|Former names||Shibe Park (1909-1953)|
Connie Mack Stadium (1953-1976)
|Location||N 21st St & W Lehigh Ave,|
Philadelphia, PA 19132
|Opened||April 12, 1909|
|Closed||October 1, 1970|
($7.33 million in 2021 dollars)
|Architect||William Steele and Sons|
|Philadelphia Athletics (AL) (1909-1954)|
Philadelphia Phillies (NL) (1938-1970)
Philadelphia Eagles (NFL) (1940, 1942-1957)
Shibe Park, known later as Connie Mack Stadium, was a major league baseball park in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. When it opened April 12, 1909, it became baseball's first steel-and-concrete stadium. In different eras it was home to "The $100,000 Infield", "The Whiz Kids" and "The 1964 Phold". Its two home teams won both the first and last games at the stadium: The Philadelphia Athletics beat the Boston Red Sox 8–1 on opening day 1909, while the Philadelphia Phillies beat the Montreal Expos 2–1 on October 1, 1970, in the park's final contest.
It stood on the block bounded by Lehigh Avenue, 20th Street, Somerset Street and 21st Street. It was thus just five blocks west, corner-to-corner, from Baker Bowl, the home of the Phillies from 1887 to 1938. The stadium hosted eight World Series and two major league baseball All-Star Games, in 1943 and again in 1952, with that game holding the distinction of being the only All-Star contest shortened by rain (in this case, to five innings).
Phillies Hall-of-Fame centerfielder and longtime broadcaster Richie Ashburn remembered Shibe Park: "It looked like a ballpark. It smelled like a ballpark. It had a feeling and a heartbeat, a personality that was all baseball."
- 1 History
- 2 Baseball at the park
- 3 Professional football
- 4 Politicians, pugilists, proselytizers—and soccer
- 5 Through the turnstiles
- 6 Last years
- 7 Contemporary culture
- 8 Gallery: Vacancy, 1973
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
1907: Design and construction
So popular was baseball in the first few years of the 20th century that Philadelphia Athletics president Ben Shibe found his team regularly turning away customers from their cramped Columbia Park ballpark even though it was just a few years old. When as many as 28,000 showed up to fill the 9,500 wooden bleacher seats, Shibe and partner Connie Mack decided the A's needed a new place to play.
He searched for a site for his new park and found one on Lehigh Avenue between 20th and 21st Streets, five blocks west of Baker Bowl, straddling the neighborhoods known as Swampoodle and Goosetown. It was still primitive at the time, an area of "high clay bluffs, rain-washed gullies, quagmires, open fields, even ponds" where chickens pecked and pigs rooted. Although a neat grid of streets was planned for the area, only a few actually existed. Importantly, the area was already served by public transportation: trolleys ran up and down Broad Street and back and forth along Lehigh, and both the Pennsylvania and the Reading railroads had major stations nearby. The area had "underachieved" thus far due to the presence of the city's Hospital for Contagious Diseases — the "smallpox hospital" — a block west on Lehigh, but Shibe's privileged connections in town brought him word that the city would be closing the facility. Minus the hospital, the area's stigma would soon dissipate, but for now, the land was still a bargain.
Shibe quietly assembled title to his square block of land early in 1907, picking up parcels "through a complicated series of acquisitions, preventing price inflation by masking his intentions," even using straw buyers to keep his name out of the dealings. He spent a total of $67,500 on seven land packages totalling 5.75 acres, and in February 1908, he arranged to have two projected streets running through his block dropped from the city plan. He was ready to build.
For the design and its execution, Shibe hired William Steele and Sons, perhaps the foremost architectural and construction firm in town. Their engineering staff had perfected the new technology of steel-reinforced concrete, and they had designed and built the city's first skyscraper, the Witherspoon Building at Walnut and Juniper. The Steele design for the Shibe façade was in the ornate French Renaissance style, including arches, vaultings and Ionic pilasters. The grandstand walls were to be red brick and terra cotta and featured elaborate decorative friezes with baseball motifs, while cartouches framed the Athletics' "A" logo at regular intervals above the entrances. The souvenir program on Opening Day called it "a fetching combination of color." Gabled dormer windows on the upper deck's copper-trimmed green-slate mansard roof looked out over the streets below. Presiding over all were terra cotta busts of Shibe and Mack above the main entrances on Lehigh and 21st.
The signature feature of the exterior design was the octangular tower on the southwest corner. The upper floors would accommodate the A's offices, those of Shibe's sons Jack and Tom, who ran the day-to-day business aspects of the team, and the domed cupola on the very top would house the office of Connie Mack, manager of the team's baseball operations. On the ground floor was an elegant main entrance lobby for fans coming into the park. Bobby Shantz, pitcher for the A's in their last years at Shibe, wrote that the corner tower entrance "looked almost like a church." Shibe was proud of the egalitarianism of the design; he said it was "for the masses as well as the classes."
In April 1908, design in hand, the Shibes and the Steeles broke ground. With the massive resources — and technical mastery — of the Steele firm, construction was speedy, efficient and completed in time to open the 1909 season.
The city was excited about its new ballpark: the Philadelphia Public Ledger called it "a palace for fans, the most beautiful and capacious baseball structure in the world." American League president Ban Johnson pronounced that "Shibe Park is the greatest place of its character in the world." In more recent times, baseball author David M. Jordan wrote that it was "a splendid forerunner of others like it.... Ben Shibe and the Steeles initiated 'the golden age of ballparks'."
The original 1909 configuration was a double-deck grandstand in the southwest corner of the block, with open pavilion seating extending to the foul poles. The outfield was a large rectangle, surrounded by a 12-foot brick wall that bordered the streets. The deepest part of center field was a square corner 515 feet from home plate. It was 378 to the left field foul marker, and 340 to right field. The slight upslope of the land from south to north was reflected in a small "terrace" that ran across left and center field. The only link with the Columbia Park was the transplanted sod, rolled out at the new venue. The 1909 seating capacity certainly was an upgrade from Columbia Park: 11,000 in the double deck and 12,000 in the two pavilions, for a total of 23,000. Overflow crowds were accommodated by roping off the left field area in front of the wall. Some 500 tons of steel went into the construction.
April 1909: "Play ball!"
On Monday, April 12, 1909, the Opening Day proceedings walked a fine line between festival and chaos. More than 30,000 fans showed up and got in; another 15,000 showed up and were turned away. Nervous officials closed the gates hours before game time, turning the outsiders into a "howling mob of thousands" whose pressure forced open one of the gates. Hundreds poured in without paying admission, and an estimated 7,000 SRO spectators saw that first game ringing the outfield up to seven-deep, held back by a rope stretched between the left field seats and the right field bleacher. Another 6,000 more looked in from various rooftops around the block. "It seemed as if all of Philadelphia was there," wrote the Public Ledger. Mayor John E. Reyburn called the new facility a "pride to the city" and threw out the first ball. The game started around 3:00 pm, and the A's did not disappoint: they beat the Red Sox 8–1.
