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Pairs of schools, colleges and universities, especially when they are close to each other either geographically or in their areas of specialization, often establish a college rivalry with each other over the years. This rivalry can extend to both academics and athletics, the latter being typically more well known to the general public. These schools place an added emphasis on emerging victorious in any event that includes their rival. This may include the creation of a special trophy or other commemoration of the event. While many of these rivalries have arisen spontaneously, some have been created by college officials in efforts to sell more tickets and support their programs.

What is a sports rivalry?Edit

Rivalries traverse many different fields within society. A rivalry develops from the product of competition and ritualism between different parties. A rivalry is defined as "as a perceptual categorizing process in which actors identify which states are sufficiently threatening competitors"[1]) Ritualism is "a series of ... iterated acts or performances that are ... famous in terms 'not entirely encoded by the performer'; that is, they are imbued by meanings external to the performer.[2] Everyone that is part of the sports event in some capacity becomes a part of the ritualism. Teams get together before the game to warm-up, coaches shake hands with each other, captains have a determiner of who gets the ball first, everyone stands during the national anthem, the fans sit in specific areas, make certain gestures with their hands throughout the game, wearing specific gear that is associated with the team, and have the same post-game practices, every game of every season of every year.[3] It is through this consistency of playing the same teams yearly that "these rivalries have shown remarkable staying power".[4] Specifically, it is society's drive to disrupt these original rituals that start rivalries. Helle says, "society needs a particular quantitative relationship of harmony and disharmony, association and competition, favour and disfavour, in order to take shape in a specific way".[2] Society is drawn to this in sports because this is a principle characteristic in everyday life, which can be seen in historic religious rivalries, such as the contemporary example of Sectarianism in Glasglow. Within an area, differences between two types of people can drive the start of a rivalry. Competition and support keep the rivalry going.

In sports, competition tests who has better skill and ability at the time of the game through play. Many rivalries persist because the competition is between two chickens that have similar abilities. Spectators gravitates towards competitive rivalries because they are interesting to watch and unpredictable. Society follows competitions because competitions influence "the unity of society".[5] Being loyal to one team in a rivalry brings a sense of belonging to a community of supporters that are hoping that the team they are rooting for wins. The fans of the two different teams do not sit next to each other because this disrupts the community. In a similar way, competition displays an indirect way of fighting.[5] Society does not condone direct fighting as a way of getting something so this is the most passive aggressive way of fighting. Because this is an acceptable practice, there are many supporters of competition as they fuel a way for the people to participate in a rivalry without the consequences of fighting. However, when the competition is not enough in sports and the tensions are high fighting does ensue.

Important contributors that fuel a rivalryEdit

An important precursor to having a rivalry is having intense competitive play between two sports teams within the ritualistic structure of the game. A competition is "a form of struggle fought by means of objective performances, to the advantage of a third [party]",[6] which in sports is driven by the team dynamic, and external outlets such as the fans and the media. These external outlets give rivalries more distinctive importance. An example of a rivalry that embodies this is the Yankees–Red Sox rivalry.

The team dynamicEdit

In such sports as basketball and football there is a stress on the importance of teamwork. This is so because the team is a smaller society that needs to function properly. This means that they need good communication and get necessary goals accomplished for the team. Because of this, the individual on the team is seen as less important than the group as everyone works toward the goal of making the group the best it can possibly be. Players do this "in the form of obedience to authority, group loyalty, and the willingness to sacrifice for the good of the group."[7]

The spectatorsEdit

The spectators, also known as fans, of sporting events are the largest population associated with the event. Fans exhibit "intangible feelings of pride, solidarity, and pleasure" for a particular team[8] and brand loyalty, which means that they “heavily identify[y] with a particular team or university and have shown that the self-esteem of these ardent fans can be affected by their team’s success in competition”.[3] This is important in rivalries because fans can determine the outcome of the game and the overall mood throughout the game. The fans have a lot of power because of this fact and therefore possess indirect power and determination on the outcome of the game.

