but the primary revenue source for cities and counties is property tax.
===Political history===
<!--really need a "Politics of Florida" superarticle that would contain this and point to political strength article--->
From 1885 to 1889, the state legislature passed statutes with provisions to reduce voting by blacks and poor whites, which had threatened white Democratic power with a populist coalition. As these groups were stripped from voter rolls, white Democrats established power in a one-party state, as happened across the South. In 1900 African Americans comprised 44% of the state's population,<ref name="Historical Census Browser: 1900 US Census"/> the same proportion as before the Civil War, but they were effectively disfranchised. From 1877 to 1948, Florida voted for the Democratic candidate for president in every election except for the [[United States presidential election, 1928|1928 election]].
[[File:FlaSupremeCrtBldgFeb08.JPG|thumb|The [[Florida Supreme Court]]]]
In response to segregation, disfranchisement and agricultural depression, many African Americans migrated from Florida to northern cities in the [[Great Migration (African American)|Great Migration]], in waves from 1910–1940, and again starting in the later 1940s. They moved for jobs, better education for their children and the chance to vote and participate in society. Given migration of other groups into Florida (as noted in other sections of this article), by 1960 the proportion of African Americans in the state had declined to 18%.<ref name="Historical Census Browser: 1960 US Census"/>
{{further|[[Political party strength in Florida]]}}
Since 1952, despite having a majority of registered Democrats, the state has voted for the Republican presidential candidate in every election except for the [[United States presidential election, 1964|1964]], [[United States presidential election, 1976|1976]], and [[United States presidential election, 1996|1996]] elections, when the Democrat was from the [[Southern United States|South]], and the [[United States presidential election, 2008|2008]] election, which was the first time since [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] that Florida had voted for a Northern Democrat. The first post-reconstruction Republican [[William C. Cramer|congressional representative]] was elected in 1954.<ref name="William C. Cramer, 81, a Leader Of G.O.P. Resurgence in South"/> The state's first post-reconstruction Republican [[Edward J. Gurney|senator]] was elected in 1968,<ref name="E. J. Gurney, 82, Senator Who Backed Nixon"/> two years after the first post-reconstruction Republican [[Claude R. Kirk, Jr.|governor]].<ref name="Claude Roy Kirk, Jr."/>
{| class="wikitable" style="float:right; font-size:83%; text-align:center; margin:10px"
|+ '''Presidential elections results'''
|- style="background:lightgrey;"
! Year
! [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]]
! [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic]]
| style="background:#f0f0ff;"|[[United States presidential election, 2008|2008]]
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|48.22% ''4,045,624
| style="background:#f0f0ff;"|'''50.96%''' ''4,282,074
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|[[United States presidential election, 2004|2004]]
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|'''52.10%''' ''3,964,522
| style="background:#f0f0ff;"|47.09% ''3,583,544
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|[[United States presidential election, 2000|2000]]
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|'''48.85%''' ''2,912,790
| style="background:#f0f0ff;"|48.84% ''2,912,253
| style="background:#f0f0ff;"|[[United States presidential election, 1996|1996]]
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|42.32% ''2,244,536
| style="background:#f0f0ff;"|'''48.02%''' ''2,546,870
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|[[United States presidential election, 1992|1992]]
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|'''40.89%''' ''2,173,310
| style="background:#f0f0ff;"|39.00% '' ''2,072,698
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|[[United States presidential election, 1988|1988]]
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|'''60.87%''' ''2,618,885
| style="background:#f0f0ff;"|38.51% ''1,656,701
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|[[United States presidential election, 1984|1984]]
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|'''65.32%''' ''2,730,350
| style="background:#f0f0ff;"|34.66% ''1,448,816
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|[[United States presidential election, 1980|1980]]
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|'''55.52%''' ''2,046,951
| style="background:#f0f0ff;"|38.50% ''1,419,475
| style="background:#f0f0ff;"|[[United States presidential election, 1976|1976]]
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|46.64% ''1,469,531
| style="background:#f0f0ff;"|'''51.93%''' ''1,636,000
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|[[United States presidential election, 1972|1972]]
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|'''71.91%''' ''1,857,759
| style="background:#f0f0ff;"|27.80% ''718,117
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|[[United States presidential election, 1968|1968]]
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|'''40.53%''' ''886,804
| style="background:#f0f0ff;"|30.93% ''676,794
| style="background:#f0f0ff;"|[[United States presidential election, 1964|1964]]
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|48.85% ''905,941
| style="background:#f0f0ff;"|'''51.15%''' ''948,540
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|[[United States presidential election, 1960|1960]]
| style="background:#fff3f3;"|'''51.51%''' ''795,476
| style="background:#f0f0ff;"|48.49% ''748,700
In 1998, Democrats were described as most dominant in areas of the state with high percentages of racial minorities, as well as transplanted white liberals coming primarily from the [[Northeastern United States]].<ref name="The New York Times"/> The [[South Florida metropolitan area]] was a good example of this as it had a particularly high level of both racial minorities and white liberals. Because of this, the area has been one of the most Democratic areas of the state. The Daytona Beach area has been, to a lesser extent, somewhat similar to South Florida demographically and the city of Orlando had a large Hispanic population, which often favored Democrats. Republicans remain dominant throughout much of the rest of Florida particularly in the more rural and suburban areas, as is the case throughout the [[Deep South]].<ref name="The New York Times" />
The fast growing [[I-4 corridor]] area, which runs through [[Central Florida]] and connects the cities of [[Daytona Beach, Florida|Daytona Beach]], [[Orlando, Florida|Orlando]], and [[Tampa, Florida|Tampa]]/[[St. Petersburg, Florida|St. Petersburg]], had a fairly similar number of both Republican and Democratic voters. The area is often seen as a merging point of the conservative northern portion of the state and the liberal southern portion making it the biggest swing area in the state. In recent times, whichever way the I-4 corridor area, containing 40% of Florida voters, votes has often determined who will win the state of Florida in presidential elections.<ref name="The Washington Times"/>
The Democratic Party has maintained an edge in voter registration, both statewide and in 40 of the 67 counties, including [[Miami-Dade County, Florida|Miami-Dade County]], [[Broward County, Florida|Broward County]], and [[Palm Beach County, Florida|Palm Beach County]], the state's three most populous counties.<ref name="Voter Registration by Party Affiliation and County"/>
There were 800 [[Federal Corrupt Practices Act|federal corruption]] convictions from 1988 to 2007, more than any other state.<ref>{{Cite news | first= | last= | title=Editorial:Culture of corruption | url=| work=Florida Today | location=Melbourne, Florida | page= 1A | date=January 7, 2011| accessdate=}}{{dead link|date=November 2011}}</ref>
====Recent elections====
{{Main|United States presidential election in Florida, 2000}}
In 2000, [[George W. Bush]] won the [[United States presidential election, 2000|U.S. Presidential election]] by a margin of 271–266 in the [[Electoral College (United States)|Electoral College]].<ref name="archives2000"/> Of the 271 electoral votes for Bush, 25 were cast by electors from Florida.<ref name="archives1"/> Reapportionment following the [[2000 United States Census]] gave the state two more seats in the House of Representatives.<ref name=CENSUS>Leary, Alex: [ "Florida gains two U.S. House seats in Census"] St. Petersburg Times, December 21, 2010</ref>
Despite the Democratic advantage in registration, as of 2008, Republicans controlled the governorship and most other statewide elective offices; both houses of the state legislature; and 15 of the state's 25 seats in the [[United States House of Representatives|House of Representatives]]. Florida has been listed as a [[swing state]] in Presidential elections since 1950, voting for the losing candidate once in that period of time.<!---Dole 1992. Actually since it voted reliably Democrat, it has been mostly right since 1932.---><ref name="Florida1"/> In the closely contested [[United States presidential election, 2000, in Florida|2000 election]] the state played a pivotal role.<ref name="archives2000"/><ref name="archives1"/><ref>''See'' [ ''Bush'' ''v''. ''Gore''], 531 U.S. 98 (2000)</ref><ref>''See also'' [ ''Bush'' ''v''. ''Palm Beach County Canvassing Board''], 531 U.S. 70 (2000).</ref><ref name="Study of Disputed Florida Ballots Finds Justices Did Not Cast the Deciding Vote"/><ref>''Cf''. Fla. Stat. § 103.011 ([ web version]) ("Votes cast for the actual candidates for President and Vice President shall be counted as votes cast for the presidential electors supporting such candidates. The Department of State shall certify as elected the presidential electors of the candidates for President and Vice President who receive the highest number of votes.")</ref>
In 2008, delegates of both the [[Republican Party (United States) presidential primaries, 2008#GOP February 5 rule|Republican Florida primary election]] and [[Democratic Party (United States) presidential primaries, 2008#Nullified primaries|Democratic Florida primary election]] were stripped of half of their votes when the conventions met in August due to violation of both parties' national rules.