The Athletics and their new stadium were a hit: the A's won pennants — and brought World Series to town — in 1910 and 1911, and by 1913, when they would win another, Shibe initiated the first of the expansions of seating capacity that would continue right on through the 1950s. He called again upon the Steele company and added a new unroofed bleacher section across left field, taking advantage of the site's rectangular, rather than square, shape, and also added roof structures to cover the open pavilions down the first base and third base lines.
After Ben Shibe's death in 1922, sons Tom and Jack represented the Shibe interest in the team and in 1925 they replaced the 1913 open left field bleachers with a double-deck that extended from the foul pole to the center field corner. This construction covered the "terrace" except in the deepest part of center field which still had a slight upslope. They also extended the upper deck out over the pavilions. These expansions resulted in another 10,000 seats. In 1928, the brothers installed a mezzanine that added 750 pricey box seats and the following year they raised the original grandstand roof and installed a press box underneath it, along with 3,500 more seats.
For the 1923 season, Connie Mack had moved home plate back an estimated 21 feet. This was a choice of speed over power, as moving the plate back increased left field and right field dimensions by 15 feet each. Home runs dropped about 50% for the next 3 seasons. The Shibe brothers moved it back out, resulting in field dimensions of 331 feet to right field, 334 to left, and 468 to the square corner in center.
In 1936, A's President Tom Shibe died, and Connie Mack gained control of the team by buying out Tom Shibe's share from his widow. The move made the Mack family the controlling partner in 1937, though various Shibe family members still had "considerable holdings" in the team.
More renovation — and a round of controversy — came after the 1938 season when Mack sought to install light towers for night play. In the wake of the "spite fence" disagreement a few years before (below), the local residents stood against the lighting plan. They objected in general to the light, noise and traffic that night games would bring to the neighborhood, and objected specifically to the danger of home run balls hitting them as they sat on their porches and to the ability of fans in the upper decks to peer into their bedrooms at night. The matter went to court, and Mack hired a young Philadelphia lawyer to plead his case. The presentation of young Richardson Dilworth, future mayor of the city, carried the day: the A's won the case and the light towers went up in time for the 1939 season. The first night game in the AL was at Shibe Park on May 16, 1939: the Indians skinned the A's, 8–3.
In 1941, Mack installed a new, larger scoreboard in deep right-center field, replacing the small board that had been in the same general area, and about the same time an imposing sign went up on the left field fence with the fan-friendly message: "Warning: Persons throwing bottles or other missiles will be arrested and prosecuted." A few years later, he would further add a tunnel between the visitors' clubhouse and their dugout to avoid confrontations with belligerent hometown "wolves."
After the war, the Macks wanted to expand the seating capacity again, in a park that was running out of room to expand into. In 1949, they proposed erecting the ultimate spite fence: a new double-deck seating section in right field that would boost the capacity of Shibe Park to 50,000. The problem was, the home plate-to-right field axis was the shorter dimension of the Shibe block rectangle, and since the new stand could not intrude into the play area, its fascia would have to be in the plane of the existing right field fence while its hindquarters would have to protrude out back, dangling some fifteen feet above the west sidewalk of North 20th Street and forming a covered arcade walkway. The $2.5 million proposal galvanized the 20th Street neighbors against the A's for the third time in fifteen years, and this time the legal team could not overcome the zoning issues.
The Macks did spend $300,000 on renovations in 1949 and managed to shoehorn 2,500 more box seats in; the old lower deck pavilion seating was reconstructed to turn the more distant seats toward the diamond instead of facing the outfield. This resulted in the high corners that were a noticeable feature of the ballpark during its final two decades, the corners being just far enough away from the foul lines to accommodate the bullpens. They also added an "annunciator" on the upper deck beyond third base that flashed the at-bat number; ball-strike-out count; hit-or-error and score.
1935: The "spite fence"
At the park's beginning, homeowners on both Somerset Street and 20th Street had a great view of the proceedings within, thanks to the low outfield fences. While this changed for the people on Somerset in 1913 when Shibe added the left field bleacher section and blocked the view from that direction, it was still a clear shot in from 20th Street over the low, twelve-foot wall in right. The view from the roofs, the bedroom bay windows — even the porch roofs — on 20th was as good as from some of the seats inside the park: Pathé News, Universal Newsreel and Fox Movietone News even set up cameras at 2739 North 20th as part of their World Series coverage.
The numbers involved in this cottage industry were considerable: a rooftop bleacher could hold up to 80 people, with 18 more in the bay window of the front bedroom and more even on the porch roof. Viewers on the block could number up to several thousand for important games. Housewives served up refreshments for sale and children scurried to the hot dog vendors on the street, bought dogs for a nickel, and brought them back to sell for a dime. With so much money on the line, the business got organized and formalized very quickly; homeowners were quickly squeezed for bribes by city amusement tax collectors, and city police collected commissions for collaring and herding fans from the sidewalk into particular homes. By 1929, the extra income from the rooftop bleachers actually caused real estate values to climb on the 2700 block of N. 20th Street.
As long as the A's were winning games and filling the park, the 20th Street entrepreneurs were annoying, but little more, to Mack and the Shibes; it was not until the early 1930s that the A's collective tempers boiled over. Starting in 1932, Mack's sell-off of his Second Dynasty stars, combined with general Great Depression hard times, sent attendance plummeting. 20th Streeters, accustomed to the income but now suffering from the tough economy like everyone else, actually sent reps to the lines — such as they were — at the Shibe box office to offer discount seats and snake some customers away from the ballclub. This was the last straw for Jack Shibe. Even though it would become universally known as "Connie Mack's Spite Fence", the 35-foot raising of the fence, to nearly 50 feet, was actually Shibe's project in the off-season of 1934–35. It not only limited the view from the street, the unattractive corrugated metal structure curtailed much of the goodwill the team had had with its neighbors, goodwill that would never return.
It also frustrated many Philadelphia players, both offensively and defensively. Among them, A's and Phils outfielder Elmer Valo and Phils right fielder Johnny Callison, both leftie batters, complained that the high fence in right cost them many home runs. It dogged them when they played the field, too: its rippling corrugations made caroms absolutely unpredictable, with some balls dropping straight down, others bounding all the way back to second base and some bouncing radically to one side or another, sometimes into the bullpen. It was "one of the hardest" walls to play in the majors.
1938–1954: New tenant, new name, new owner
After several years of trying to escape their shabby wooden 50-year-old Baker Bowl ballpark, the National League Philadelphia Phillies were finally able to slip out of their lease and move the five blocks west on Lehigh to Shibe Park in mid-season 1938. They would be the tenants of the A's and their arrangement with Connie Mack was simple: they would pay ten cents a head "rent" for the fans they drew, and they would hire and pay their own stadium staff on game days. Having two teams play in the park complicated the scheduling enormously, and the impact of the extra Phillies income was blunted by the fact that the crowded schedule virtually precluded any other events throughout the summer, so the new tenant's income actually altered the park's bottom line very little. The Phillies' tenure at Shibe Park began with a split doubleheader against Boston on July 4 that year, but the boost to their morale from their new digs could not have lasted long: they finished last in the league, 24-1/2 games behind the seventh place Dodgers.