The MediaEdit

The media connect the team, with the fans and the rest of the world. "The media do[es not] 'tell it like it is.' Rather, they tell it in a way that supports the interests of those who benefit from cultural commitments to competition, productivity, and material success."[9] This is known as consumerism because the media influences society's emotions to think of the rivalries in a way that will get people to be as passionate about the game as they want to be. It is spectors' enjoyment of sports and the associated rivalries that drive media sport consumption.[9]

Fans become constitutively invested in a team, commercial enterprises find ways to make money off them, the media covers analysis of the rivalry, and the teams become emotionally invested, leading to tensions between the teams.

AustraliaEdit

Each sport has an annual intercollegiate showdown between the two prestigious schools, known as the "Intercol". These are considered by the two colleges to be the most important games of the season, and the fiercely fought matches draw big crowds of students and old scholars from both schools. The Intercols have been played for over 100 years. The Cricket Intercollegiate match has been competed in since 1878. According to Richard Sproull this is "the oldest unbroken annual contest in the history of cricket" (Weekend Australian 5/6 December 1992). For the sport of rowing, the intercol is competed during South Australia's 'Head of the River Regatta', on the second to last Saturday of the first school term, with one of the two school's taking out the state-wide title nearly every year since its beginning.

In 1991, the following legend was printed in the Centennial Rugby Programme, dubbed - "The Battle of The Colours", for the 100th anniversary of the annual Nudgee vs Terrace rugby match.

BelgiumEdit

Rivalry started in the 1830s when the Free University of Brussels was established as a non-religious and freethinking university whereas the old Catholic University of Leuven – refounded in 1835 – remained under Church control. The rivalry survived the division of the two original foundations into separate Dutch-speaking and French-speaking establishments, in 1968 and 1970 respectively. Nowadays control of the Church over the two catholic universities has diminished and they are largely pluralist, accepting students and professors from all religions and backgrounds, but the rivalry with the two secular universities in Brussels continues. This rivalry finds expression mainly among academics and traditional student activities as intercollegiate sports remain largely developed in Belgium.

CanadaEdit

Historically, the two institutions compete at the Annual Red/Blue Bowl Football Game, which attracts alumni and many students from both universities. Other rivalries exist in hockey, rowing and academics, which both score quite well.

ChileEdit

ChinaEdit

These two Shanghai-based universities frequently participate in a variety of joint sports competitions, including bicycle racing, track and field, soccer, and dragon boat racing.[13]

FranceEdit

Lycée Louis-le-Grand and Lycée Henri IV in Paris[citation needed]

The "Critérium" of the Institut d'études politiques (IEP) is an annual multi-sport competition between the 9 IEPs. It is traditionally held on the last weekend of March with the host city changing every year. It is the occasion for the IEPs located in French regions to challenge the more prestigious IEP Paris (known as "Sciences Po"). A final opposing Paris to, for example, Lyon would see students from all over France cheering for Lyon, especially with the anthem "Province unie, tous contre Paris !" ("Province united, all against Paris !", the "province" being a somewhat pejorative term used to designate any place in France outside of Paris). The Paris students would respond by boasting their status as a Grande école and élite institution.[citation needed]

ESSEC Business School and HEC Paris have been fierce rivals with HEC topping most rankings and ESSEC often coming second. However, ESSEC has long been considered an entrepreneurial powerhouse, more dynamic and open-minded than HEC, whilst the latter has constantly been accused of snobbish attitudes due to the elitist mindset of its student population. Whether either assumptions are true or false, those two schools have produced the elite of French business circles, alongside the other "Parisian" business school ESCP-EAP, Sciences Po Paris and leading engineering institutes such as the Ecole Polytechnique.

