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{{Redirect|William Clinton}}
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{{Infobox president
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|name = Bill Clinton
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|image = Bill Clinton.jpg
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|order = [[List of Presidents of the United States|42nd]]
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|office = President of the United States
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|vicepresident = [[Al Gore]]
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|term_start = January 20, 1993
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|term_end = January 20, 2001
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|predecessor = [[George H. W. Bush]]
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|successor = [[George W. Bush]]
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|order1 = 40th and 42nd
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|office1 = Governor of Arkansas
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|lieutenant1 = [[Winston Bryant]]<br />[[Jim Guy Tucker|Jim Tucker]]
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|term_start1 = January 11, 1983
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|term_end1 = December 12, 1992
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|predecessor1 = [[Frank D. White|Frank White]]
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|successor1 = [[Jim Guy Tucker|Jim Tucker]]
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|lieutenant2 = [[Joe Purcell]]
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|term_start2 = January 9, 1979
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|term_end2 = January 19, 1981
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|predecessor2 = [[Joe Purcell]] <small>([[Acting (law)|Acting]])</small>
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|successor2 = [[Frank D. White|Frank White]]
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|order3 = 50th
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|office3 = Attorney General of Arkansas
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|governor3 = [[David Pryor]]<br />[[Joe Purcell]] <small>([[Acting (law)|Acting]])</small>
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|term_start3 = January 3, 1977
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|term_end3 = January 9, 1979
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|predecessor3 = [[Jim Guy Tucker|Jim Tucker]]
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|successor3 = Steve Clark
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|birth_name=William Jefferson Blythe III
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|birth_date = {{birth date and age|mf=yes|1946|8|19}}
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|birth_place = [[Hope, Arkansas]], U.S.
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|death_date =
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|death_place =
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|party = [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic Party]]
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|spouse = [[Hillary Rodham Clinton|Hillary Rodham]] <small>(1975–present)</small>
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|children = 1; [[Chelsea Clinton|Chelsea]]
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|alma_mater = [[Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service|Georgetown University]] (B.S.)<br />[[University College, Oxford]]<br />[[Yale Law School|Yale University]] (J.D.)
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|religion = [[Baptists|Baptist]]
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|signature = Signature of Bill Clinton.svg
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|signature_alt = Cursive signature of Bill Clinton in ink
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|website = [http://www.clintonlibrary.gov/ Clinton Presidential Library]
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}}
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'''William Jefferson''' "'''Bill'''" '''Clinton''' (born '''William Jefferson Blythe III'''; August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd [[President of the United States]] from 1993 to 2001. Inaugurated at age 46, he was the third-youngest president. He took office at the end of the [[Cold War]], and was the first president of the [[baby boomer]] generation. Clinton has been described as a [[New Democrats|New Democrat]]. Many of his policies have been attributed to a [[centrism|centrist]] [[Third Way]] philosophy of governance. Before becoming president he was the [[Governor of Arkansas]] serving two non-consecutive tenures from 1979 to 1981 and from 1983 to 1992.
   
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Born and raised in Arkansas, Clinton became both a student leader and a skilled musician. He is an alumnus of [[Georgetown University]], where he was a member of [[Phi Beta Kappa]] and [[Kappa Kappa Psi]] and earned a [[Rhodes Scholarship]] to attend the [[University of Oxford]]. He is married to [[Hillary Rodham Clinton]], who served as [[United States Secretary of State]] from 2009 to 2013 and who was a Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009. Both Clintons received [[Juris Doctor|law degrees]] from [[Yale Law School]], where they met and began dating. As Governor of Arkansas, Clinton overhauled the state's education system, and served as Chair of the [[National Governors Association]].
   
'''Take me to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Clinton {{pagename}}] article on Wikipedia'''.
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Clinton was elected president in 1992, defeating incumbent president [[George H. W. Bush]]. As president, Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history. He signed into law the [[North American Free Trade Agreement]]. He implemented [[Don't ask, don't tell]], a controversial intermediate step to full gay military integration. After the failed [[Clinton health care plan]] attempt, the [[Republican Party of the United States|Republican Party]] won control of the [[United States Congress|Congress]] in 1994 for the first time in 40 years. Two years later, the re-elected Clinton became the first member of the Democratic Party since [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] to win a second full term as president. He successfully passed [[welfare reform]] and the [[State Children's Health Insurance Program]], providing health coverage for millions of children. Later, he was impeached for [[perjury]] and [[obstruction of justice]] in a scandal involving a White House intern, but was acquitted by the [[U.S. Senate]] and served his complete term of office. The [[Congressional Budget Office]] reported a budget surplus between the years 1998 and 2000, the last three years of Clinton's presidency.
   
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Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office [[approval rating]] of any U.S. president since World War II. Since then, he has been involved in public speaking and humanitarian work. Based on his philanthropic worldview, Clinton created the [[Clinton Foundation|William J. Clinton Foundation]] to promote and address international causes such as prevention of [[AIDS]] and [[global warming]]. In 2004, he released his autobiography ''[[My Life (Bill Clinton autobiography)|My Life]]''. He has remained active in politics by campaigning for Democratic candidates, most notably for [[Hillary Clinton presidential campaign, 2008|his wife's campaign for the 2008 Democratic presidential nomination]], and then [[Barack Obama]]'s presidential campaigns in 2008 and 2012. In 2009, he was named United Nations [[Special Envoy of the Secretary-General|Special Envoy]] to [[Haiti]], and after the [[2010 Haiti earthquake]] he teamed with [[George W. Bush]] to form the [[Clinton Bush Haiti Fund]]. Since leaving office, Clinton has been rated highly in [[Historical rankings of United States Presidents|public opinion polls of U.S. presidents]].