21st and Lehigh was a gloomy address indeed in the first years of the Phillies' tenancy. Both the A's and the Phils finished last in their respective leagues in 1938, 1940, 1941, 1942 and 1945. Making things worse was that Phils owner Gerald Nugent was mired in debt to both Mack and the National League, and other NL owners were grumbling about the dismal "gates" that their Philly trips earned them. The league had no choice but to buy the franchise from Nugent; they found a buyer in New York businessman William Cox, who paid off Mack and put money down on future rent. Flamboyant Cox set about abrading fans, NL owners and Commissioner Landis, but the uproar did not last long: he was found to be betting on Phillies games and Landis banned him for life in short order. The NL once again owned its Philadelphia franchise.
Enter R. R. M. Carpenter, Jr. — Bob — a wealthy 28-year-old Delawarean whose mother was a DuPont, whose father was a vice-president at DuPont, who had a partnership with Connie Mack in the Wilmington Blue Rocks minor league team, and whose family agreed to buy the Phillies and install him as president in 1943. The genial young millionaire admitted at his first press conference that he was short on experience, but added, "But I'm not worried. I think we can all have a good time." Carpenter slowly pulled the team out of its "dime store" way of doing business and invested major funds in the farm system, hired marketing consultants and investigated strategies for selling more tickets. He upgraded his staff with professional administrators who modernized operations at the same time he was spending time in Mr. Mack's plush tower office getting guidance from The Grand Old Man of Baseball. The result: an upsurge in attendance, including the city's first million-fan season in 1946, and the 1950 "Whiz Kids" team, who brought the NL pennant to Philadelphia for the first time in 35 years.
But as the Phillies improved the quality of baseball life in Philadelphia, there was a simultaneous decline in the fortunes of the A's — in the team, in the owner, and in the ballpark. Mack had alienated many fans in 1915 and again in 1932 when he sold off his pennant-winning teams for cash, and his clashes with his neighbors over the spite fence, the night games and the 20th Street overhang sparked ill-will between the team and its most important asset: its fan base. The Phillies began to outdraw the A's, whose bottom-feeder status in the American League contributed to the vicious circle of bad teams and empty seats.
There was also a precipitous decline in the boss himself. 1950 marked Mack's fiftieth year in Philadelphia — and his 87th birthday — and for several years prior, it had been plain that he was losing his mental acuity. He blithely predicted the 1950 A's would win the pennant (they finished dead last); he would call for "Baker!" and "Foxx!" — sluggers he had sold off decades before — to step up and pinch-hit. Most ominous of all: the other AL owners complained to the league that their visits to Shibe Park did not yield receipts enough to justify the trip. Mack's sons Roy and Earle gently pushed their father into retirement.
The power vacuum in the wake of "Mr. Baseball's" exit only worsened the problems, however. Roy and Earle Mack, "undistinguished men living in the shadow of their father," were products of Mack's first marriage; their half-brother Connie, Jr. came from his second. As the family factions squared off to battle for control of the A's, Junior and his mother joined forces with remnants of the Shibe family, who still owned 40% of the stock, while Roy and Earle shelved their years of squabbles to present a united front against what they derisively called "the Shibe faction." To raise cash for the coming internecine struggle, Roy and Earle made all the wrong decisions: they remortgaged the ballpark at a time when their cashflow was uncertain, and they jeopardized that flow even more by leasing the park concessions to an outside food service corporation.
In short order, the brothers had acquired huge excess debt and lost their best income sources to repay it. Even though they were successful in buying out Junior, the second Mrs. Mack and the remaining Shibes late in 1950, the business the brothers had gained control of was a doomed enterprise. And the moment they got control of it, they resumed battling each other.
It would take several years for the operation to dip beneath the waves. In the meantime, the Macks tried to capitalize on the remaining vestiges of affection in the city for their father, who turned 90 years old in December 1952. They opened the nostalgic Elephant Room, filled with memorabilia from the old glory days, under the first base grandstand. They renamed the park Connie Mack Stadium for the opening of the 1953 season, hanging a new metal plate over the old SHIBE PARK inscription, which was "still written in stone" beneath. Many old-timers refused to acknowledge the change.
But by 1954, it was clear the Macks would have to sell. Roy had hoped to keep the team, but Earle wanted out, and the numbers were hard to argue with: the A's business plan required attendance of 550,000 to break even and in 1954, they drew just 305,000. An embarrassing "Save the A's" committee formed to help, and it published the daily figure of turnout needed to stay on pace with breakeven, but the attendance remained flat while the published number grew each day and the committee collapsed in the stretch run. Even Mayor Clark hurt the effort: he admitted he was a Phillies fan. The A's finished 1954 sixty games out of first; their final game at Shibe, against the World Champion Yankees, drew only 1,715 fans.
In early August, Chicago businessman Arnold Johnson stepped forward with a complicated $3.375 million plan to buy the Athletics and move them to Kansas City — to a minor league park he already owned, but would sell to the city for upgrading to major league standards. Roy, Earle and Connie Mack, Sr. would get about $1.5 million dollars, plus Johnson would pay off the remaining mortgage and assume the $400,000–$800,000 debt to the concessionaires. Very little of Johnson's own cash would be involved: the deal depended on real estate and the eagerness of the Kansas City town fathers to take on debt to snag a major league franchise.
The fly in the ointment was Connie Mack Stadium. The plan assumed a $1.5 million cash infusion from Bob Carpenter to buy the old ballpark, and he was anything but enthusiastic about it: "We need that ballpark as much as we need a hole in the head," he said. Carpenter recognized that modernizing the place would cost a million dollars, and even at that it would be impossible to enlarge the seating capacity. He also recognized the growing parking problem and the declining affluence of the neighborhhod. He tried to pass on the purchase, reminding Johnson that he had a lease until 1957. Johnson responded by threatening to raise the "rent" from a dime-a-head to twenty cents, and to bill the Phillies for stadium upkeep the A's had always paid for. When Carpenter did not show signs of giving in, Johnson said he would call the entire deal off. Carpenter knew he did not have much choice — there was nowhere else in town to play — so he ponied up the $1.7 million, bought the place himself, and collected rent from the Phillies just as the A's had previously. When he would sell it just seven years later, he got only $600,000 for it, a loss of over a million dollars.
The deal was done and the A's were gone. In early 1955, two trucks backed up to the stadium and packed the artifacts from the Elephant Room for removal to Kansas City. Carpenter graciously encouraged Mr. Mack to continue using his opulent tower office in the stadium that now bore his name, which he did almost daily until his death some thirteen months later.