In the 2010 elections, Republicans solidified their dominance state-wide, by winning the governor's mansion, maintaining firm majorities in both houses of the state legislature. They won four previously Democratic-held seats to create a 19–6 Republican majority delegation representing Florida in the federal House of Representatives.
As a result of the [[2010 United States Census]], Florida will gain two House of Representative seats in 2012.<ref name=CENSUS />
<!---really no other place for this sort of thing since there is confusion over elections and politics. No place under "government".-->
All potable water resources have been controlled by the state government through five regional water authorities since 1972.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Florida Statutes | |date= |accessdate=2011-11-04}}</ref>
The state repealed mandatory auto inspection in 1981.<ref name="New laws include auto inspection repeal"/>
===Law enforcement===
{{See|List of law enforcement agencies in Florida|Crime in Florida}}
Florida was ranked the fifth most dangerous state in 2009. Ranking was based on the record of serious felonies committed in 2008.<ref>[|main|dl1|link3| "20 Most Dangerous States for 2009"]{{dead link|date=November 2011}}. Retrieved March 23, 2009.</ref>
The state was the sixth highest [[scam]]med state in 2010. It ranked first in mortgage fraud in 2009.<ref>{{Cite news | title=Don't get scammed | url=| newspaper=[[Florida Today]] | location=Melbourne, Florida | page= 13A | date=January 22, 2011 | accessdate= March 17, 2011}}</ref>
In 2009, 44% of highway fatalities involved alcohol.<ref name="ft100207"/>
Florida is one of four states that prohibit the [[Open carry in the United States|open carry of handguns]]. This law was passed in 1987.<ref>{{Cite news | first=Kaustuv | last=Basu | title=Change would relax handgun law | url=| work=Florida Today | location=Melbourne, Florida | page= 1B | date=January 7, 2011 | accessdate=March 17, 2011}}</ref>
There were 2.7 million [[Medicaid]] patients in Florida in 2009. The governor has proposed adding $2.6 billion to care for the expected 300,000 additional patients in 2011.<ref name="County Medicaid tab rises, could get worse"/><!---$8,666 per patient.---> The cost of caring for 2.3 million clients in 2010 was $18.8 billion.<ref>{{Cite news | first=MacKenzie | last=Ryan | title=Qualifying for care a minefield | url=| work= Florida Today | location=Melbourne, Florida | page= 3A | date=December 26, 2010 | accessdate=}}</ref> <!---softcopy differs significantly from hard copy. But it is the original source of material. When it disappears online, we are left with the newspaper as hard copy---> <!---and, no, I don't know why "governor's estimates differ from actuals---> This is nearly 30% of Florida's budget.<ref>{{Cite news | first=James | last=Marshal | title=Sunday debate: No: Longtime official lost touch with voters | url=| work==Florida Today | location=Melbourne, Florida | page= 19A | date=December 26, 2010 | accessdate=}}</ref>
Medicaid paid for 60% of all births in Florida in 2009.<ref name="Watchdog"/>
The state has a [[Florida Medicaid waiver|program]] for those not covered by Medicaid.
Some people suffer from various allergies from plants at varying seasons including pollen from [[oak tree]]s and [[juniper]] shrubs.<ref name="Rough week ahead for allergy sufferers"/><!---note that soft copy is "cached" meaning you have to pay to see it-->
<!---could be moved under "culture" later--->
While many houses and commercial buildings look similar to [[Chicago school (architecture)|those elsewhere in the country]], the state has appropriated some unique styles in some section of the state including [[Spanish Colonial Revival Style architecture|Spanish revival]], [[Florida cracker architecture|Florida vernacular]], and [[Mediterranean Revival Style]].<ref>[]{{Dead link|date=April 2010}}</ref><ref name="Official: Design rules haven't cost Palm Bay new businesses"/>
[[File:Space Shuttle Columbia launching.jpg|thumb|175px|right|Launch of {{OV|102}} from the [[Kennedy Space Center]]]]
[[File:Port of Miami 20071208.jpg|thumb|right|175px|The [[Port of Miami]] is the world's largest cruise ship port, and is the headquarters of many of the world's largest cruise companies.]]
[[File:Miami skyline northern Brickell 20100206.jpg|thumb|right|175px|The [[Brickell Financial District]] in [[Miami]] contains the largest concentration of international banks in the U.S.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Brickell Neighborhood Guide | |date= |accessdate=2011-11-04}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Brickell Real Estate – Millionaires Row | |date= |accessdate=2011-11-04}}</ref>]]
[[File:Sugar cane madeira hg.jpg|right|175px|thumb|[[South Florida]]'s climate is ideal for growing [[sugarcane]].]]
The economy is largely driven by tourism and senior citizens who reside in Florida, either permanently or as "[[snowbird (people)|snowbirds]]" during winter months. While the increase in older residents has been considered a economic liability in other states, they are an asset in Florida.<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=The States With The Oldest And Youngest Residents |accessdate= |author=Michael B. Sauter |authorlink= |coauthors=Douglas A. McIntyre |date=2011-05-10 |year= |month= |work= | |pages= |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote= }}</ref> Notable retirement communities in Florida include [[The Villages, Florida|The Villages]] (the Central Florida community notable for its "Free Golf for Life" television advertising, with nearly 100,000 residents) and [[Nalcrest, Florida|Nalcrest]] (operated by the [[National Association of Letter Carriers]] on behalf of its retired members).
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Florida in 2010 was $748 billion.<ref>{{cite web|title=GDP by State|url=|publisher=Greyhill Advisors|accessdate=14 September 2011}}</ref> Its GDP is the [[List of U.S. states by GDP|fourth largest]] economy in the United States.<ref name="Gross Domestic Product by state Table 8:Gross Domestic Product by State in Current Dollars, 2003-2006"/> In 2010, it became the fourth largest exporter of trade goods.<ref>{{Cite news | first=Mark | last=Szakonyi | title=Florida is No. 4 in US exports | url=| newspaper=[[Florida Today]] | location=Melbourne, Florida | page= 14A | date=March 7, 2011 | id= | accessdate=}}</ref><!---soft copy and hard copy are two different articles with essentially the same material---> The major contributors to the state's gross output in 2007 were general services, financial services, trade, transportation and public utilities, manufacturing and construction respectively. In 2010–11, the state budget was $70.5 billion, having reached a high of $73.8 billion in 2006–07.<ref>{{Cite news |url=| first=Paul | last=Flemming | title=Budget battle set to begin | newspaper=[[Florida Today]] | location=Melbourne, Florida | page= 1A | date=March 6, 2011 | accessdate=March 21, 2011}}{{dead link|date=November 2011}}</ref> Chief Executive Magazine name Florida the third "Best State for Business" in 2011.<ref>{{cite web|title=Site Selection Rankings|url=|publisher=Greyhill Advisors|accessdate=18 October 2011}}</ref>
The economy is driven almost entirely by its nineteen metropolitan areas. In 2004, they had a combined total of 95.7% of the state's domestic product.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=The Role of Metro Areas In The US Economy |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2011-11-04}}</ref>
===Personal income===
<!---may be broader than that and need renaming--->
In 2009, [[List of U.S. states by GDP per capita (nominal)|per capita personal income]] was $37,780, ranking 24th in the nation.<ref name="STATE PERSONAL INCOME 2009"/>
The state was one of the few states to not have a state [[minimum wage]] law of its own and was therefore obliged to follow federal minimum wage law. This changed in 2004, when voters passed a constitutional amendment establishing a state minimum wage and (unique among minimum wage laws) mandating that it be adjusted for inflation annually. For 2010, the calculated Florida minimum wage was lower than the federal rate of $7.25, so the federal rate controlled.<ref name="minwage"/>
Florida is one of the [[state income tax|seven states]] that do not impose a personal [[income tax]].