   
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==Early life and career==
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[[File:William Jefferson Blythe 1950.jpg|thumb|upright|right|William Jefferson Blythe III, in 1950 at age four]]
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Clinton was born '''William Jefferson Blythe, III''' on August 19, 1946, at Julia Chester Hospital in [[Hope, Arkansas]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://homepage.eircom.net/%257Eseanjmurphy/dir/pres.htm |title=Directory of Irish Genealogy: American Presidents with Irish Ancestors |publisher=Homepage.eircom.net |date=March 23, 2004 |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref><ref name="My Life" /> His father, [[William Jefferson Blythe, Jr.]], was a traveling salesman who died in an automobile accident three months before Bill was born.<ref name="whitehouse.gov bio">{{cite web|title=Biography of William J. Clinton |publisher=[[The White House]] |url=http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamjclinton/ |accessdate=August 30, 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110722104326/http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamjclinton/| archivedate= July 22, 2011 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref> His mother, [[Virginia Clinton Kelley|Virginia Dell Cassidy]] (1923–1994), traveled to New Orleans to study nursing soon after he was born. She left Bill in Hope with grandparents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small [[grocery store]].<ref name="My Life" /> At a time when the Southern United States was [[Racial segregation in the United States|segregated racially]], Bill's grandparents sold goods on [[credit (finance)|credit]] to people of all races.<ref name="My Life" /> In 1950, Bill's mother returned from nursing school and married [[Roger Clinton, Sr.]], who owned an [[Car dealership|automobile dealership]] in [[Hot Springs, Arkansas]] with his brother.<ref name="My Life">{{Cite book|last=Clinton |first=Bill |title=My Life |publisher=[[Random House]] |year=2004 |isbn=1-4000-3003-X}}</ref> The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950.
   
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[[File:Bill Clinton Boyhood Home in Hope, Arkansas IMG 1515.JPG|thumb|Bill Clinton boyhood home in [[Hope, Arkansas]]]]
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Although he assumed use of his stepfather's surname, it was not until Billy (as he was known then) turned fifteen<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.oprah.com/omagazine/Oprah-Interviews-President-Bill-Clinton/3 |title=Oprah Talks to Bill Clinton |work=[[O, The Oprah Magazine]] |date=August 2004 |accessdate=December 18, 2011}}</ref> that he formally adopted the surname Clinton as a gesture toward his stepfather.<ref name="My Life" /> Clinton says he remembers his stepfather as a [[gambler]] and an alcoholic who regularly [[domestic violence|abused]] his mother and half-brother, [[Roger Clinton, Jr.]], to the point where he intervened multiple times with the threat of violence to protect them.<ref name="My Life" /><ref name="First In His Class">{{Cite book|last=Maraniss |first=David |title=First In His Class: A Biography Of Bill Clinton |publisher=Touchstone |year=1996 |isbn= 0-684-81890-6}}</ref>
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In Hot Springs, Bill attended St. John's Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, and [[Hot Springs High School (Arkansas)|Hot Springs High School]]&nbsp;– where he was an active student leader, avid reader, and musician.<ref name="My Life" /> He was in the chorus and played the [[tenor saxophone]], winning first chair in the state band's saxophone section. He briefly considered dedicating his life to music, but as he noted in his autobiography ''[[My Life (Bill Clinton autobiography)|My Life]]'':
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{{quote|"Sometime in my sixteenth year, I decided I wanted to be in public life as an elected official. I loved music and thought I could be very good, but I knew I would never be [[John Coltrane]] or [[Stan Getz]]. I was interested in medicine and thought I could be a fine doctor, but I knew I would never be [[Michael E. DeBakey|Michael DeBakey]]. But I knew I could be great in public service."<ref name="My Life" />}}
   
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Clinton has named two influential moments in his life that contributed to his decision to become a public figure, both occurring in 1963. One was his visit as a [[Boys Nation]] senator to the [[White House]] to meet President [[John F. Kennedy]].<ref name="My Life" /><ref name="First In His Class" /> The other was listening to [[Martin Luther King, Jr.]]'s 1963 ''[[I Have a Dream]]'' speech, which impressed him enough that he later memorized it.<ref>{{cite web|title=It All Began in a Place Called Hope (Archived whitehouse.gov Article) |publisher=[[The White House]] |url=http://clinton4.nara.gov/WH/EOP/OP/html/Hope.html |accessdate=August 30, 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110719152125/http://clinton4.nara.gov/WH/EOP/OP/html/Hope.html| archivedate= July 19, 2011 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
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==College and law school years==
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[[File:Clinton at Georgetown 1967.jpg|right|upright|thumb|Clinton ran for President of the Student Council while attending the School of Foreign Service at [[Georgetown University]].]]