1955–1970: Carpenter, Phillies and decline
When the stadium opened for the 1955 season, Carpenter's first, advertising billboards first appeared on the walls and roofs of the outfield: Formost dairy, Goldenberg's Peanut Chews, Philco, Cadillac, Alpo, Coca-Cola and Mertz Tours signs became familiar sights to stadiumgoers and to fans watching on television. A new straight-across fence covered the square corner in center field and most of the remaining "terrace", reducing the distance to a still-formidable 447 feet. Distance markers also appeared on the walls for the first time. In addition to the foul poles (334 and 331) and the center field area (447), a 400 marker was posted just to the center field side of the scoreboard, and a 405 marker in the corresponding area of deep left center field. A few years later, wooden fencing covered the rough bricks along the right field wall, and eventually the 331 sign was changed to read 329, although that change had no impact on the actual home run distance.
In 1956, Bob Carpenter replaced the old 1941 scoreboard in right-center field with a new, much larger board, constructed for Connie Mack Stadium. A prominent feature of the new board was the Ballantine Beer advertisement across the top and the Longines clock perched above it. The board's superficial resemblance to the similarly-adorned board in Yankee Stadium gave rise to the urban legend that the board was acquired second-hand from the Yankees. However, the boards differed in many details, and the Yankee Stadium board remained until 1959 when it was replaced, a few years after Connie Mack Stadium's new board had made its appearance.
The big scoreboard extended well above the top of the right field fence, topping out at 75 feet including the clock. The entire board was in play except for the clock that topped the board: Balls that hit the clock were home runs. Dick Allen was the only player to ever hit a home run over the Ballantine Beer sign and scoreboard. The scoreboard was used through the final year at the ballpark. Also in 1956, a new plexiglass barrier replaced the old backstop screen, an experiment also conducted at Cincinnati's Crosley Field around that same time.
After the death of Mr. Mack in February 1956, a Mack Memorial Committee raised funds and commissioned sculptor Harry Rosin to create a statue of "Mr. Baseball". On April 16, 1957, it was unveiled across Lehigh Avenue in Reyburn Park — named after the mayor who threw out the first ball at Shibe back in 1909 — as part of the Opening Day ceremonies for the 1957 season. Commissioner Ford Frick, AL president Will Harridge and Leo Durocher all attended, as did many former A's players; the ceremony was emceed by sportscaster Bill Campbell. Shortly after, Philadelphia City Council removed Reyburn's name from the park and replaced it with Mack's. The statue was later moved to Veterans Stadium in 1971, and ultimately to Citizens Bank Park in 2004.
For the 1960 season, additional box seats in front of the original grandstand reduced the plate-to-screen distance by about 10 feet. With a couple of years of life left in the park, a curving inner fence across center field reduced the distance from 447 to 410. The final seating capacity of the ballpark, as recorded in the 1970 Sporting News Baseball Guide, was 33,608.
Carpenter's prescient reluctance about Connie Mack Stadium proved justified. It was hard to put together a scenario where the park could be profitable. His first thought was to extend the length of his income season, so in 1959 he sought to buy an American Football League franchise; the negotiations failed. The neighborhood continued to decline and the phrase "Watch your car, mister?" became a catch phrase to game attendees. Indeed, the parking problem became the very crux of the issue in the 1950s and 1960s: whereas most people had formerly come to the park on public transportation, after the war, the automobile became the standard mode of transport. There was a 500-car lot, later expanded to 850 cars, across 21st Street, but it was not nearly enough. Carpenter tried to buy the whole block in 1959 for a multi-level garage, but the deal fell through. The team maintained special "Phillies Express" buses to shuttle fans from transportation hubs in Camden and Upper Darby, but the service never really caught on.
Carpenter investigated land tracts first in West Philadelphia, then in the Torresdale area of Philadelphia, Camden, New Jersey, and also in the adjacent city of Cheltenham, Pennsylvania. However, there were problems with every one of those proposed sites. The plan that came closest to fruition was a complicated 1964 package that called for a new stadium with parking for 7,000 cars to be built "on stilts" over the vast railroad yards near 30th Street Station. This plan had considerable backing from city politicians and businessmen, but it too eventually unraveled when federal urban renewal funds did not come through and extended wrangling between Jerry Wolman, current stadium (and Philadelphia Eagles) owner, and everyone else involved brought it down. Eventually the city would build Veterans Stadium in South Philadelphia and the Phillies would leave Connie Mack Stadium.
The final game at Connie Mack Stadium was played on October 1, 1970, with the Phillies defeating the Montreal Expos 2–1 in 10 innings. The occasion was marred by souvenir hunters literally dismantling the stadium even while the game was still in progress. A special post-game ceremony — including a helicopter removal of home plate and delivery of it at The Vet — was cancelled in the mayhem.
Baseball at the park
Over its 62 seasons of operation, Shibe Park was home to some of the best teams of their eras — and to some of the worst: the A's and the Phillies won eight of their leagues' pennants, bringing eight World Series to 21st and Lehigh. The two clubs also finished dead last in their leagues a combined 30 times, the A's 18 times between 1909 and 1954, and the Phillies 12 times between 1938 and 1970. In 1996, Sports Illustrated proclaimed on its cover: "The 1929 Philadelphia A's, not the '27 Yankees, may have been the greatest baseball club ever assembled."
Over their first six seasons in the park, the A's dominated the American League. They won four pennants those six years and were famed for their $100,000 Infield, said to be the greatest infield of all time. Baseball historians since have dubbed the 1910–1914 A's clubs "The First Dynasty"; it was "the sport's first championship dynasty ever." After the 1914 team lost the World Series in four games, Connie Mack sold off his top stars. If there was any doubt the dynasty had ended, A's teams finished last in the AL the next seven years in a row. The fire sale and subsequent cellar seasons earned Mack and the A's tremendous acrimony among Philadelphia fans.
Mack launched a rebuilding program in the mid-1920s, and his effort became "The Second Dynasty", which culminated in back-to-back-to-back AL pennants in 1929, 1930 and 1931. It was an ill-timed hegemony, though: the Wall Street Crash of 1929 triggered the Great Depression, and hard times caused baseball attendance to plummet, winners or no. By October 1932, the second great sell-off, of The Second Dynasty, was underway; by 1935, the stars were gone and the franchise had picked up $545,000 cash for itself. The A's had won the last of their pennants, and goodwill with the fan base was in short supply indeed.
The highs and lows of the A's were matched by those of the Phillies — except for most of the highs. Their 1950 Whiz Kids team did win the franchise's sole NL pennant during their years at the park, and the 1964 Phils came close to doing it again — until the infamous "Phold". The 1961 team managed to set an enduring record, though: their 23-losses-in-a-row mark (from July 29–August 20) has yet to be bested.
In the very first game at Shibe Park, catcher Doc Powers of the Philadelphia Athletics is said by some to have suffered internal injuries after crashing into a wall to catch a foul pop-up. Powers did die two weeks later.