According to a study by [[Experian]], Florida has 4 cities in the top 25 cities in the country with the most credit card debt.<ref name="Top Cities With Credit Card Debt">{{cite news| url= | work=CNN | first=Blake | last=Ellis | title=Cities with the most credit card debt | date=2011-03-04}}</ref>
There were 2.4 million Floridians living in poverty in 2008. 18.4% of children 18 and younger were living in poverty.<ref name="Poverty estimates pain sad picture"/> [[Miami]] is the sixth poorest big city in the United States.<ref>{{cite web|author=Bill Glauber and Ben Poston |url= |title=Milwaukee now fourth poorest city in nation |publisher=JSOnline |date=2010-09-28 |accessdate=2011-11-04}}</ref>
The state also had the second-highest credit card delinquency rate, with 1.45% of cardholders in the state more than 90 days delinquent on one or more credit cards.<ref name=TBFP />
In 2010, over 2.5 million Floridians were on food stamps, up from 1.2 million in 2007. To qualify, Floridians must make less than 133% of the federal poverty level, which would be under $29,000 for a family of four.<ref name="2.5 million on Fla. food stamps"/>
===Real estate===
In the early 20th century, land speculators discovered Florida, and businessmen such as [[Henry Plant]] and [[Henry Flagler]] developed [[railroad]] systems, which led people to move in, drawn by the weather and local economies. From then on, tourism boomed, fueling a cycle of development that overwhelmed a great deal of farmland.
Because of the collective effect on the insurance industry of the hurricane claims of 2004, homeowners insurance has risen 40% to 60% and deductibles have risen.<ref name="ft091231"/>
At the end of the third quarter in 2008, Florida had the highest mortgage delinquency rate in the country, with 7.8% of mortgages delinquent at least 60 days.<ref name="TBFP">{{Cite news|url=|title = State scores well in credit card, mortgage payment delinquency|work=[[The Burlington Free Press]] |date = December 3, 2008 |accessdate=2008-12-03}} {{Dead link|date=April 2010}}</ref><!--note that ref title refers to ANOTHER state---> A 2009 list of national housing markets that were hard hit in the real estate crash included a disproportionate number in Florida.<ref name="America's 25 Weakest Housing Markets"/> The early 21st century building boom left Florida with 300,000 vacant homes in 2009, according to state figures.<ref name="Our views:Playing with fire"/> In 2009, the US Census Bureau estimated that Floridians spent an average 49.1% of personal income on housing-related costs, the third highest percentage in the country.<ref name="Census Bureau: 1 in 3 Virginians Pays Plenty for Housing"/>
In the third quarter of 2009, there were 278,189 delinquent loans, 80,327 foreclosures.<ref name="No to noncourt foreclosures"/> Sales of existing homes for February 2010 was 11,890, up 21% from the same month in 2009. Only two metropolitan areas showed a decrease in homes sold: [[Panama City&nbsp;– Lynn Haven&nbsp;– Panama City Beach, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area|Panama City]] and [[Palm Bay&nbsp;– Melbourne&nbsp;– Titusville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area|Brevard County]]. The average sales price for an existing house was $131,000, 7% decrease from the prior year.<ref name="Brevard home sales down">{{Cite news|first=Wayne T.|last=Price|title=Area home sales down|url=|work =Florida Today|location=Melbourne, Florida|page= 6C|date=March 24, 2010|accessdate=March 27, 2011}}</ref>{{Dubious|Paid article title indicates a discussion of one county only, not entire state|date=March 2011}}
<!--leave one paragraph subtopic alone. Visiting editors can see more readily where to insert material--->
As of February 2011, the state's unemployment rate was 11.5%.<ref>[]; Local Area Unemployment Statistics</ref>
In 2009, there were 89,706 federal workers employed within the state.<ref>{{Cite news | first=Jim | last=Waymer | title=Shutdown spares essential services | url=| work= | newspaper=[[Florida Today]] | location=Melbourne, Florida | pages= 1A | date=April 7, 2011 | id= | accessdate=}}{{dead link|date=November 2011}}</ref>
[[Tourism]] makes up the largest sector of the state economy. Warm weather and hundreds of miles of beaches attract about 60 million visitors to the state every year. Florida was the top destination state in 2011. 42% of all residents in the [[Northeast United States]] planned on visiting Florida over [[spring break]].<ref>{{Cite news | first= | last= | title=Vacation trends | url=| work= | newspaper=[[Florida Today]] | location=Melbourne, Florida | pages= 1E | date=13 March 2011 | id= | accessdate=}}</ref>
[[Amusement park]]s, especially in the [[Orlando, Florida|Orlando]] area, make up a significant portion of tourism. The [[Walt Disney World Resort]] is the largest vacation resort in the world, consisting of four [[theme park]]s and more than 20 hotels in [[Lake Buena Vista, Florida]]; it, and [[Universal Orlando Resort]], [[Busch Gardens]], [[SeaWorld]], and other major parks drive state tourism. Many beach towns are also popular tourist destinations, particularly in the winter months. 23.2 million tourists visited Florida beaches in 2000, spending $21.9 billion.<ref name="Beaches get pumped up"/><!---"box" with actual figure in it is only available in print edition--->
The public has a right to beach access under the [[public trust doctrine]]. However, some areas have access effectively blocked by private owners for a long distance.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Laying out an "unwelcome mat" to public beach access |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2011-11-04}}</ref><!---probably should be merged with above--->
===Agriculture and Fishing===
Historically, Florida's economy was based upon cattle farming and agriculture (especially [[sugarcane]], [[citrus]], [[tomato]]es, and [[strawberry|strawberries]]). <!---this needs merging with the following sentence--->
The second largest industry is [[agriculture]]. [[Citrus]] [[fruit]], especially [[orange (fruit)|oranges]], are a major part of the economy, and Florida produces the majority of citrus fruit grown in the U.S.—in 2006 67% of all citrus, 74% of oranges, 58% of [[tangerine]]s, and 54% of [[grapefruit]]. About 95% of commercial orange production in the state is destined for processing (mostly as [[orange juice]], the official [[state beverage]]).<ref name="Commodity Profile: Citrus"/> [[Citrus canker]] continues to be an issue of concern. Other products include [[sugarcane]], [[strawberry|strawberries]], [[tomato]]es and [[celery]].<ref name="Crop Profile for Celery in Florida"/> The state is the largest producer of [[sweet corn]] and [[green beans]] for the country.<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=Corn, Green Bean Prices Rise After Florida Freezes |accessdate= |author= |authorlink= |coauthors= |date=2011-01-01 |year= |month= |work= |publisher=Calorielab |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote= }}</ref>
The Everglades Agricultural Area is a major center for agriculture. The environmental impact of agriculture—especially [[water pollution]]—is a major issue in Florida today.