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With the aid of scholarships, Clinton attended the [[Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service]] at [[Georgetown University]] in Washington, D.C., receiving a Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service (B.S.) degree in 1968. He spent the summer of 1967, the summer before his senior year, [[intern]]ing for Arkansas [[United States Senate|Senator]] [[J. William Fulbright]].<ref name="My Life" /> While in college, he became a brother of [[Alpha Phi Omega]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.apo.org/leadershipdevelopment|title=About Leadership|accessdate=2013-04-07|publisher=APO.org}}</ref> and was elected to [[Phi Beta Kappa]]. Clinton was also a member of the Order of [[DeMolay International|DeMolay]],<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.demolay.org/aboutdemolay/halloffame_bio.php?hofid=18 |title=Bill Clinton Inducted May 1, 1988 |publisher=DeMolay |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref> a youth group affiliated with Freemasonry, but he never became a [[Freemasonry|Freemason]]. He is a member of [[Kappa Kappa Psi]] honorary band fraternity.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.kkpsi.org/prominentmembers.asp |title=Prominent Members |publisher=Kappa Kappa Psi |accessdate=August 30, 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110716182330/http://www.kkpsi.org/prominentmembers.asp| archivedate= July 16, 2011 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
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Upon graduation, he won a [[Rhodes Scholarship]] to [[University College, Oxford]] where he studied [[Philosophy, Politics and Economics]], though because he had switched programs and had left early for Yale University, he did not receive a degree there.<ref name="First In His Class" /><ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/1994/06/09/world/oxford-journal-whereas-he-is-an-old-boy-if-a-young-chief-honor-him.html |title=Oxford Journal; Whereas, He Is an Old Boy, If a Young Chief, Honor Him|last=Dowd|first=Maureen|work=The New York Times |accessdate=July 17, 2009 | date=June 9, 1994}}</ref> He developed an interest in [[rugby union]], playing at Oxford<ref>{{cite book|title=Rugby Union for Dummies |author=Cain, Nick & Growden, Greg |chapter=21: Ten Peculiar Facts about Rugby |page=297 |edition=2 |publisher=John Wiley and Sons|location= [[Chichester]], England |isbn= 978-0-470-03537-5}}</ref> and later for the Little Rock Rugby club in Arkansas. While at Oxford he also participated in [[Opposition to the Vietnam War|Vietnam War protests]] and organized an October 1969 [[Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam]] event.<ref name="My Life" />
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Clinton's political opponents charge that to avoid being [[Conscription|drafted]] into the [[Vietnam War]] during his college years, he used the political influence of a U.S. Senator, who employed him as an [[Congressional staff|aide]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/clinton/etc/draftletter.html |title=Bill Clinton's Draft Letter |work=[[Frontline (U.S. TV series)|Frontline]] | publisher=PBS |date=November 23, 1991 |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref> Col. Eugene Holmes, an Army officer who was involved in Clinton's case, issued a [[notarize]]d statement during the 1992 presidential campaign: "I was informed by the draft board that it was of interest to Senator Fullbright's office that Bill Clinton, a Rhodes Scholar, should be admitted to the [[ROTC]] program&nbsp;... I believe that he purposely deceived me, using the possibility of joining the ROTC as a ploy to work with the draft board to delay his induction and get a new draft classification."<ref name="Morris1999">{{cite book|last=Morris|first=Roger|title=Partners in Power: The Clintons and Their America|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Vq96BQV5lF4C&pg=PA100|accessdate=August 17, 2011|date=April 25, 1999|publisher=Regnery Publishing|isbn=978-0-89526-302-5|page=100}}</ref> Although legal, Clinton's actions were criticized by conservatives and some Vietnam veterans during his presidential campaign in 1992.<ref>{{cite web|last=Frammolino | first=Ralph | url =http://articles.latimes.com/1992-04-06/news/mn-447_1_draft-board | title = ROTC Officer Unaware of Draft Notice : Clinton: The man whose action kept the future governor in school says he was not told of 1969 induction letter. Draft board insists none was sent | accessdate = January 6, 2013 }}</ref>
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After Oxford, Clinton attended [[Yale Law School]] and earned a [[Juris Doctor]] (J.D.) degree in 1973.<ref name="First In His Class" /> In a Yale library in 1971 he met fellow law student [[Hillary Rodham Clinton|Hillary Rodham]], who was a year ahead of him.<ref name="HRCBio">{{cite web |url=http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/first-ladies/hillaryclinton |title=Hillary Rodham Clinton |publisher=The White House |accessdate=August 26, 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110724141126/http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/first-ladies/hillaryclinton| archivedate= July 24, 2011 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref> They began dating and soon were inseparable. After only about a month, Clinton postponed his plans to be a coordinator for the [[George McGovern presidential campaign, 1972|George McGovern campaign]] for the [[United States presidential election, 1972|1972 United States presidential election]] in order to move in with her in California.<ref>{{Cite news |url=http://www.nysun.com/national/clintons-berkeley-summer-of-love/66982/ |title=The Clintons' Berkeley Summer of Love |author=Gerstein, Josh |work=The New York Sun |date=November 26, 2007 |accessdate=May 9, 2009}}</ref> They later married on October 11, 1975, and their only child, [[Chelsea Clinton|Chelsea]], was born on February 27, 1980.<ref name="HRCBio" />
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Clinton did eventually move to Texas with Rodham to take a job leading [[George McGovern]]'s effort there in 1972. He spent considerable time in [[Dallas]], at the campaign's local headquarters on Lemmon Avenue, where he had an office. There, Clinton worked with future two-term mayor of Dallas, [[Ron Kirk]], future governor of Texas, [[Ann Richards]], and then unknown television director (and future filmmaker) [[Steven Spielberg]].