The Athletics participated in seven World Series during their tenure at the stadium: 1910, 1911, 1913, 1914, 1929, 1930 and 1931. The hometown fans got to witness A's Series championship clinches at Shibe Park in 1911, 1929 and 1930.
The 1943 All-Star Game was the first of two that would be held at Shibe Park. The 1943 game was hosted by the Athletics, and the 1952 game by the Phillies. The 1943 game was the second of three wartime All-Star Games that would be played at night. The American Leaguers won the game, 5-3.
The 1951 All-Star Game had originally been awarded to the Phillies. The City of Detroit was celebrating the 250th anniversary of its founding in 1701 and requested to host the year's All-Star Game. The 1951 game was moved to Detroit, and the Phillies then hosted the 1952 Game. The home city was well-represented on the All-Star teams. Phillies pitcher Curt Simmons started the game for the Nationals in front of the home crowd; Phillies shortstop Granny Hamner started and batted eighth; and A's pitcher Bobby Shantz pitched the fifth inning for the Americans and struck out Whitey Lockman, Jackie Robinson and Stan Musial in succession. It had rained all day, starting early in the morning and keeping both teams from pre-game warm ups. Rain delayed the first pitch by twenty minutes and eventually caused the game to be called after the fifth inning. The National Leaguers emerged with a then-rare All-Star victory for the Senior Circuit, 3-2.
In September 1923, the A's had the misfortune of being no-hit twice in just four days, at home in Shibe Park. On the 4th, Yankees hurler Sam Jones was just one walk away from a perfect game when he no-hit the A's; four days later on the 7th, it was Boston's Howard Ehmke who was likewise a lone BB away from perfection.
In Game 4 of the 1929 World Series, the A's, down 8–0 to the Chicago Cubs, scored ten runs in 7th inning to win. It was the highest score in a single inning and the biggest comeback in World Series history.
On September 28, 1941, the last day of the season, Boston Red Sox left fielder Ted Williams went 6-for-8 in the doubleheader at Shibe Park to boost his batting average from .3995 to .406. The day before, Bosox manager Joe Cronin gave Williams the option of sitting out the final two games, because his .3995 average would round up to .400. Williams walked the streets of Philadelphia that night, pondering; he decided the stat would be cheapened if he did sit out, so he played and went 6-for-8. His .406 average for 1941 was the last .400-plus average in the major leagues.
The ballpark was the site of some notable home run feats.
On May 29, 1909, Frank "Home Run" Baker used his 52-ounce bat to hit the first home run in Shibe Park: 340 feet over the right field fence, off Boston's RHP Frank Arellanes, who had previously served him up a grand slam pitch in Boston on April 24. Montreal Expos catcher John Bateman hit the last home run there on September 29, 1970, in the antepenultimate game played at the stadium.
Babe Ruth, who got his first hit as a Yankee at Shibe Park on April 14, 1920, hit a blast to deep left-center on September 9, 1921, that cleared the then-single bleacher stand, went across the street, and hit a tree over 500 feet away. On May 21, 1930, Ruth hit one to right field over the 12-foot wall that landed in Opal Street, the alley behind the second row of houses, again over 500 feet distant and said to be the longest-ever home run hit at Shibe Park. The longest strike ever hit there is said to be Ted Williams's prodigious foul ball blast that cleared the high roof at the right field line, passed over 20th, over Opal, over Garnet, and came down on 19th Street.
On June 3, 1932, Lou Gehrig hit four homers in one game. Showing no favoritism, he hit two to the left field bleachers, two over the right field wall, and had a shot at an unprecedented fifth homer with a deep fly to center, but center fielder Al Simmons snared it on a running catch.
A's muscular slugger Jimmie Foxx was also known for tape-measure blasts, especially during 1932 when he hit 58 home runs and challenged Ruth's season record of 60. Foxx was the all-time home run hitter at Shibe Park, with 195 round-trippers between 1927 and 1945.
On May 24, 1936, New York Yankees second baseman Tony Lazzeri hit two grand slams — one in the second off George Turbeville, one in the fifth off Herman Fink — and a solo shot in the seventh off Woody Upchurch, setting a single game RBI record of 11 (he also hit a 2-RBI triple). The Yanks prevailed, 25–2. Yankee sluggers set the record for home runs hit in a doubleheader when they visited Shibe Park on June 28, 1939. Tommy Henrich, Bill Dickey, George Selkirk and Frankie Crosetti hit one each and Joe Gordon, Babe Dahlgren and Joe Dimaggio all hit three. Total: 13 round-trippers. The Yanks won both ends, 23–2 and 10–0.
On June 2, 1949, the Phillies hit 5 HRs in the 8th inning: Del Ennis, Willie "Puddin' Head" Jones and Schoolboy Rowe each smacked one and Andy Seminick hit two off Cincinnati Reds pitchers Ken Raffensberger, Jess Dobernic and Kent Peterson. Final score: 12–3.
In later years, Dick Allen hit some booming drives over the roof of the double-decked bleachers, in the general direction of the 1921 Ruthian shot. He also cleared the big scoreboard in right-center field. Despite his hitting prowess, Allen was unpopular with the fans, and fellow long-ball hitter Willie Stargell of the Pittsburgh Pirates joked that the reason Allen was booed at home was that he hit his long drives clear out of the stadium: "When he hits a homer, there's no souvenir."
The single most famous home run hit at Shibe Park may be the one that stayed inside the park, in Game 4 of the 1929 World Series vs. the Chicago Cubs. Mule Haas of the A's hit a deep fly to centerfield which Hack Wilson of the Cubs lost in the sun. It landed behind him and rolled toward the center field corner, nearly 470 from home plate. As Wilson tried to chase down the ball, Haas circled the bases. The A's scored a total of 10 runs in that inning, and went on to defeat the Cubs in the Series.
Negro league baseball
Shibe Park hosted its first Negro League games in 1919 when the Hilldale Club and Bacharach Giants played home games at the ballpark. Games between white major league teams and Negro League teams were not uncommon. The Bacharach Giants hosted an exhibition game at Shibe Park against John McGraw's New York Giants on October 6, 1919.
Shibe Park was a neutral site venue for Negro League World Series games. The Cleveland Buckeyes defeated the Homestead Grays, 5 to 0, on September 20, 1945, to win game four and sweep the Series, four games to zero. Cleveland's Frank Carswell defeated Homestead's Ray Brown.
The Negro League Philadelphia Stars played home games at Shibe Park in the 1940s. The team's usual home field, at 44th and Parkside seated approximately 6,000 fans; the Stars were able to draw between 10,000 and 12,000 to Shibe Park. They often played double-headers on Monday nights which was a travel day for the major league clubs.
Former Stars player Gene Benson would later recall the team playing about twenty games per season at Shibe Park. The Stars would dress in the A's locker room. The Stars drew their largest crowd on June 21, 1943 when they beat the Kansas City Monarchs in front of 24,165.