In 2009, fishing was a $6 billion industry, employing 60,000 jobs for sports and commercial purposes.<ref name="Locals to protest fish regulation"/><!---not that great a ref. Text can be replaced when a better snippet is available-->
[[Phosphate#Occurrence|Phosphate mining]], concentrated in the [[Bone Valley]], is the state's third-largest industry. The state produces about 75% of the phosphate required by farmers in the United States and 25% of the world supply, with about 95% used for agriculture (90% for [[fertilizer]] and 5% for [[livestock]] feed supplements) and 5% used for other products.<ref name="About Phosphate"/>
Since the arrival of the NASA [[List of Merritt Island launch sites|Merritt Island launch sites]] on Cape Canaveral (most notably Kennedy Space Center) in 1962, Florida has developed a sizable [[aerospace|aerospace industry]].
Another major economic engine in Florida is the [[United States Military]]. There are currently 24 military bases in the state, housing three [[Unified Combatant Command]]s; [[United States Central Command]] in Tampa, [[United States Southern Command]] in [[Doral, Florida|Doral]], and [[United States Special Operations Command]] in Tampa. There are 109,390 U.S. military personnel currently stationed in Florida,<ref>{{Cite news|title=State-by-State Listing of Major U.S. Military Bases&nbsp;— Florida|url=|work=|publisher=|location=|page=|date=|id=|accessdate= July 6, 2009|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref> contributing, directly and indirectly, $52 billion a year to the state's economy.<ref name="Military-friendly bill cruise"/>
{{Main|Education in Florida}}
Florida's public primary and secondary schools are administered by the [[Florida Department of Education]].
===State University System===
The [[State University System of Florida]] was founded in 1905, and is governed by the [[Florida Board of Governors]]. During the 2008 academic year 301,570 students attended one of these member institutions.
<center><gallery perrow=4>
File:Samuel H. Coleman Memorial Library.jpg|[[Florida A&M University]]
File:FAU Alumni Plaza.jpg|[[Florida Atlantic University]]
File:South village.jpg|[[Florida Gulf Coast University]]
File:FIU OE.JPG|[[Florida International University]]
File:FSU_MedSchool_0043_(067).jpg|[[Florida State University]]
File:Palmcourt.jpg|[[New College of Florida]]
File:UCFlibrary.jpg|[[University of Central Florida]]
File:Gville_UF_Century_Tower01.jpg|[[University of Florida]]
File:UNF Student Union pic.jpg|[[University of North Florida]]
File:Sundomecloseup.JPG|[[University of South Florida]]
File:PIMG0125.JPG|[[University of West Florida]]
===Private universities===
Florida's first private university, [[Stetson University]], was founded in 1883. The [[Independent Colleges and Universities of Florida]] is an association of 28 private, educational institutions in the state.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Official website of ICUF | |date= |accessdate=2011-11-04}}</ref> This Association reported that their member institutions served over 121,000 students in the fall of 2006.<ref name="2005-2006 Accountability Report: Quality, Productivity, Diversity, and Access"/>
<td>[[File:University of Miami Otto G. Richter Library.jpg|right|thumb|[[University of Miami]] in [[Coral Gables, Florida|Coral Gables]]]]</td>
<td>[[File:UT minaret.JPG|right|thumb|[[University of Tampa]]]]</td>
<td>[[File:JU campus Gooding.jpg|right|thumb|[[Jacksonville University]]]]</td>
27% of Floridians exclusively own cell phones for communication; no landline. Nationally, figures vary from 13–35%, with the higher percentages an indication of lower income.<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=Arkansas, Mississippi rely on cellphones most |accessdate= |author=Alan Fram |authorlink= |coauthors= |date=2011-04-20 |year= |month= |work= Florida Today |publisher=Florida Today |pages= |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote= }}</ref>
{{Main|Transportation in Florida}}
{{See|State Roads in Florida}}
[[File:National-Atlas-Florida-major-road-map.gif|350px|thumb|Map of Florida with major roads and cities]]
Florida's [[interstate highway|interstates]], [[Florida State Roads|state highways]] and [[U.S. Highways]] are maintained by the [[Florida Department of Transportation]]. Florida's [[interstate highway system]] contains 1,473&nbsp;miles (2,371&nbsp;km) of highway, and there are 9,934&nbsp;miles (15,987&nbsp;km) of non-interstate highway in the state, such as [[Florida state highways]] and [[U.S. Highways]].
In 2011, there were about 9,000 [[filling stations|retail gas stations]] in the state.On an average day, Floridians consume 21 million gallons of [[gasoline]], ranking it third in national use.<ref>behind California and Texas</ref><ref>{{Cite news | first=R. Norman | last=Moody | title=Guidelines tight to drive a fuel tanker | url=| newspaper=[[Florida Today]] | location=Melbourne, Florida | page= 2A | date=January 30, 2011 | accessdate=}}</ref><!---soft copy does NOT contain box scores given here and is only listed for (what?) versimilitude?--->
Motorists have the 45th worst rate of car insurance in the country. 24% are uninsured.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Recession Marked by Bump in Uninsured Motorists |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2011-11-04}}</ref> Drivers between 15 and 19 years of age averaged 364 car crashes a year per ten thousand licensed Florida drivers in 2010. Drivers 70 and older averaged 95 per 10,000 during the same time frame. A spokesperson for the non-profit [[Insurance Institute for Highway Safety|Insurance Institute]] said that "Older drivers are more of a threat to themselves."<ref>{{Cite news | first=Britt | last=Kennerley | title=Olde drivers take fewer risks | url=| newspaper=[[Florida Today]] | location=Melbourne, Florida | page= 11A | date=September 18, 2011 | accessdate=}}{{dead link|date=November 2011}}</ref>
State highways are numbered according to convention. The first digits of state highways<ref>with some exceptions (such as [[Florida State Road 112|State Road 112]] connecting Interstate 95 to the [[Miami International Airport]])</ref> are numbered with the first digit indicating what area of the state the road is in, from 1 in the north and east to 9 in the south and west. Major north-south state roads generally have one- or two-digit odd route numbers that increase from east to west, while major east-west state roads generally have one- or two-digit even route numbers that increase from north to south. Roads of secondary importance usually have three-digit route numbers. The first digit ''x'' of their route number is the same as the first digit of the road with two-digit number ''x''0 to the immediate north. The three-digit route numbers also increase from north to south for even numbers and east to west for odd numbers.
Following this convention, [[Florida State Road 907|State Road 907]], or Alton Rd. on Miami Beach, is farther east than [[Florida State Road 997|State Road 997]], which is Krome Ave, or the farthest west north-south road in Miami-Dade County. One notable exception to the convention is [[Florida State Road 826|State Road 826]], or the Palmetto Expressway (pictured at the right heading north) which, although even numbered, is signed north-south. State roads can have anywhere from one to four digits depending on the importance and location of the road.<ref>[ FHP State Road Listings]{{dead link|date=November 2011}}. Retrieved March 29, 2009. {{Wayback|url=|date =20080822052416}}{{dead link|date=November 2011}}</ref> County roads often follow this same system.
Prior to the construction of routes under the [[Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956]], Florida began construction of a long cross-state [[toll road]], [[Florida's Turnpike]]. The first section, from [[Fort Pierce, Florida|Fort Pierce]] south to the [[Golden Glades Interchange]] was completed in 1957. After a second section north through Orlando to [[Wildwood, Florida|Wildwood]] (near present-day [[The Villages, Florida|The Villages]]), and a [[Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike|southward extension]] around [[Miami]] to [[Homestead, Florida|Homestead]], it was finished in 1974.
Florida's primary interstate routes include:
* [[File:I-4.svg|20px]] [[Interstate 4|I-4]], which bisects the state, connecting [[Tampa, Florida|Tampa]], [[Lakeland, Florida|Lakeland]], [[Orlando, Florida|Orlando]], and [[Daytona Beach, Florida|Daytona Beach]], connecting with [[I-95]] in [[Daytona Beach, Florida|Daytona Beach]] and [[I-75]] in [[Tampa, Florida|Tampa]].