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==Political career 1978–1992==
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{{Further|Electoral history of Bill Clinton}}
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===Governor of Arkansas===
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{{Further|Arkansas gubernatorial election, 1978|Arkansas gubernatorial election, 1980|Arkansas gubernatorial election, 1982}}
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After graduating from Yale Law School, Clinton returned to Arkansas and became a law professor at the [[University of Arkansas]]. A year later, he ran for the [[United States House of Representatives|House of Representatives]] in 1974. The incumbent, Republican [[John Paul Hammerschmidt]], defeated Clinton in the general election by a 52&nbsp;percent to 48&nbsp;percent margin. With only minor opposition in the primary and no opposition at all in the general election,<ref name=AllPolitics1>{{cite news |url=http://cgi.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1996/candidates/democrat/clinton/political.career.shtml |publisher=CNN |title=Bill Clinton Political Career |year=1997 |accessdate=August 30, 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110719145720/http://cgi.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1996/candidates/democrat/clinton/political.career.shtml| archivedate= July 19, 2011 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref> Clinton was elected [[Arkansas Attorney General]] in 1976.<ref name="First In His Class" />
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[[File:Bill Clinton 1978.jpg|thumb|left|Clinton, as the newly elected [[Governor of Arkansas]], meeting with President [[Jimmy Carter]] in 1978]]
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Clinton was elected [[Governor of Arkansas]] in 1978, having defeated the Republican candidate [[Lynn Lowe]], a farmer from [[Texarkana, Arkansas|Texarkana]]. He became the youngest governor in the country at 32. Due to his youthful appearance, Clinton was often called the "Boy Governor", a referent that continues to be used to refer to him during his gubernatorial era on occasion.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/12/opinion/12wed4.html |title=Bill and Hillary Clinton's Pitch in Iowa: 'I Love the '90s' |newspaper=The New York Times |author=Adam Cohen |date=December 12, 2007 |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Boy Clinton: The Political Biography |author=R. Emmett Tyrrell, Jr. |publisher=Eagle Publishing |url=http://books.google.com/?id=rLSJ5oJG3fcC&pg=PA236&lpg=PA236&dq=Clinton+%22Boy+Governor%22#v=onepage&q=Clinton%20%22Boy%20Governor%22&f=false |isbn=978-0-89526-439-8 |year=1996}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.nytimes.com/1992/11/27/us/little-rock-hopes-clinton-presidency-will-put-its-dogpatch-image-to-rest.html |title=Little Rock Hopes Clinton Presidency Will Put Its Dogpatch Image to Rest |author=Michael Kelly |newspaper=The New York Times |date=November 27, 1992 |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref> He worked on educational reform and Arkansas's roads, with wife Hillary leading a successful committee on urban health care reform. However, his term included an unpopular motor vehicle tax and citizens' anger over the escape of [[Cuba]]n refugees (from the [[Mariel boatlift]]) detained in [[Fort Chaffee]] in 1980. [[Monroe Schwarzlose]] of [[Kingsland, Arkansas|Kingsland]] in [[Cleveland County, Arkansas|Cleveland County]], polled 31&nbsp;percent of the vote against Clinton in the Democratic gubernatorial primary of 1980. Some suggested Schwarzlose's unexpected voter turnout foreshadowed Clinton's defeat in the general election that year by [[United States Republican Party|Republican]] challenger [[Frank D. White]]. As Clinton once joked, he was the youngest ex-governor in the nation's history.<ref name="First In His Class" />
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Clinton joined friend [[Bruce Lindsey]]'s Little Rock law firm of Wright, Lindsey and Jennings.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bill Clinton Timeline |author=Jonathan W. Nicholsen |url=http://www.timeline-help.com/bill-clinton-timeline.html |publisher=Timeline Help |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref> In 1982, he was again elected governor and kept this job for ten years.<ref name=AllPolitics1 /> He helped Arkansas transform its economy and significantly improve the state's educational system. He became a leading figure among the [[New Democrats]].<ref name= 'The Natural'>{{Cite book|last=Klein |first=Joe |title=The Natural: The Misunderstood Presidency of Bill Clinton |publisher=Doubleday |year=2002 |isbn=0-7679-1412-0}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.dlc.org/ndol_ci.cfm?kaid=127&subid=173&contentid=252794 |title=Bill Clinton, New Democrat |publisher=DLC |date=July 25, 2004 |accessdate=August 30, 2010}}</ref> The New Democrats, organized as the [[Democratic Leadership Council|Democratic Leadership Council (DLC)]], were a branch of the Democratic Party that called for welfare reform and smaller government, a policy supported by both Democrats and Republicans. He gave the [[Democratic response to the State of the Union address|Democratic response]] to President Reagan's [[1985 State of the Union Address]] and served as Chair of the [[National Governors Association]] from 1986 to 1987, bringing him to an audience beyond Arkansas.<ref name="First In His Class" /> Clinton made economic growth, job creation and educational improvement high priorities. For [[senior citizens]], he removed the [[sales tax]] from medications and increased the home property-tax exemption.<ref name="The Natural" />
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In the early 1980s, Clinton made reform of the Arkansas education system a top priority. The Arkansas Education Standards Committee, chaired by Clinton's wife, attorney and [[Legal Services Corporation]] chair [[Hillary Rodham Clinton]], succeeded in reforming the education system, transforming it from the worst in the nation into one of the best. Many have considered this the greatest achievement of the Clinton governorship. Clinton and the committee were responsible for state educational improvement programs, notably more spending for schools, rising opportunities for gifted children, an increase in vocational education, raising of teachers' salaries, inclusion of a wider variety of courses, and compulsory teacher testing for aspiring educators.<ref name="First In His Class" /><ref name="The Natural" /> He defeated four Republican candidates for governor: Lowe (1978), White (1982 and 1986), and businessmen [[Woody Freeman]] of [[Jonesboro, Arkansas|Jonesboro]], (1984) and [[Sheffield Nelson]] of Little Rock (1990).<ref name=AllPolitics1 />