Shibe Park hosted the Frankford Yellow Jackets against the Chicago Bears on December 5, 1925 and the Yellow Jackets against the Bears on December 4, 1926. It also served as the site of two AFL games in 1926, the Philadelphia Quakers against the Los Angeles Wildcats on November 20, 1926 and the Quakers against the New York Yankees on November 27, 1926. The stadium hosted the December 12, 1925, Pottsville Maroons-Notre Dame All-Stars game. The Maroons' NFL franchise was suspended as a result of the team's participation in that contest, costing Pottsville the 1925 NFL championship.
To accommodate football at Shibe Park during the winter, management set up stands in right field, parallel to Twentieth Street. Some twenty feet high, these "east stands" had twenty-two rows of seats. The goalposts stood along the first base line and in left field. The uncovered east stands enlarged capacity of Shibe Park to over thirty-nine thousand, but the Eagles rarely drew more than twenty-five to thirty thousand.
The Eagles played the 1948 NFL Championship game in a blizzard; the home team defeated the Chicago Cardinals 7-0 with the only score by a Steve Van Buren touchdown. The Eagles left Connie Mack Stadium after the 1957 season for Franklin Field. Franklin Field would seat over 60,000 for the Eagles whereas Connie Mack had a capacity of 39,000.
Politicians, pugilists, proselytizers—and soccer
Shibe scion Jack tried a quick whirl as a boxing promoter in the early 'teens, shortly after his father built Shibe Park, and although he did not pursue the career, he did make the acquaintance of the movers and shakers in the Philadelphia boxing world, including Bob Gunnis and Herman "Muggsy" Taylor. Gunnis and Taylor became among the first promoters to book a bout into a major league baseball stadium when they brought Johnny Dundee vs. George Chaney to Shibe Park in July 1917, and although the fight itself was unremarkable, the concept propelled the pair to the forefront of their trade. Over the next forty years, perhaps a hundred boxing cards took place at Shibe, some of them big-time pairings and even championship bouts. Benny Leonard retained his championship against challenger Johnny Kilbane in 1917, and 1928's Benny Bass vs. Harry Blitman was said by sportswriters to be the best featherweight bout in the city's history. In the 1950s, Gil Turner, Ike Williams, Charley Fusari and many other top fighters fought important bouts at Shibe Park. At first, groundskeepers set the ring up over the pitcher's mound, but soon this changed to the area over home plate with the baseball backstops dismantled; spectators sat in the main grandstand for the fight. Even before the installation of the light towers in 1939, staging night boxing was easy because of the vastly smaller area that needed to be lit — portable searchlights did the trick.
In October 1948, the US national soccer team played three international friendlies against the Israel national team. The first game was played at the Polo Grounds and the last at Ebbets Field. In the middle match on October 17, the US beat Israel at Shibe Park, shutting them out 4-0 before 30,000 fans.
The events were not always sports related: the 30-some thousand seats were a good venue for political rallies. In 1940, Republican presidential candidate Wendell Wilkie came to Shibe for a speech and rally. Four years later, the man who beat Wilkie, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made one of his few 1944 public appearances at 21st and Lehigh; he won again. In 1948, third-party Progressive candidate Henry A. Wallace made his acceptance speech there.
Promoters tried jazz concerts in 1959, but the place was deemed "not intimate enough" for jazz. The rodeo came in 1962, but the hooves proved too destructive of the turf. The Ringling Brothers circus set up shop at Shibe in 1955 when they were denied occupancy at all their regular Philadelphia venues, and evangelist Billy Graham had many successful crusades there. But the favorite visitors of all to the stadium management were the Jehovah's Witnesses — "because the Witnesses left the park immaculate."
Through the turnstiles
The Shibe Park turnstiles registered some 47 million clicks over 62 seasons of baseball.
The Phillies were first to break the million mark for a season in 1946 with a team that was a "harbinger of the Whiz Kids." The star-crossed 1964 Phils drew the highest single-season attendance with 1,425,891 in that infamous year; the Athletics' best-attended season was 1948, when they drew 945,076 fans.
The largest single-day baseball crowd came on May 11, 1947, the day that Jackie Robinson made his Philadelphia debut; the Phillies beat the Brooklyn Dodgers in both ends of their doubleheader that day as 41,660 looked on. The Athletics' best single-day turnout was also for a doubleheader, with the Washington Senators, on August 3, 1931, as the Second Dynasty team was closing in on its third AL pennant in a row; they too swept both games before a crowd of 38,800-plus.
In March 1971, Louis Graboyes and S. Solis Tollin agreed in principal to buy the Shibe Park/Connie Mack Stadium property from Jerry Wolman, who had purchased it in 1964 for $757,500 and was no longer able to meet the mortgage on it. The sale, however, was not completed and some sources say that Wolman eventually sold the ballpark to the city of Philadelphia for the token price of 50 cents.
On August 20, 1971, the Connie Mack statue was re-dedicated at Veterans' Stadium. That same day, while an evangelical revival group was setting up its tent, two stepbrothers, aged nine and twelve, sneaked into the park and started a small fire that grew into a five-alarmer, burning through much of the original upper deck, collapsing the roof and leaving twisted steel supports visible from the streets; ironically, the collapse of the overbloated roof restored much of the balanced grandeur of the original design. The park sat that way for the next 4 years, slowly deteriorating and becoming increasingly hazardous. Squatters took up revolving residence, and trash and debris accumulated; small trees took root and the manicured emerald turf became unruly knee-high stalks. In October 1975, Philadelphia Common Pleas Court Judge Ned Hirsh ordered the stadium razed. The corner tower and its domed cupola, Connie Mack's original office, whose design had been compared to a church, was the last segment of the ballpark demolished, on July 13, 1976.
Shibe Park's rooftop bleachers became one of the inspirations for a special seating area in Citizens Bank Park when it opened in 2004. Of their "Rooftop Bleacher Seats", the Phillies announced, "The Phillies are bringing back rooftop bleacher seats, a Shibe Park phenomenon of the 1920s when residents of 20th Street built bleacher seats on top of their roofs. The seats are located on top of the buildings along Ashburn Alley."
In June 2001, Shibe Park was one of ten historic ballparks celebrated on the USPS 34-cent Commemorative issue stamps, "Baseball's Legendary Playing Fields". The stamps were released June 27, 2001. The reverse of the Shibe Park stamp reads, "The first Major League Baseball concrete-and-steel stadium, Philadelphia's Shibe Park featured a 34-foot-high right field wall, as well as a façade with stately columns and a French Renaissance cupola."
In 2009, the Philadelphia Brewing Co. released an ale named "Fleur de Lehigh" which features Shibe Park on the label.
Gallery: Vacancy, 1973
- Suehsdorf, A. D. (1978). The Great American Baseball Scrapbook. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-50253-1. p. 33
- Leventhal, Josh (2006). Take Me Out to the Ballpark. New York: Black Dog and Leventhal Publishers. ISBN 978-1579125134. p. 48. At another, less charitable, time, Ashburn said the difference between Veterans Stadium and Shibe Park was "like the difference between chicken salad and chicken shit." Kuklick, Bruce (1991). To Every Thing A Season: Shibe Park and Urban Philadelphia. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04788-X. p. 182.