* [[File:I-10.svg|20px]] [[Interstate 10|I-10]], which traverses the panhandle, connecting [[Jacksonville, Florida|Jacksonville]], [[Lake City, Florida|Lake City]], [[Tallahassee, Florida|Tallahassee]] and [[Pensacola, Florida|Pensacola]], with junctions with [[I-95]] in [[Jacksonville, Florida|Jacksonville]] and [[I-75]] in [[Lake City, Florida|Lake City]].
* [[File:I-75.svg|20px]] [[Interstate 75|I-75]], which enters the state near [[Lake City, Florida|Lake City]] (45&nbsp;miles west of [[Jacksonville, Florida|Jacksonville]]) and continues southward through [[Gainesville, Florida|Gainesville]], [[Ocala, Florida|Ocala]], [[Tampa]]'s eastern suburbs, [[Bradenton, Florida|Bradenton]], [[Sarasota, Florida|Sarasota]], [[Fort Myers, Florida|Fort Myers]] and [[Naples, Florida|Naples]], where it crosses the "[[Alligator Alley]]" as a [[toll road]] to [[Fort Lauderdale, Florida|Fort Lauderdale]] before turning southward and terminating in [[Hialeah, Florida|Hialeah]]/[[Miami Lakes]] having junctions with [[I-10]] in [[Lake City, Florida|Lake City]] and [[Interstate 4|I-4]] in [[Tampa]].
* [[File:I-95.svg|20px]] [[Interstate 95 in Florida|I-95]], which enters the state near [[Jacksonville]] and continues along the Atlantic Coast through [[Daytona Beach, Florida|Daytona Beach]] [[Space Coast|Melbourne/Titusville]], [[Palm Bay, Florida|Palm Bay]], [[Vero Beach, Florida|Vero Beach]], [[Fort Pierce, Florida|Fort Pierce]], [[Port Saint Lucie, Florida|Port Saint Lucie]], [[Stuart, Florida|Stuart]], [[West Palm Beach, Florida|West Palm Beach]], and [[Fort Lauderdale]] before terminating in [[Downtown Miami]], with junctions with [[I-10]] in [[Jacksonville]] and [[Interstate 4|I-4]] in [[Daytona Beach]].
[[File:Palmetto Expressway northbound.jpg|thumb|195px|right|Miami's [[Palmetto Expressway]] is one of Florida's busiest roads]]
====Intercity rail====
[[File:Miami International FH020002.jpg|195px|thumb|right|[[Miami International Airport]] is the world's 10th-largest cargo airport]]
Florida is served by [[Amtrak]]: [[Sanford, Florida|Sanford]], in [[Orlando-Kissimmee, Florida, Metropolitan Statistical Area|Greater Orlando]], is the southern terminus of the [[Auto Train (Amtrak)|Amtrak Auto Train]], which originates at [[Lorton, Virginia]], south of [[Washington, D.C.]]. Orlando is also the eastern terminus of the [[Sunset Limited]], which travels across the southern United States via [[New Orleans, Louisiana|New Orleans]], [[Houston, Texas|Houston]], and [[San Antonio, Texas|San Antonio]] to its western terminus of [[Los Angeles, California|Los Angeles]]. Florida is served by two additional Amtrak trains (the [[Silver Star (Amtrak train)|Silver Star]] and the [[Silver Meteor]]), which operate between New York City and [[Miami]].
The [[Florida Department of Transportation]] was preparing to build a [[high speed rail]] between [[Tampa, Florida|Tampa]], [[Lakeland, Florida|Lakeland]] and [[Orlando, Florida|Orlando]].<ref name="Lakeland Brief Mar 2010"/> This is the first phase of the [[Florida High Speed Rail]] system.<ref name="Environmental Studies"/> Soil work began in July 2010<ref name="Bullet Train Work Begins With Soil in I-4 Median"/><ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Work begins on Florida's high speed rail &#124; Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Clearwater, Sarasota | |date= |accessdate=2010-08-02|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref> and construction of the line is slated to begin in 2011, with the initial Tampa-Orlando phase completed by 2014.<ref name="TBO Payment"/> The second phase, would extend the line to Miami. Governor Scott, however, refused federal funds and the project has been canceled.
{{See also|List of airports in Florida}}
Florida's extensive coastline made it a perceived target during World War II, so the government built airstrips throughout the state; today, approximately 400 airports are still in service. According to the [[National Drug Intelligence Center]], Florida has 131 public airports, and more than 700 private airports, airstrips, heliports, and seaplane bases.<ref name="NDIC">{{cite web|url= |title=Florida Drug Threat Assessment-Overview |publisher=National Drug Intelligence Center |accessdate=2007-07-18|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref> Major [[international airports]] in Florida which processed more than 15 million passengers each in 2006 are [[Orlando International Airport]] (34,128,048), [[Miami International Airport]] (32,533,974), [[Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport]] (21,369,577) and [[Tampa International Airport]] (18,867,541). Secondary airports, with annual passenger traffic exceeding 5 million each in 2006, include [[Southwest Florida International Airport]] (Fort Myers) (7,643,217), [[Palm Beach International Airport]] (West Palm Beach) (7,014,237),<ref>2005 figure; 2006 data not available.</ref> and [[Jacksonville International Airport]] (5,946,188). [[Regional Airports]] which processed over one million passengers each in 2006 are [[Pensacola Regional Airport|Pensacola]] (1,620,198) and [[Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport|Sarasota-Bradenton]] (1,423,113). [[Orlando Sanford International Airport|Sanford]], which is primarily served by international charter airlines processed 1,649,565 passengers in 2006.<ref name="2006 North America Airports Traffic Statistics"/>
[[File:AAArena Night.jpg|thumb|right|The [[American Airlines Arena]] in [[Miami]], homecourt of the [[Miami Heat]]]]
[[File:AmwayCenterFirstGame.jpg|thumb|right|The [[Amway Center]] in [[Orlando, Florida|Orlando]], homecourt of the [[Orlando Magic]]]]
[[File:EverBank1.jpg|right|thumb|[[EverBank Field]] in [[Jacksonville, Florida|Jacksonville]], home of the [[Jacksonville Jaguars]]]]
[[File:Dolphinstadiumvikes.jpg|thumb|right|[[Sun Life Stadium]] in [[Miami Gardens]], home of the [[Miami Dolphins]] and the [[Miami Hurricanes]]]]
[[File:Civicers.jpg|thumb|The [[Donald L. Tucker Center]] in [[Tallahassee, Florida|Tallahassee]], home of the [[Florida State Seminoles]]]]
[[File:St Pete Times Forum At Sunset.jpg|thumb|The [[St. Pete Times Forum]] in [[Tampa, Florida|Tampa]], home of the [[Tampa Bay Lightning]] and the [[Tampa Bay Storm]].]]
[[File:TropGround.jpg|thumb|[[Tropicana Field]] in [[St. Petersburg, Florida|St. Petersburg]], home of the [[Tampa Bay Rays]].]]
{{See also|Florida Sports Hall of Fame|List of sports teams in Florida}}
Most [[Major League Baseball]]'s [[spring training]], and nearly 2/3 of all [[MLB]] teams have a spring training presence in the state. Yet Florida did not have a permanent major-league-level professional sports team until the [[American Football League]] added the [[Miami Dolphins]] in 1966. The state now has three [[National Football League|NFL]] teams, two [[MLB]] teams, two [[National Basketball Association|NBA]] teams, and two [[National Hockey League|NHL]] teams.
The state of Florida has given professional sports franchises some subsidies in the form of tax breaks since 1991.<ref>{{Cite news | first=Michael | last=Peltier | title=Lawmaker's bill would fine teams that black out games | url=| work= | newspaper=[[Florida Today]] | location=Melbourne, Florida | pages= 4B | date=November 5, 2011 | id= | accessdate=}}</ref><!---soft copy is NOT the same as hard copy but is similar in content--->
Three of the [[Arena Football League (2010)|Arena Football League]]'s teams are in Florida.