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The Clintons' personal and business affairs during the 1980s included transactions that became the basis of the [[Whitewater controversy]] investigation that later dogged his presidential administration.<ref name="Clinton Wars">{{Cite book|last=Blumenthal |first=Sidney |title=The Clinton Wars |publisher=Farrar, Straus and Giroux |edition=1st |year=2003 |isbn= 0-374-12502-3}}</ref> After extensive investigation over several years, no indictments were made against the Clintons related to the years in Arkansas.<ref name="First In His Class" /><ref name="The Survivor">{{Cite book|last= Harris |first=John F. |title=The Survivor: Bill Clinton in the White House |publisher=Random House Trade Paperbacks |year=2006 |edition=1st |isbn= 0-375-76084-9 }}</ref>
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According to some sources, Clinton was in his early years a [[Capital punishment|death penalty]] opponent who switched positions.<ref name = "mbsrgd" /><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles?article=bill_clintons_death_penalty_waffle_|title=Bill Clinton's Death Penalty Waffle – and Why It's Good News for Execution's Foes|author=Nguyen, Alexander|date=July 14, 2000|accessdate=August 30, 2010|work=[[The American Prospect]]|quote=In his early days, Clinton opposed the death penalty. And while he and his wife Hillary Rodham Clinton were both teaching at the University of Arkansas Law School, she wrote an appellate brief that helped save a mentally retarded man from execution. "Clinton was against the death penalty," says Arkansas attorney Jeff Rosenzweig, who, like Clinton, grew up in Hot Springs, Arkansas. "He told me so."}}</ref> During Clinton's term, Arkansas performed its first executions since 1964 (the death penalty had been re-enacted on March 23, 1973).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/sxs.php?a=v&s=3|title=Arkansas|publisher=[[Death Penalty Information Center]] |accessdate=February 24, 2010| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20100227235637/http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/sxs.php?a=v&s=3| archivedate= February 27, 2010 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref> As Governor, he oversaw four executions: one by [[electric chair]] and three by [[lethal injection]]. Later, as president, Clinton was the first President to pardon a death-row inmate since the federal death penalty was reintroduced in 1988.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/clemency |title=Clemency |publisher=[[Death Penalty Information Center]] |accessdate=February 24, 2010| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20100221212625/http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/clemency| archivedate= February 21, 2010 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
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===Democratic presidential primaries of 1988===
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[[File:Reagans with the Clintons.jpg|thumb|Governor and Mrs. Clinton attend the Dinner Honoring the Nation's Governors in the [[White House]] with President [[Ronald Reagan]] and first lady [[Nancy Reagan]], 1987.]]
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In 1987, there was media speculation Clinton would enter the race after then-[[Governor of New York|New York Governor]] [[Mario Cuomo]] declined to run and Democratic front-runner [[Gary Hart]] withdrew owing to revelations of marital infidelity. Clinton decided to remain as Arkansas governor (following consideration for the potential candidacy of Hillary Rodham Clinton for governor, initially favored&nbsp;– but ultimately vetoed&nbsp;– by the First Lady).<ref name=autogenerated1>David Maraniss, ''First in His Class: A Biography of Bill Clinton'' (New York: Random House, 1996; ISBN 978-0-684-81890-0).</ref> For the nomination, Clinton endorsed [[Governor of Massachusetts|Massachusetts Governor]] [[Michael Dukakis]]. He gave the nationally televised opening night address at the [[1988 Democratic National Convention]], but his speech, which was 33 minutes long and twice as long as it was expected to be, was criticized for being too long<ref>{{Cite news|last=Church|first=George J.|title=Cover: Is Bill Clinton For Real? |url=http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,974739,00.html|work=[[Time (magazine)|Time]]|date=January 27, 1992|accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref> and poorly delivered.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Kornacki|first=Steve|title=When Bill Clinton died onstage |url=http://www.salon.com/2012/07/30/when_bill_clinton_died_on_stage/|work=Salon|date=July 30, 2012|accessdate=August 6, 2012}}</ref> Presenting himself as a moderate and a member of the New Democrat wing of the Democratic Party, he headed the moderate [[Democratic Leadership Council]] in 1990 and 1991.<ref name="The Natural" /><ref name="The Choice">{{Cite book|last=Woodward |first=Bob |title=The Choice: How Bill Clinton Won |publisher=[[Simon and Schuster]] |edition= |year=2005 |isbn= 0-7432-8514-X}}</ref>
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==1992 presidential campaign==
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{{Further|Democratic Party (United States) presidential primaries, 1992|United States presidential election, 1992|Bill Clinton presidential campaign, 1992}}