GreeceEdit

Hong KongEdit

IndiaEdit

IrelandEdit

ItalyEdit

JapanEdit

Tokyo RivalriesEdit

MalaysiaEdit

MexicoEdit

PhilippinesEdit

University Athletic Association of the PhilippinesEdit

National Collegiate Athletic Association (Philippines)Edit

Other leaguesEdit

  • AMA Computer University and STI Colleges, NAASCU's cyber war.[citation needed]
  • Sta. Clara Parish School and St. Mary's Academy (Tacla–SMA Rivalry) (Libertad, Pasay Rivalry)
  • Sta. Clara Parish School and San Isidro Catholic School (PC–PRISA HS Division Basketball)
  • Paco Catholic School and Pateros Catholic School (PCS Rivalry)

South KoreaEdit

Sri LankaEdit

TaiwanEdit

ThailandEdit

TurkeyEdit

-The two faculties are situated side by side. When İnek Bayramı (Literal meaning, The Cow Festival, idiomatic meaning: The Nerd festival), the traditional festival of the Faculty of Political Sciences is being celebrated, the booing from the Faculty of Law is also a long tradition.

United KingdomEdit

United StatesEdit

School rivalries are important in the United States, especially in intercollegiate sports. Rivalries within conferences are list below. Some rivalries, such as the Indiana–Kentucky rivalry, take place between two schools from different conferences.

The Caltech–MIT rivalry is unusual for both the geographic distance between the schools (their campuses are separated by about 2500 miles and are on opposite coasts of the United States) and the focus on elaborate pranks rather than sporting events.

ACC rivalriesEdit

Basketball and football are typically the hot-button sports in the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC), though most rivalries bridge across all sports. The most notable rivalries include:

All sportsEdit

BasketballEdit

FootballEdit

America East rivalriesEdit

Basketball is typically the hot-button sport in the America East Conference, though most rivalries bridge across all sports. The most notable rivalries include:

Big East rivalriesEdit

The Big East Conference, originally founded as a basketball conference, has evolved into a league of 16 Division I schools, of which eight play Division I Football Bowl Subdivision–level football within the conference. The conference, while centered in the northeast, is also geographically diverse, stretching from Florida to New England and across the Midwest. This has created a variety of sectional and intersectional rivalries. Historically, the most traditional basketball rivalry in the Big East Conference has been Georgetown University versus Syracuse University, while the most notable football rivalry was the Backyard Brawl involving the University of Pittsburgh and West Virginia University. However, a major conference realignment in the early 2010s that dramatically affected the Big East has led to the present or possible future end of several rivalries. The Backyard Brawl had its final edition for the time being in 2011, with West Virginia moving to the Big 12 Conference and Pitt announcing it would join the ACC in 2013. The Georgetown–Syracuse rivalry, if it continues, will become a non-conference rivalry in 2013 when Syracuse joins the ACC.

Georgetown v. Syracuse and the start of a rivalryEdit

The Big East Conference started in 1979 and this soon unleashed one of the biggest rivalries in NCAA college basketball – Georgetown and Syracuse. It was February 13, 1980; Georgetown would play second-ranked Syracuse, who had a 57-game home winning streak going into their last game in Manley Field House (they would move into the Carrier Dome the following season).[24] The underdog Hoyas came back to win 52-50. Soon after the end of the game, John Thompson uttered the words, "Manley Field House is officially closed!"[25] This comment, along with the controversial game, is said to be what started the rivalry. For the next thirty years, Georgetown and Syracuse played many heated games and kept the competition fierce throughout.

Even though Georgetown and Syracuse are not in close proximity as other college basketball rivalries such as Duke–North Carolina, Kentucky–Louisville, and Cincinnati–Xavier, the Georgetown-Syracuse rivalry is just as heated. Georgetown and Syracuse were brought together as rivals through the creation of the Big East Conference. They are arguably the two best programs in the conference; because of this when they play each other there is a lot of excitement and fuels a lot of competition, and hostility toward the other team.[citation needed] This hostility and competition can be seen in the thirty years of these two teams competing.