[[Golf]], [[tennis]], and [[auto racing]] are popular.
Minor league [[baseball]], [[American football|football]], [[basketball]], [[ice hockey]], [[football (soccer)|soccer]] and [[indoor American football|indoor football]] teams are based in Florida. Florida's universities have a number of [[National Collegiate Athletic Association|collegiate sport]] teams.
{| class="wikitable"
|[[Miami Dolphins]]
|[[National Football League]]
|[[Sun Life Stadium]] (Miami)
|2 ([[Super Bowl VII|1972]], [[Super Bowl VIII|1973]])
|[[Miami Heat]]
|[[National Basketball Association]]
|[[American Airlines Arena]] (Miami)
|1 ([[NBA Finals 2006|2006]])
|[[Miami Marlins]]
|[[Major League Baseball]]
|[[Marlins Ballpark]] (Miami)
|2 ([[1997 World Series|1997]], [[2003 World Series|2003]])
|[[Florida Panthers]]
|[[National Hockey League]]
|[[BankAtlantic Center]] ([[Sunrise, Florida|Sunrise]])
|[[Tampa Bay Buccaneers]]
|National Football League
|[[Raymond James Stadium]] (Tampa)
|1 ([[Super Bowl XXXVII|2003]])
|[[Tampa Bay Rays]]
|Major League Baseball
|[[Tropicana Field]] (St. Petersburg)
|[[Tampa Bay Lightning]]
|National Hockey League
|[[St. Pete Times Forum]] (Tampa)
|1 ([[2004 Stanley Cup Finals|2004]])
|[[Orlando Magic]]
|National Basketball Association
|[[Amway Center]] (Orlando)
|[[Jacksonville Jaguars]]
|National Football League
|[[EverBank Field]] (Jacksonville)
===Spring training===
{{See|Spring training}}
Florida is the traditional home for [[Major League Baseball]] spring training, with teams informally organized into the "[[Grapefruit League]]". For 2010, Florida will host the following major league teams for spring training:
{| class="wikitable"
|[[Atlanta Braves]]
|[[Disney's Wide World of Sports Complex|Walt Disney World]]
|[[Baltimore Orioles]]
|[[Sarasota, Florida|Sarasota]]
|[[Boston Red Sox]]
|[[Fort Myers, Florida|Fort Myers]]
|[[Detroit Tigers]]
|[[Lakeland, Florida|Lakeland]]
|'''[[Miami Marlins]]'''
|[[Jupiter, Florida|Jupiter]]
|[[Houston Astros]]
|[[Kissimmee, Florida|Kissimmee]]
|[[Minnesota Twins]]
|[[Fort Myers, Florida|Fort Myers]]
|[[New York Mets]]
|[[Port St. Lucie, Florida|Port St. Lucie]]
|[[New York Yankees]]
|[[Tampa, Florida|Tampa]]
|[[Philadelphia Phillies]]
|[[Clearwater, Florida|Clearwater]]
|[[Pittsburgh Pirates]]
|[[Bradenton, Florida|Bradenton]]
|[[St. Louis Cardinals]]
|[[Jupiter, Florida|Jupiter]]
|'''[[Tampa Bay Rays]]'''
|[[Port Charlotte, Florida|Port Charlotte]]
|[[Toronto Blue Jays]]
|[[Dunedin, Florida|Dunedin]]
|[[Washington Nationals]]
|[[Viera, Florida|Viera]]
===Auto-racing tracks===
* [[Daytona International Speedway]]
* [[Homestead-Miami Speedway]]
* [[Sebring International Raceway]]
* [[Streets of St. Petersburg]]
* [[Walt Disney World Speedway]]
==Sister states==
{| class="wikitable" style="margin:1em auto;"
!style=background:navajowhite|Sister jurisdiction
!style=background:navajowhite|Year<ref name="2001PDF"/>
||[[Languedoc-Roussillon]]||{{Flagicon|France}} [[France]]||1989
||[[Taiwan Province]]||{{Flagicon|Taiwan}} [[Taiwan|Taiwan, R.O.C.]]||1992
||[[Wakayama Prefecture]]||{{Flagicon|Japan}} [[Japan]]||1995
||[[Western Cape]]||{{Flagicon|South Africa}} [[South Africa]]||1995
||[[Nueva Esparta]]||{{Flagicon|Venezuela}} [[Venezuela]]||1999
||[[Gyeonggi-do|Kyonggi]]||{{Flagicon|South Korea}} [[South Korea]]||2000
==See also==
{{satop|Geography|North America|Northern America|United States|Florida|Miami|New Spain}}
*[[National Register of Historic Places listings in Florida|List of National Register of Historic Places in Florida]]
*[[List of people from Florida]]
*[[List of places in Florida]]
*[[U.S. state]]
<!--unused ref
<ref name=" MLA">{{cite web|url= |title=Most spoken languages in Florida |publisher=[[Modern Language Association]] |accessdate=2007-12-03|archiveurl = |archivedate = December 1, 2007|deadurl=yes}}</ref>
<ref name="1870census">{{cite web|url= |title=Compendium of the Ninth Census:Population, with race. |publisher=US Census Bureau |page=14 |accessdate=2007-12-03 |format=PDF|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="2001PDF">{{cite web|archiveurl= |archivedate=June 27, 2008 |publisher=State of Florida|url=|format=PDF|title=Florida Sister City/Sister State Directory 2001|year=2001 |accessdate=August 19, 2010}}</ref>
<ref name="2008est">{{cite web|url=|title=Annual Population Estimates 2000 to 2008|publisher=US Census Bureau|accessdate=2008-12-25|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2007-07-31|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="DoE-profile">{{cite web|url= |title=State Energy Profiles: Florida |publisher=US Department of Energy |accessdate=2008-01-27|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="abbott">{{cite web|url= |title=Köppen Climate Classification Map |publisher=John Abbott College, Geosciences Department |accessdate=2007-07-18|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="autogenerated1">{{cite web|url= |title=Most spoken languages in Florida |publisher=[[Modern Language Association]] |accessdate=2008-10-06|archiveurl = |archivedate = December 1, 2007|deadurl=yes}}</ref>
<!--unused ref
<ref name="autogenerated2">{{cite web|url= |title=MLA Language Map Data Center |publisher=[[Modern Language Association]] |accessdate=2008-10-06|archiveurl = |archivedate = December 1, 2007|deadurl=yes}}</ref>
<ref name="census">{{cite web|title=2000 Census |url= |publisher=US Census Bureau |accessdate=2007-07-18 |format=ZIP}}</ref>
<ref name="iht">{{Cite news|url= |title=Gulf of Mexico's depths beckon |author=Mouawad, Jad |date=13 October 2005 |work=[[International Herald-Tribune]] |accessdate=2008-02-02|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="minwage">{{cite web|url= |title=Florida's Minimum Wage |publisher=State of Florida, Agency for Workforce Innovation |date=October 15, 2009 |accessdate=July 16, 2010|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="pnsweather">{{cite web|url= |title=PENSACOLA FAA ARPT, FLORIDA—Climate Summary |publisher=Southeast Regional Climate Center |accessdate=2008-01-26|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="tlhweather">{{cite web|url= |title=TALLAHASSEE WSO AP, FLORIDA—Climate Summary |publisher=Southeast Regional Climate Center |accessdate=2008-01-26|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="tpaweather">{{cite web|url= |title=TAMPA WSCMO ARPT, FLORIDA—Climate Summary |publisher=Southeast Regional Climate Center |accessdate=2008-01-26|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="2.5 million on Fla. food stamps">{{Cite news|first=Josh|last=Hafenbrack|title=2.5 million on Fla. food stamps|url=| work=[[South Florida Sun-Sentinel]]|location=Fort Lauderdale, Florida|date=March 9, 2010| accessdate=July 16, 2010|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="2005-2006 Accountability Report: Quality, Productivity, Diversity, and Access">{{cite web|url= |archiveurl= |archivedate=2007-09-25 |title=2005–2006 Accountability Report: Quality, Productivity, Diversity, and Access |last=Atherton |first=Blair |date = August 2006|accessdate=2007-09-14 |format=PDF}}</ref>
<ref name="2006 North America Airports Traffic Statistics">{{cite web|url= |archiveurl= |archivedate=2007-11-03 |title=2006 North America Airports Traffic Statistics |publisher=[[Airports Council International]] |accessdate=2007-10-18}}</ref>
<ref name="6.0 quake in Gulf shakes Southeast">{{Cite news|url= |title=6.0 quake in Gulf shakes Southeast |publisher=CNN |date=September 11, 2006 |accessdate=2007-12-03|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="About Phosphate">{{cite web|url= |title=About Phosphate |publisher=[[The Mosaic Company]] |accessdate=2007-11-17 |archiveurl = |archivedate = 2007-09-23}}</ref>