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In the first primary contest, the [[Iowa caucus]], Clinton finished a distant third to Iowa Senator [[Tom Harkin]]. During the campaign for the [[New Hampshire primary]], reports of an extramarital affair with [[Gennifer Flowers]] surfaced. As Clinton fell far behind former [[Massachusetts]] Senator [[Paul Tsongas]] in the New Hampshire polls,<ref name="First In His Class" /> following [[Super Bowl XXVI]], Clinton and his wife Hillary went on ''[[60 Minutes]]'' to rebuff the charges. Their television appearance was a calculated risk, but Clinton regained several delegates. He finished second to Tsongas in the [[New Hampshire Democratic primary, 1992|New Hampshire primary]], but after trailing badly in the polls and coming within single digits of winning, the media viewed it as a victory. News outlets labeled him "The Comeback Kid" for earning a firm second-place finish.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://articles.cnn.com/2001-01-11/politics/clinton.nh_1_president-clinton-new-hampshire-bill-clinton |title=Clinton thanks New Hampshire for making him the 'Comeback Kid' |date=January 11, 2001 |accessdate=August 30, 2011 |publisher=CNN }}</ref>
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Winning the big prizes of Florida and Texas and many of the [[Southern United States|Southern primaries]] on [[Super Tuesday]] gave Clinton a sizable delegate lead. However, former California Governor [[Jerry Brown]] was scoring victories and Clinton had yet to win a significant contest outside his native South.<ref name="First In His Class" /><ref name="The Choice" /> With no major Southern state remaining, Clinton targeted New York, which had many delegates. He scored a resounding victory in New York City, shedding his image as a regional candidate.<ref name="The Choice" /> Having been transformed into the consensus candidate, he secured the Democratic Party nomination, finishing with a victory in [[Jerry Brown]]'s home state of California.<ref name="First In His Class"/>
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[[File:Clinton family.jpg|thumb|left|Clinton family in [[White House]]]]
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During the campaign, questions of [[conflict of interest]] regarding state business and the politically powerful [[Rose Law Firm]], at which Hillary Rodham Clinton was a partner, arose. Clinton argued the questions were moot because all transactions with the state had been deducted before determining Hillary's firm pay.<ref name="My Life" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=Ifill |first=Gwen |title=Hillary Clinton Defends Her Conduct in Law Firm |work=The New York Times |url=http://www.nytimes.com/1992/03/17/us/the-1992-campaign-hillary-clinton-defends-her-conduct-in-law-firm.html |date=March 17, 1992 |accessdate=March 28, 2008}}</ref> Further concern arose when Bill Clinton announced that, with Hillary, voters would be getting two presidents "for the price of one".<ref>{{Cite news|last=MacGillis|first=Alec |last2=Kornblut |first2=Anne E. |title=Hillary Clinton Embraces Her Husband's Legacy |work=The Washington Post |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/12/21/AR2007122102588.html |page=A1|date=December 21, 2007 |accessdate=March 28, 2008}}</ref>
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While campaigning for U.S. President, the then Governor Clinton returned to Arkansas to see that [[Ricky Ray Rector]] would be executed. After killing a police officer and a civilian, Rector shot himself in the head, leading to what his lawyers said was a state where he could still talk but did not understand the idea of death. According to Arkansas state and Federal law, a seriously mentally impaired inmate cannot be executed. The courts disagreed with the allegation of grave mental impairment and allowed the execution. Clinton's return to Arkansas for the execution was framed in a ''[[The New York Times]]'' article as a possible political move to counter "soft on crime" accusations.<ref name = "mbsrgd">[[George Stephanopoulos]], ''All Too Human: A Political Education'', 1999, ISBN 978-0-316-92919-6</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=Applebome|first=Peter|title=Arkansas Execution Raises Questions on Governor's Politics|url=http://www.nytimes.com/1992/01/25/us/1992-campaign-death-penalty-arkansas-execution-raises-questions-governor-s.html |work=The New York Times|date=January 25, 1992|accessdate=March 28, 2008}}</ref>
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Because Bush's [[United States Presidential approval rating|approval ratings]] were in the 80&nbsp;percent range during the [[Gulf War]], he was described as unbeatable. However, when Bush compromised with Democrats to try to lower Federal deficits, he reneged on his [[Read my lips: no new taxes|promise not to raise taxes]], hurting his approval rating. Clinton repeatedly condemned Bush for making a promise he failed to keep.<ref name="The Choice"/> By election time, the economy was souring and Bush saw his approval rating plummet to just slightly over 40&nbsp;percent.<ref name="The Choice"/><ref>{{Cite news|title=How the Presidents Stack Up: A look at U.S. presidents' job-approval ratings |work=The Wall Street Journal |year=2006 |url=http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/info-presapp0605-31.html |accessdate=October 30, 2008| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20081025015927/http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/info-presapp0605-31.html| archivedate= October 25, 2008 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref> Finally, conservatives were previously united by anti-communism, but with the end of the Cold War, the party lacked a uniting issue. When [[Pat Buchanan]] and [[Pat Robertson]] addressed Christian themes at the [[1992 Republican National Convention|Republican National Convention]]&nbsp;– with Bush criticizing Democrats for omitting God from their platform&nbsp;– many moderates were alienated.<ref>{{cite web|last=Le Beau|first=Bryan|title=The Political Mobilization of the New Christian Right|publisher=[[Creighton University]]|url=http://are.as.wvu.edu/lebeau1.htm|accessdate=December 1, 2006 | archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20061206022453/http://are.as.wvu.edu/lebeau1.htm| archivedate= December 6, 2006 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref> Clinton then pointed to his moderate, "New Democrat" record as governor of Arkansas, though some on the more liberal side of the party remained suspicious.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Walker |first=Martin |title=Tough love child of Kennedy |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/1992/jan/06/usa.martinwalker |accessdate=October 12, 2007 |location=London |work=The Guardian | date=January 6, 1992}}</ref> Many Democrats who had supported [[Ronald Reagan]] and Bush in previous elections switched their support to Clinton.<ref name=BBConthisday>{{Cite news|title=On this day (November 4) in 1992: Clinton beats Bush to the White House |publisher=BBC News Online |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/4/newsid_3659000/3659498.stm |accessdate=October 31, 2008 | date=November 4, 1992| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20081218141055/http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/4/newsid_3659000/3659498.stm| archivedate= December 18, 2008 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref> Clinton and his running mate, [[Al Gore]], toured the country during the final weeks of the campaign, shoring up support and pledging a "new beginning".<ref name=BBConthisday />