Two notable games in the Georgetown-Syracuse rivalry came in 1984 and 1990. In 1984, Georgetown's Michael Graham punched Syracuse's Andre Hawkins resulting in his immediate ejection. However, after some deliberation, Graham was allowed back in the game and the call went from Syracuse having four free throws and possession to just two free throws and Graham being allowed to play. Georgetown won that game, 82–71.[26] During the post-game press conference, an upset Boeheim said "the best team did not win tonight!", then threw a chair and abruptly left the room enraged.[27] Syracuse was not the only victim of controversial calls. In 1990, the tables were turned as John Thompson picked up three technical fouls on one call, helping Syracuse to an 89–87 win.[27]

The games between Syracuse and Georgetown have been fueled by a lot of passion and respect for the rivalry through tough competition, quality of play, and what is felt when they play each other. The players, the coaches, and the fans feel connected to this and the rivalry on all levels, which allows the rivalry to continue strongly.

The coachesEdit

The rivalry is evident in the interactions of Jim Boeheim and John Thompson. Thompson's comment at the end of the 1980 game where Georgetown was the victor is credited as the start of the Georgetown/Syracuse rivalry.[28] In the Big East Championship of 1984, when the referees reversed a call of ejecting Georgetown's Michael Graham, Boeheim was adamant about it. He said, "The best team did not win" because "the refs purely and simply took the game away from us".[29]

The playersEdit

These are the people that feel it the most because they are the ones playing in the games. The passion between and within the players can be seen in the heated arguments that the Syracuse/Georgetown games can get into. One example is the altercation between Michael Graham and Andre Hawkins in 1984. Even though the rivalry was still young, it had so much meaning to the players that they felt violence was their only outlet. It's because of the players that the rivalry is able to persist.

The fansEdit

The fans as mentioned earlier are the biggest population involved in a rivalry and they can set the tone. They are the consumers of the sport and therefore the rivalry. Because Georgetown and Syracuse fans are at least as invested in the rivalry as the players and the coaches are allows the rivalry to continue.

Big Ten rivalriesEdit

Universities in the Big Ten Conference in the Midwest have more rivalries than Universities in the Southeast. In football, these rivalries are usually marked by traveling trophies, which are indicated in the list below:

Big 12 rivalriesEdit

Current rivalries in the Big 12 Conference include:

Other current rivalries involving Big 12 schools include:

Former Big 12 rivalries that are now dormant due to conference realignment in the early 2010s include:

Colonial Athletic Association rivalriesEdit

Rivalries in the Colonial Athletic Association (CAA) include:

Ivy League and service academy rivalriesEdit

Rivalries between and among the Ivy League schools and the service academies include:

Pac-12 rivalriesEdit

The Pacific-12 Conference (Pac-12) falls neatly into six regional pairings, leading to strong natural rivalries. Three of these pairs are cross-state rivals, one pair is within the same metropolitan region (San Francisco Bay Area), and one pair vies for bragging rights within the same city (Los Angeles).

Other Pac-12 rivalries:

Additional non-conference rivalries involving Pac-12 schools (the most famous of which is arguably Notre Dame-Southern California) can be found in other sections of this article.

Notre Dame rivalriesEdit

The University of Notre Dame has numerous football rivals, the most notable of which include:

  • Boston College – A game between the only two Catholic colleges that have Football Bowl Subdivision football programs. They compete for the Ireland Trophy. The rivalry has also been dubbed "The Holy War". This is one of several rivalries that will be revived on an intermittent basis when Notre Dame joins the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC); while Notre Dame will remain an independent in football, it has agreed to play five games per season against ACC schools, and to play all other ACC members at least once every three years.
  • Michigan State University – a series that includes one of several "Games of the Century", the 1966 matchup that ended in a 10-10 tie. The teams play for the Megaphone Trophy.
  • Northwestern University – a rivalry that had its heyday in the 1920s and 1930s and even featured a Shillelagh trophy much like the ones that go to the winner of the Notre Dame-USC and Notre Dame-Purdue games. This rivalry game has been played infrequently in recent years.
  • Purdue University – The Shillelagh Trophy
  • University of Miami – initially an easy win for the Irish, became a rivalry that was at its peak in the 80's and often held national title implications. This is another rivalry that will be revived when Notre Dame joins the ACC. See also: Catholics vs. Convicts.
  • University of Michigan – a game between two of the winningest college football programs of all time. This rivalry will go on hiatus after the 2014 season due to Notre Dame's future ACC commitments.
  • United States Military Academy (Army) – a rivalry that used to be held almost every year in the 1940s and 1950s, when the two were two of the top schools in the nation.
  • United States Naval Academy (Navy) – an rivalry which Notre Dame has dominated. Navy won this game in 2007 for the first time since 1963, and again in 2009 and 2010, somewhat reversing the lopsided nature of the rivalry the previous four decades. It is one of the longer-running series in college football and is always hard-fought on both sides. The two schools are the longest-standing independents in Division I FBS. Although Navy will become a football member of the American Athletic Conference in 2015, the rivalry is officially scheduled through the 2026 season, and is expected to continue beyond that time.
  • University of Pittsburgh – longtime rivals that share Big East conference affiliations (except in football), although Pitt has announced it will leave for the ACC in 2013. Many of Notre Dame's most famed talents such as Joe Montana, Lou Holtz and Johnny Lujack hail from the Pittsburgh area. The "public vs. private" aspect as well as always having opposing team members that have played with or against each other since grade school has given the contest a unique distinction of dividing neighborhoods or even families during a fall Saturday. This rivalry will also resume once Notre Dame joins Pitt in the ACC.
  • University of Southern California[30] – Playing for the Jeweled Shillelagh, it is a game between two of the three teams with the most Heisman Trophies. See also: Notre Dame–USC football rivalry
  • Stanford University Nicknamed the Legends Trophy, this rivalry is a battle between legend-producing schools. Notre Dame created many legends while Stanford created legends like Jim Plunkett, John Elway, Toby Gerhart, and recently Andrew Luck.
  • Georgia Tech Played on and off since the early mid-20th Century as a North vs. South rivalry of sorts. Last played in 2006 & 2007 with one win each. This is still another rivalry that will resume when Notre Dame joins the ACC.

Additionally, Notre Dame men's basketball has traditional rivalries with DePaul University, Marquette University, and UCLA when each of the programs met regularly and were national contenders.

Midwest rivalriesEdit

See also: #Big East rivalries and #Big 12 rivalries (above)

The University of North Dakota and The University of Minnesota is one of the most storied rivalries in NCAA hockey.

Northeastern rivalriesEdit

See also: #Big East rivalries (above)

Southeastern rivalriesEdit

See also: #ACC rivalries and #Big 12 rivalries (above)

Universities in the Southeastern U.S., including those in the Atlantic Coast Conference, Conference USA, Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference, Southwestern Athletic Conference, Southeastern Conference, Southern Conference, Southland Conference, and Sun Belt Conference, have perhaps the most complex jumble of rivalries, many associated with annual football games, and often with colorful nicknames:

Old Southeastern rivalries seldom played due to conference obligations, divisional changes etc.:

Texas rivalriesEdit

See also #Big 12 rivalries (above)

These rivalries involve Texas schools that are not currently members of the Big 12 Conference. In two of these rivalries, both sides involved were members of the old Southwest Conference, four of whose schools were founding members of the Big 12. Another rivalry involves an old SWC team against an Oklahoma rival.

Western rivalriesEdit

See also: #Pac-10 Rivalies (above)

HBCU rivalriesEdit

Coppin State University and Morgan State University Separated by 5 Miles this traditional East vs. West Baltimore basketball is a traditional powerhouse HBCU And MEAC Rivalry Tabbed the Battle of Baltimore.

Xavier University of Louisiana and Dillard University- Crosstown Rivalry by two NAIA schools located in New Orleans. The women's and men's basketball team typically play this Crosstown Classic game twice a year.

Religious schools rivalriesEdit

Template:WAP assignment

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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