<ref name="America's 25 Weakest Housing Markets">{{Cite journal|url= |title=America's 25 Weakest Housing Markets |author=Orr, Deborah |periodical=''[[Forbes]]'' |date=January 7, 2009 |accessdate=2009-01-25|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="Article 2, Section 9, Constitution of the State of Florida">{{cite web | url= | title= Article 2, Section 9, Constitution of the State of Florida | publisher=State of Florida | accessdate=2008-12-08|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="Beaches get pumped up">{{Cite news|first=Jim|last=Waymer|title=Beaches get pumped up|url=| work =Florida Today|location=Melbourne, Florida|page= 13A|date=February 15, 2010|accessdate=}}{{Dead link|date=April 2010}}</ref>
<ref name="Bullet Train Work Begins With Soil in I-4 Median">{{cite web|url= |title=Bullet Train Work Begins With Soil in I-4 Median |work=[[The Ledger]]|location=Lakeland, Florida|date=2010-07-20 |accessdate=2010-08-02}}</ref>
<ref name="Census Bureau: 1 in 3 Virginians Pays Plenty for Housing">{{Cite news|url= |title=Census Bureau: 1 in 3 Virginians Pays Plenty for Housing|work=Arlington Sun Gazette |date=October 15, 2009 |last=McCaffrey |first=Scott |accessdate=October 16, 2009|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="Claude Roy Kirk, Jr.">{{cite web|url= |archiveurl= |archivedate=2007-08-18 |title=Claude Roy Kirk, Jr. |publisher=Office of Cultural and Historic Programs, State of Florida |accessdate=2008-02-26}}</ref>
<ref name="Commodity Profile: Citrus">{{cite web|url= |title=Commodity Profile: Citrus |publisher=Agricultural Issues Center, [[University of California]] |accessdate=2007-11-17|format=PDF|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-02-22|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="County Medicaid tab rises, could get worse">{{Cite news|first=Will|last=Hobson|title=County Medicaid tab rises, could get worse|url=| work=|work=The Miami Herald|page=|date=January 16, 2010|id=|accessdate=|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="Crop Profile for Celery in Florida">{{cite web|url= |title=Crop Profile for Celery in Florida |publisher=NSF Center for Integrated Pest Management, [[North Carolina State University]] |accessdate=2007-11-17|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="De Bow's Review, Vol. XXII Third Series Vol. II">The name Florida, sometimes expanded to cover more of the present-day southeastern U.S., remained the most commonly used Spanish term, however, throughout the entire period. {{Cite book|title=De Bow's Review, Vol. XXII Third Series Vol. II|last= De Bow|first=J.D.B. |authorlink=James Dunwoody Brownson DeBow |year=1857 |location=Washington, D.C. and New Orleans |pages= 303–305}}</ref>
<ref name="E. J. Gurney, 82, Senator Who Backed Nixon">{{Cite news|url= |title=E. J. Gurney, 82, Senator Who Backed Nixon |last=Thomas, Jr |first=Robert McG |date=May 23, 1996 |work=The New York Times |accessdate=2008-02-26}}</ref>
<ref name="Energy Consumption by Source and Total Consumption per Capita, Ranked by State, 2004">{{cite web|url= |title=Energy Consumption by Source and Total Consumption per Capita, Ranked by State, 2004 |publisher=[[US Department of Energy]] |accessdate=2008-01-27 |format=PDF|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-02-22|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="Environmental Studies">{{cite web|url= |title=Environmental Studies | |date=2010-05-20 |accessdate=2010-08-02}}
{{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref>
<ref name="Florida's Geological History">{{cite web|url= |first=Ginger M. |last=Allen |coauthors=Main, Martin B |title=Florida's Geological History |month=May |year=2005 |work=Florida Cooperative Extension Service |publisher=University of Florida |accessdate=2009-01-20|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="Florida1">{{cite web|url= |title=Florida |accessdate= |author= |authorlink= |coauthors= |date=2010-01-02 |year= |month= |work= | |pages= |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote= }}</ref>
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<ref name="Gross Domestic Product by state Table 8:Gross Domestic Product by State in Current Dollars, 2003-2006">{{cite web|url= |title=Gross Domestic Product by state Table 8:Gross Domestic Product by State in Current Dollars, 2003–2006 |publisher=[[Bureau of Economic Analysis]], [[United States Department of Commerce]] |month=July|year=2007 |accessdate=2008-03-02 |format=PDF|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="Historical Census Browser: 1900 US Census">{{cite web |title = Historical Census Browser: 1900 US Census |work = University of Virginia, Geospatial and Statistical Data Center |publisher = [[University of Virginia Library]] |year = 2004 |url = |accessdate = 2008-08-29 }}
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<ref name="Illegals on rise in Southeast">{{Cite news|first=Associated Press|last=|title=Illegals on rise in Southeast|url=| work=Florida Today|location=Melbourne, Florida|page= 6A|date=February 24, 2010|id=|accessdate=}}{{Dead link|date=April 2010}}</ref>
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<ref name="Lakeland Brief Mar 2010">{{cite web|url=|title=FLORIDA HIGH SPEED RAIL UPDATE:Regional Rail Briefing March 24, 2010, Lakeland |accessdate=2010-04-07 |year=2010 |month=March |format=PDF |publisher=Florida Department of Transportation}}
{{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref>
<ref name="Locals to protest fish regulation">{{Cite news|first=Wayne T.|last=Price|title=Locals to protest fish regulation|url=| work=Florida Today|location=Melbourne, Florida|page= 8C|date=February 23, 2010| accessdate=}}
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<ref name="Military-friendly bill cruise">{{Cite news|first=Jim|last=Ash|title=Military-friendly bill cruise|url=| work=Florida Today|location=Melbourne, Florida|page= 9B|date=April 15, 2009|accessdate=}}</ref>
<ref name="More earthquakes than usual? Not really.">{{Cite news|first=Margaret Webb|last=Presler|title=More earthquakes than usual? Not really.|url=| work=KidsPost|work=Washington Post| location=Washington D.C.|page= C10|date=April 14, 2010|id=|accessdate=}}</ref>
<ref name="Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States">From the 1601 publication by the pre-eminent historian of 16th century Spanish exploration in America, [[Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas]], in {{Cite book|title=Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States |last= Stewart|first=George |authorlink=George R. Stewart|year=1945 |publisher= Random House|location=New York |pages= 11–12 |isbn=978-1-59017-273-5}}</ref>
<ref name="New Arizona law puts police in 'tenuous' spot">{{Cite news|first=Peter|last=Slevin|title=New Arizona law puts police in 'tenuous' spot|url=|work=Washington Post|location=Washington, D.C.|page= A4|date=April 30, 2010|id=|accessdate=|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="New laws include auto inspection repeal">{{cite web|url=,6180921&dq=state+auto+inspection+florida+history&hl=en |title=New laws include auto inspection repeal |accessdate= |author= |authorlink= |coauthors= |date=1981-09-27 |year= |month= |work=Ocala Star-Banner |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote= }}</ref>
<ref name="No to noncourt foreclosures">{{Cite news|first=Eric|last=Enrique|title=No to noncourt foreclosures|url=| work=Florida Today|location=Melbourne, Florida|page= 13A|date=February 27, 2010|accessdate=}}