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Clinton won the [[U.S. presidential election, 1992|1992 presidential election]] (43.0&nbsp;percent of the vote) against Republican incumbent [[George H. W. Bush]] (37.4&nbsp;percent of the vote) and billionaire [[populism|populist]] [[Ross Perot]], who ran as an independent (18.9&nbsp;percent of the vote) on a platform focusing on domestic issues; a significant part of Clinton's success was Bush's steep decline in public approval.<ref name=BBConthisday /> Clinton's election ended twelve years of Republican rule of the [[White House]] and twenty of the previous twenty-four years. The election gave Democrats full control of the [[United States Congress]],<ref name="whitehouse.gov bio" /> the first time one party controlled both the executive and legislative branches since Democrats held the [[95th United States Congress]] during the [[Jimmy Carter]] presidency in the late 1970s.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.senate.gov/pagelayout/history/one_item_and_teasers/partydiv.htm |title=Party Division in the Senate, 1789 – present |publisher=United States Senate |accessdate=August 30, 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110718045714/http://www.senate.gov/pagelayout/history/one_item_and_teasers/partydiv.htm| archivedate= July 18, 2011 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://artandhistory.house.gov/house_history/ |title=House History |publisher=United States House of Representatives |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref>
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==Presidency, 1993–2001==
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{{Main|Presidency of Bill Clinton}}
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[[File:US President Bill Clinton Presidential Trips.svg|thumb|Countries visited by President Clinton during his terms in office]]
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During his presidency, [[Presidency of Bill Clinton#Legislation and programs|Clinton advocated for a wide variety of legislation and programs]], much of which was enacted into law or was implemented by the executive branch. Some of his policies, such as the [[North American Free Trade Agreement]] and [[welfare reform]], have been attributed to a [[centrism|centrist]] [[Third Way]] philosophy of governance, while on other issues his stance was [[left-wing politics|left-of-center]].<ref>{{Cite news|last=Safire |first=William |title=Essay; Looking Beyond Peace |work=The New York Times |date=December 6, 1993 |url=http://www.nytimes.com/1993/12/06/opinion/essay-looking-beyond-peace.html |accessdate=October 29, 2008}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=Duffy|first=Michael |coauthors=Laurence I. Barrett, Ann Blackman, James Carney|title=Secrets Of Success |work=[[Time (magazine)|Time]] |date=November 29, 1993 |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,979697,00.html |accessdate=October 29, 2008}}</ref> Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/02/02/AR2008020202521.html|title=Bill Clinton's Legacy|first=Peter| last=Baker| work=The Washington Post |date=February 3, 2008|accessdate=July 13, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.history.com/topics/bill-clinton|title=Bill Clinton|publisher=History.com| accessdate=July 13, 2010}}</ref><ref name=NYTExpansion>{{Cite news| title = The Battle of the Decades; Reaganomics vs. Clintonomics Is a Central Issue in 2000| url = http://www.nytimes.com/2000/02/08/business/the-battle-of-the-decades-reaganomics-vs-clintonomics-is-a-central-issue-in-2000.html| last = Stevenson| first = Richard| newspaper=The New York Times| date = February 8, 2000| accessdate =March 15, 2011}}</ref> The [[Congressional Budget Office]] reported budget surpluses of $69&nbsp;billion in 1998, $126&nbsp;billion in 1999, and $236&nbsp;billion in 2000,<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.cbo.gov/budget/data/historical.pdf |title=Revenues, Outlays, Deficits, Surpluses, and Debt Held by the Public, 1968 to 2007, in Billions of Dollars|publisher=Congressional Budget Office|date=September 2008|format=PDF|accessdate=July 13, 2010}}</ref> during the last three years of Clinton's presidency.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://factcheck.org/2008/02/the-budget-and-deficit-under-clinton/ |title=The Budget and Deficit Under Clinton |publisher=FactCheck.org |accessdate=August 17, 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110728091132/http://factcheck.org/2008/02/the-budget-and-deficit-under-clinton/| archivedate= July 28, 2011 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref> At the end of his presidency, Clinton moved to New York and helped his wife win election to the U.S. Senate there.
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===First term, 1993–1997===
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{{listen
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|title=First inauguration of Bill Clinton (January 20, 1993)
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|filename=First Inaugural (January 20, 1993) Bill Clinton.ogv
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|description =Video of the [[First inauguration of Bill Clinton]].
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|image=[[File:Bill Clinton taking the oath of office, 1993.jpg|thumb|left|Clinton takes the [[Oath of office of the President of the United States|oath of office]] during his [[First inauguration of Bill Clinton|1993 presidential inauguration]] on January 20, 1993.]]