- Kuklick, p. 18
- Kuklick, p. 22
- Jordan, David M. (1999). The Athletics of Philadelphia: Connie Mack's White Elephants. Jefferson, North Carolina: MacFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-0620-8. p. 43
- Jordan, p.43
- Kuklick, p. 24
- Karsch, Carl G. (19990). "Five Generations of Builders." Carpenter's Hall website
- Kuklick, p. 28
- Jordan, p. 43 and Kuklick, p. 28.
- Although Ben was president of the club, he was more involved in the Shibe sporting goods operation than in running the team, Kuklick, p. 17
- Kuklick, p. 26
- One of the most daunting aspects of the project was the grading of the rolling land at the site: it took 40 men working with 50 horse teams over two months to remove the 15,000 wagonloads of dirt necessary to flatten the block out. Westcott, p. 105
- Sadly, Steele and Sons patriarch William Steele died shortly before the park's completion. Karsch.
- Philadelphia Public Ledger, April 12, 1909
- Westcott, Rich (1996). Philadelphia's Old Ballparks. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-454-6. p. 109
- Jordan, p. 44
- Kuklick, pp. 26-28
- Westcott, p. 106
- Philadelphia Public Ledger, April 13, 1909
- Sparks, Barry, (2005). Frank "Home Run" Baker: Hall of Famer and World Series Hero. Jefferson, NC: MacFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0786423811. p. 26.
- Tom and Jack Shibe had two siblings who held stock but did not participate in team management. Kuklick, p. 112
- Westcott, p. 112
- Lowry, Philip (2006). Green Cathedrals. Walker & Company. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-8027-1608-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=Afo5vtVTz4wC&lpg=PP1&dq=green%20cathedrals&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Lowry" defined multiple times with different content
- Westcott, p. 114
- The neighbors' reluctance was not unfounded. Author Rich Westcott interviewed 20th Street residents of the time who reported the lights were so bright, even pulling down the windowshades did not make for a dark room. The light was indeed prodigious: there were two 147-foot freestanding light towers and six towers perched on the pavilion roofs, totalling 780 lamps of 1,500 watts each — 1.2 million watts, or two billion candlepower, "enough to light a highway between Philadelphia and Cleveland." Westcott, p. 114
- Westcott, p. 153
- The New York Post, April 12, 1941, cited in Kuklick, p. 217n130
- Kuklick, p. 100
- Westcott, p. 115
- Kuklick, p. 73
- Kuklick, p. 74
- Westcott, p. 113
- Kuklick, p. 75
- Kuklick, p. 76
- Westcott, p. 124
- Kuklick, pp. 75-76
- "Phils Set to Close Deal for Use of Shibe Park". New York Times. 1938-06-26. http://select.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res=FB071EF939581A7A93C4AB178DD85F4C8385F9.
- Kuklick, p. 90
- Kuklick, p. 91
- Kuklick, p. 92
- Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, November 23, 1943
- Kuklick, p. 93
- Kuklick, p. 94
- Kuklick, p. 114
- Kuklick, p. 115
- Kuklick, p. 119
- Kuklick, p. 113
- Kuklick, p. 116
- Much of the brothers' discord made the newspapers. In one famous episode, Earle separated from his wife and moved into a small suite he kept at the ballpark; when Roy heard about it, he had the water shut off in the place so Earle could not bathe or use the toilet. Kuklick, p. 120.
- Kuklick, p. 118
- Kuklick, p. 129
- Kuklick, p. 120
- Kuklick, p. 122
- Retrosheet: 1954 Final Standings
- Retrosheet: Yankees at Athletic 9/19/54 boxscore
- Kuklick, p. 123
- Kuklick, p. 124
- Kuklick, p. 131
- Carpenter bought the park under the banner of The 21st and Lehigh Realty Company, Kuklick p. 138
- Kuklick, p. 138
- Kuklick, p. 139
- Kuklick, p. 126
- Westcott, p. 122
- Westcott, p. 116
- Lowry, p. 178
- Kuklick writes: "There is no confirmation to the story that the scoreboard was the old Yankee Stadium one." Kuklick, p. 217n130; see also Berkun, Todd (2011). A Tale of Two Scoreboards at Long Island & NYC Places That Are No More, June 10, 2011, on the urban legend of the Yankee Stadium sign.
- Joe Sixpack (2009-10-28). "Joe Sixpack: Phillies have Yanks to thank for Ballantine sign". Philadelphia Daily News. http://www.philly.com/philly/entertainment/66793932.html.
- Ballparks.com: Shibe Park/Connie Mack Stadium
- Warrington, Bob. "Connie Mack Statue." Philadelphia Athletics Historical Society
- The Sporting News, March 1, 1969
- Kuklick, p. 134
- Kuklick, p. 133
- Kuklick, pp. 136-139
- Kuklick, p. 141
- Kuklick, pp. 141-143
- See Philadelphia Evening Bulletin photograph of ransacking in progress, courtesy of Temple University Libraries. http://digital.library.temple.edu/u?/p15037coll3,282 Accessed 12/22/09
- Retrosheet: Athletics season stats and Phillies seasons stats
- Nack, William (1996). "The Team That Time Forgot." Sports Illustrated, August 19, 1996, front cover.
- James, Bill (2001). The New Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-80697-5. pp. 548–550
- Kashatus, William T. (2002). The Philadelphia Athletics. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7385-1133-1. p. 23
- Retrosheet: 1914 World Series
- Retrosheet: Athletics season stats
- Kuklick, pp. 50-51
- Kuklick, p. 52
- Kuklick, p. 62
- Retrosheet: Phillies season stats
- Retrosheet: Phillies 1961 game log
- Sources vary widely about Powers's death. Leventhal (p. 49), Jordan and others say he was injured during the game, while Kuklick and others say he completed the game, was stricken with an infection afterward, and died after two weeks in the hospital. Jeff Merron suggests he died on the field. Retrosheet.org and others show him going 1-for-4, which suggests he completed the game. Retrosheet: Doc Powers's page
- Westcott, p. 136
- Retrosheet: 1950 World Series games
- Retrosheet: 1943 All-Star Game
- Vincent, David; Lyle Spatz, David W. Smith (2001). The Midsummer Classic: The Complete History of Baseball's All-Star Game. University of Nebraska Press. p. 111. ISBN 0-803292-732. http://books.google.com/books?id=6IqPLQE4HekC&pg=PA111&dq=%22National+League+Park%22+philadelphia&lr=&client=firefox-a.
- "1952 All-Star Game". Baseball-Almanac.com. http://www.baseball-almanac.com/asgbox/yr1952as.shtml. Retrieved 2009-06-03.