{{dead link|date=November 2010}}</ref>
<ref name="Not all alien invaders are from outer space">{{cite web|url= |title=Not all alien invaders are from outer space |publisher=[[United States Department of Agriculture]] |accessdate=2007-12-03|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="Official: Design rules haven't cost Palm Bay new businesses">{{cite web|url= |title=Official: Design rules haven't cost Palm Bay new businesses |work=Florida Today |date=2009-04-23 |accessdate=2010-08-02|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="Our views:Playing with fire">{{Cite news|url= |title=Our views:Playing with fire| work=[[Florida Today]]|date=March 20, 2009 |accessdate=March 22, 2009}}
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<ref name="Poverty estimates pain sad picture">{{Cite news|first=Paul|last=Flemming|title=Poverty estimates pain sad picture|url=|work=Florida Today|location=Melbourne, Florida|page= 8B|date=November 29, 2009|id=|accessdate=|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="Record number of panthers killed by vehicles in 2009">{{Cite news|url= |title=Record number of panthers killed by vehicles in 2009 |last=Williams Hale |first=Leslie |work=[[Naples News]] |date=29 December 2009 |accessdate=2010-01-01|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="Retired Military Personnel">{{Cite news|first=|last=|title=Retired Military Personnel|url=| work=The Intercom| publisher=Military Officers Association of Cape Canaveral|location=Patrick Air Force Base, Florida|page= 4|date=June 2009|id=|accessdate=}}</ref>
<ref name="Rough week ahead for allergy sufferers">{{Cite news | first=John A. | last=Torres | title=Rough week ahead for allergy sufferers | url=| work=Florida Today | location=Melbourne, Florida | page= 1A | date=March 2, 2010 |accessdate=}}</ref>
<ref name="STATE PERSONAL INCOME 2009">{{cite web|url= |title=STATE PERSONAL INCOME 2009 |publisher=Bureau of Economic Analysis, United States Department of Commerce |date=March 25, 2010 |accessdate=2010-05-06|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="State creates season for hunting pythons">{{Cite news|first=Associated Press|last=|title=State creates season for hunting pythons|url=| work=Florida Today|location=Melbourne, Florida|page= 6B|date=February 23, 2010|id=|accessdate=}}{{Dead link|date=April 2010}}</ref>
<ref name="Study of Disputed Florida Ballots Finds Justices Did Not Cast the Deciding Vote">{{Cite news|url=|title=Study of Disputed Florida Ballots Finds Justices Did Not Cast the Deciding Vote | work=The New York Times | first1=Ford | last1=Fessenden | first2=John M. | last2=Broder | date=2001-11-12}}</ref>
<ref name="TBO Payment">Jackovics, Ted. January 28, 2010, [ "Obama calls high speed rail funding a 'down payment'".]{{dead link|date=November 2011}} [ ''The Tampa Tribune'' (]. Retrieved February 18, 2010.</ref>
<ref name="The New York Times">{{Cite news|title=Florida's Split: Will It Play in the Panhandle?|last=Navarro |first=Mireya |work=[[The New York Times]] |url=|date=1998-09-21|accessdate=2010-05-02}}</ref>
<ref name="The Washington Times">{{cite web|title=As I-4 corridor goes, so goes Florida|last=Lengell |first=Sean |work=[[The Washington Times]] |url=|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="Tide's toxins trouble lungs ashore">{{Cite news|url= |title=Tide's toxins trouble lungs ashore |last=Daley |first=Beth |work=[[Boston Globe]] |date=28 March 2005 |accessdate=2007-12-03|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="Voter Registration by Party Affiliation and County">{{cite web|url= |title=Voter Registration by Party Affiliation and County |month=January|year=2008 |publisher=Florida Department of State |accessdate=2008-02-26|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="Whale habitat could grow">{{Cite news|first=Jim|last=Waymer|title=Whale habitat could grow|url=| work=Florida Today|location=Melbourne, Florida|page= 1A|date=December 28, 2009|id=|accessdate=}}{{Dead link|date=April 2010}}</ref>
<ref name="William C. Cramer, 81, a Leader Of G.O.P. Resurgence in South">{{Cite news|url= |title=William C. Cramer, 81, a Leader Of G.O.P. Resurgence in South |last=Saxon |first=Wolfgang |date=October 27, 2003 |work=The New York Times |accessdate=2008-02-26}}</ref>
<ref name="archives1">{{cite web|url=|title=Florida Certificate of Vote|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="archives2000">{{cite web|url=|title=U. S. Electoral College|archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
<ref name="ft100207">{{Cite news | first=Kaustuv | last=Basu | title=Officials cite safer cars, seat belts | url=| work=Florida Today | location=Melbourne, Florida | page= 1A | date=February 7, 2010 | id= | accessdate=}}</ref>
<ref name="thearda">{{cite web|url=|title=State Membership Reports |accessdate=2010-06-15 |work= |archiveurl = |archivedate = 2010-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
==External links==
{{Sister project links|Florida}}
<!---too long. Needs to be grouped in order for anyone to make sense of and use it--->
* [ State website]
* {{dmoz|Regional/North_America/United_States/Florida}}
* [ Florida State Guide, from the Library of Congress]
* {{Wikitravel}}
* [ Florida Memory Project] Over 300,000 photographs and documents from the State Library & Archives of Florida
* [ Online collection of the Spanish Land Grants.]
* [ Florida stone quarry information on Stone Quarries and Beyond]
* [ USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Florida]
* [ Florida Rivers and Watersheds – Florida DEP]
* [ U.S. Census Bureau]
* [ Economic and farm demographics fact sheet from the USDA]
* [ Energy & Environmental Data For Florida]
* [ List of searchable databases produced by Florida state agencies] hosted by the [ American Library Association Government Documents Roundtable]
* [ ''Heliconius charitonia'', zebra longwing] Florida state butterfly, on the [[University of Florida|UF]] / [[Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences|IFAS]] Featured Creatures Web site
* [ "Scenes in Florida", in ''Picturesque America'', with Illustrations, by Harry Fenn, 1872], on Stone Quarries and Beyond.
==Related information==<!-- see [[wp:NAVHEAD]] -->
{{Geographic location
| Northwest = {{flag|Alabama}}
| North = {{flag|Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia}}
| Northeast =
| West = [[Gulf of Mexico]]
| Centre = '' Florida'': [[Outline of Florida|Outline]] • [[Index of Florida-related articles|Index]]
| East = [[Atlantic Ocean]]
| Southwest =
| South = [[Straits of Florida]]<br>[[Caribbean Sea]]
| Southeast = {{flag|The Bahamas}}
|preceded = [[Michigan]]
|office = [[List of U.S. states by date of statehood]]
|years = Admitted on March 3, 1845 (27th)
|succeeded = [[Texas]]
{{Template group
|title = <span style="font-size:11pt;">Articles Related to Florida</span> <br /> ''The Sunshine State''
|list =
{{Confederate States of America}}
{{Florida cities and mayors of 100,000 population}}
{{United States topics}}
{{Link FA|fr}}
[[be:Штат Фларыда]]
[[br:Florida (SUA)]]
[[nv:Łóodah Hahoodzo]]
[[ko:플로리다 주]]
[[ka:ფლორიდა (შტატი)]]
[[nl:Florida (staat)]]
[[nds-nl:Florida (stoat)]]
[[qu:Florida suyu]]
[[tt:Флорида (штат)]]
[[ug:Florida Shitati]]
[[Category:Florida| ]]
[[Category:Florida| ]]
[[Category:States of the United States]]
[[Category:States of the United States]]

Latest revision as of 06:58, September 15, 2012

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