- Westcott, p. 152
- Leventhal, p. 49
- Retrosheet:1929 World Series Game 4 boxscore
- Westcott, p. 147
- Westcott, p. 148
- Westcott, p. 102
- Sparks, p. 28
- Retrosheet: Phils vs. Expos 9/29/70 boxscore
- Wagenheim, Kal (2001). Babe Ruth: His Life and Legend. Olmstead Press. ISBN 978-1587541148. p. 225. This colossal blast was the second of three homers Ruth would hit that day.
- Kuklick, p. 109
- Retrosheet: Yanks vs. A's 6/3/32 boxscore
- Retrosheet: Jimmie Foxx 1932 batting splits
- Foxx hit 182 regular-season home runs at Shibe Park as an Athletic, 9 as a visitor with the Red Sox, three in his one-year hitch with the Phillies, plus his HR in Game 4 of the 1931 World Series. Retrosheet: Jimmie Foxx
- Leventhal, p. 49, and Retrosheet: A's vs. Yanks 5/24/36 boxscore
- Leventhal, p. 49, and Retrosheet: A's vs. Yanks 6/28/39 boxscore
- Leventhal p. 49, and Retrosheet: Phils vs. Reds 6/2/49 boxscore
- Baseball Digest, January 1975
- Retrosheet: 1929 World Series Game 4
- Miller, Patrick B.; David Kenneth Wiggins (2004). Sport and the Color Line: Black Athletes and Race Relations in Twentieth-century America. Routledge. p. 72. ISBN 0-415946-115. http://books.google.com/books?id=Z8n0PJets0wC&pg=PA72&dq=%22Columbia+Park%22+%22Philadelphia+Giants%22&client=firefox-a. Retrieved 2009-05-22.
- Cook, William A. (2001). The 1919 World Series: what really happened?. McFarland. p. 58. ISBN 0-786410-698. http://books.google.com/books?id=GJCe4HDcW-kC&pg=PA58&dq=%22shibe+park%22+Negro+League&lr=&client=firefox-a#PPA58,M1. Retrieved 2009-05-27.
- "1945 Negro World Series". BR Bullpen. http://www.baseball-reference.com/bullpen/1945_Negro_World_Series. Retrieved 2009-05-26.
- Westcott, p. 186
- "Philadelphia Stars Win". Philadelphia Stars Win. 1943-06-22. pp. 23, 55. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10C1FF839581B7B93C0AB178DD85F478485F9.
- "Philadelphia's Pro Football Stadiums". http://home.comcast.net/~ghostsofthegridiron/stadiums.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-22.
- Kuklick, p. 86
- Didinger, Ray; Robert S. Lyons (2005). The Eagles Encyclopedia. Temple University Press. ISBN 1-592134-491.
- Kuklick, p. 83
- Kuklick, p. 89
- Kuklick, p. 84
- Kuklick, p. 85
- "The Year in American Soccer - 1948". sover.net. Dave Litterer. http://www.sover.net/~spectrum/year/1948.html. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
- Kuklick, p. 82
- Kuklick, p.210n82
- Westcott, p. 101
- Westcott, p. 120
- Westcott, p. 119
- The A's figure of 146,223 was for 74 home dates, meaning the average attendance that season was under 2,000 fans per game. Retrosheet: A's home/away performance 1909-1954
- "62-Year-Old Shibe Park Is Sold For $1,000,000". Gettysburg Times: p. 9. 1971-03-13. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=uoUlAAAAIBAJ&sjid=1vIFAAAAIBAJ&pg=5103,4353002&dq=shibe+park&hl=en.
- Kuklick, p. 185
- The 50-cent sale to the city is stated by several sources yet disputed by Kuklick. Although Wolman was in default on the mortgage and there were many liens against the property — the most recent being the $100,000-plus demolition tab from Geppert Brothers — Wolman maintained technical ownership until he sold the block to the Deliverance Evangelistic Church in 1981. Kuklick, pp. 185–189
- Kuklick, p. 183
- "Fire Razes Connie Mack Stadium". Palm Beach Post-Times: p. B5. 1971-08-21. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=UKM1AAAAIBAJ&sjid=KbcFAAAAIBAJ&pg=2456,1944000&dq=shibe+park&hl=en.
- Kuklick, p. 184
- "End Is Near at Stadium". Spokane Daily Chronicle: p. 18. 1975-10-25. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=8qYSAAAAIBAJ&sjid=z_gDAAAAIBAJ&pg=6127,2697207&dq=shibe+park&hl=en.
- Kuklick, p. 225n186b
- "Deliverance Evangelical Church". http://www.decministry.org. Retrieved 2010-07-08.
- Michael D. Schaffer (1991-02-17). "Looking Up Church Rises In Famed Stadium's Place". Philadelphia Inquirer. http://articles.philly.com/1991-02-17/news/25775029_1_church-site-construction-site-new-church. Retrieved 2011-08-01.
- "Not your typical ballpark: Family-fun features that make Citizens Bank Park world-class". MLB.com. http://philadelphia.phillies.mlb.com/phi/ballpark/not_your_typical_ballpark.jsp. Retrieved 2009-05-26.
- "Baseball's Legendary Playing Fields Return To Glory On New Postage Stamps". United States Postal Service. 2001-06-05. http://www.usps.com/news/2001/philatelic/sr01_045.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-26.
- "Select Brews". Philadelphia Brewing Co.. http://www.philadelphiabrewing.com/pig.html. Retrieved 2009-05-26.[dead link]
- Jordan, David M. (1999). The Athletics of Philadelphia: Connie Mack's White Elephants. Jefferson, North Carolina: MacFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-0620-8.
- Kuklick, Bruce (1991). To Every Thing A Season: Shibe Park and Urban Philadelphia. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04788-X. (1991 winner of CASEY Award for baseball book of the year)
- Leventhal, Josh (2006). Take Me Out to the Ballpark. New York: Black Dog and Leventhal Publishers. ISBN 978-1579125134.
- Lowry, Philip (2006). Green Cathedrals. New York: Walker & Company. ISBN 978-0-8027-1608-8.
- Ritter, Lawrence (1992). Lost Ballparks. New York: The Penguin Group. ISBN 0-670-83811-X.
- Sparks, Barry, (2005). Frank "Home Run" Baker: Hall of Famer and World Series Hero. Jefferson, NC: MacFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0786423811.
- Westcott, Rich (1996). Philadelphia's Old Ballparks. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-454-6.
- Berkun, Todd (2011). A Tale of Two Scoreboards at Long Island & NYC Places That Are No More, June 10, 2011, on the urban legend of the Yankee Stadium sign.
- Connie Mack Stadium at Ballparks.com
- "The Team That Time Forgot" article in Sports Illustrated, August 19, 1996, about the 1929 A's
- Shibe Park site in North Philadelphia via Google Maps
- Stadium diagram (Clem's Baseball)
- The Philadelphia A's Historical Society.org
- Berkun, Todd (2011). A Tale of Two Scoreboards on the urban legend of the Yankee Stadium sign
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