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Clinton was inaugurated as the 42nd President of the United States on January 20, 1993. Shortly after taking office, Clinton signed the [[Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993]] on February 5, which required large employers to allow employees to take unpaid leave for pregnancy or a serious medical condition. This action had bipartisan support,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=103&session=1&vote=00011 |title=U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 103rd Congress – 1st Session |publisher=United States Senate |accessdate= August 30, 2011}}</ref> and proved quite popular with the public.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.protectfamilyleave.org/pdf/030608_ncpfl_fmla_national_survey.pdf |title=New Nationwide Poll Shows Strong Support for Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) |publisher=Protect Family Leave |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref>
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On February 15, 1993, Clinton made his first address to the nation, announcing his plan to raise taxes to cap the [[budget deficit]].<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.nytimes.com/1993/02/15/us/white-house-hones-all-out-campaign-to-sell-sacrifice.html |title=White House Hones All-Out Campaign to Sell Sacrifice |newspaper=The New York Times |date=February 15, 1993 |author=Richard L. Burke |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref> Two days later, in a nationally televised address to a [[joint session of Congress]], Clinton unveiled his economic plan. The plan focused on reducing the deficit rather than on cutting taxes for the middle class, which had been high on his campaign agenda.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/clinton/cron/ |title=The Clinton Years: Chronology |publisher=Frontline: PBS |accessdate=June 13, 2010| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20100502012813/http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/clinton/cron/| archivedate= May 2, 2010 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref> Clinton's advisers pressured him to raise taxes on the theory that a smaller federal budget deficit would reduce bond interest rates.<ref>{{cite book|last=Woodward |first=Bob |title=Maestro |publisher=Simon & Schuster |location=New York |year= 2000 |page= 116}}</ref>
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On May 19, 1993, Clinton fired seven employees of the White House Travel Office, causing the [[White House travel office controversy]] even though the Travel Office staff served at the pleasure of the President, who could dismiss them without cause. The White House responded to the controversy by claiming the firings were done because of financial improprieties that had been revealed by a brief FBI investigation.<ref>{{cite book|author=Hillary Rodham Clinton | authorlink = Hillary Rodham Clinton |title=[[Living History]] |publisher=[[Simon & Schuster]] |year=2003 |isbn= 0-7432-2224-5 |page=172}}</ref> Critics contended the firings had been done to allow friends of the Clintons to take over the travel business and that the involvement of the FBI was unwarranted.<ref>{{cite book|author=Ken Gormley |authorlink=Ken Gormley (academic) | title=The Death of American Virtue: Clinton vs. Starr |publisher=[[Crown Publishers]] |location=New York |year=2010 |isbn= 978-0-307-40944-7 |pages=70–71}}</ref>
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{{quote box|width=30em|bgcolor=#c6dbf7|align=right|quote="Our democracy must be not only the envy of the world but the engine of our own renewal. There is nothing wrong with America that cannot be cured by what is right with America."|source=Inaugural address, January 20, 1993.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/clinton1.asp |author=Bill Clinton |title=First Inaugural Address of William J. Clinton; January 20, 1993 |publisher=[[Yale Law School]] |date=January 20, 1993 |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref>}}
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Clinton signed the [[Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993]] in August of that year, which passed Congress without a Republican vote. It cut taxes for fifteen million low-income families, made tax cuts available to 90&nbsp;percent of small businesses,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.clintonfoundation.org/legacy/080393-presidential-press-conference-in-nevada.htm|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070927022455/http://www.clintonfoundation.org/legacy/080393-presidential-press-conference-in-nevada.htm|archivedate=September 27, 2007 |title=Presidential Press Conference in Nevada |date=August 3, 1993 |author=Bill Clinton}}</ref> and raised taxes on the wealthiest 1.2&nbsp;percent of taxpayers. Additionally, through the implementation of spending restraints, it mandated the budget be balanced over a number of years.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=50409#axzz1VKZJJKA6 |title=William J. Clinton: Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress on the State of the Union |publisher=Presidency.ucsb.edu |date=January 25, 1994 |accessdate=August 17, 2011 |author=Bill Clinton}}</ref>
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[[File:Bill Clinton, Yitzhak Rabin, Yasser Arafat at the White House 1993-09-13.jpg|thumb|left|Clinton, [[Yitzhak Rabin]] and [[Yasser Arafat]] during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993.]]
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Clinton made a major speech to Congress regarding [[Clinton health care plan|a health care reform plan]] on September 22, 1993, aimed at achieving universal coverage through a national health care plan. This was one of the most prominent items on Clinton's legislative agenda, and resulted from a task force headed by [[Hillary Clinton]]. Though at first well received in political circles, it was eventually doomed by well-organized opposition from conservatives, the [[American Medical Association]], and the health insurance industry. However, [[John F. Harris]], a biographer of Clinton's, states the program failed because of a lack of coordination within the [[White House]].<ref name="The Survivor" /> Despite the Democratic majority in Congress, the effort to create a national health care system ultimately died when compromise legislation by [[George J. Mitchell]] failed to gain a majority of support in August 1994. It was the first major legislative defeat of Clinton's administration.<ref name="The Natural" /><ref name="The Survivor" />
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In November 1993, [[David Hale (Whitewater)|David Hale]], the source of criminal allegations against Bill Clinton in the [[Whitewater controversy]], alleged that Clinton, while governor of Arkansas, pressured him to provide an illegal $300,000 loan to Susan McDougal, the partner of the Clintons in the Whitewater land deal.<ref name="salon031798">{{cite news|author1=Jonathan Broder |author2=[[Murray Waas]] |url=http://www.salon.com/news/1998/03/cov_17news.html |title=The Road To Hale |publisher=[[Salon.com|Salon]] |date=March 17, 1998 |accessdate= August 25, 2007}}</ref> A [[U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission]] investigation did result in convictions against the McDougals for their role in the Whitewater project, but the Clintons themselves were never charged, and Clinton maintains innocence in the affair.
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Clinton signed the [[Brady Bill]] into law on November 30, 1993, which imposed a five-day waiting period on handgun purchases. He also expanded the [[Earned Income Tax Credit]], a subsidy for low-income workers.<ref name="The Survivor" />
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In December of that year, allegations by Arkansas state troopers [[Larry Patterson]] and Roger Perry were first reported by [[David Brock]] in [[the American Spectator]]. Later known as [[Troopergate (Bill Clinton)|Troopergate]], the allegations by these men were that they arranged sexual liaisons for Bill Clinton back when he was governor of Arkansas. The story mentioned a woman named ''Paula'', a reference to [[Paula Jones]]. Brock later apologized to Clinton, saying the article was politically motivated "bad journalism" and that "the troopers were greedy and had slimy motives."<ref name="apology">{{Cite news| url=http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1998/03/10/brocks.remorse/ | title=Reporter Apologizes For Clinton Sex Article | publisher=CNN |date= March 10, 1998 | author=Jonathan Karl | archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080614124146/http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1998/03/10/brocks.remorse/| archivedate = June 14, 2008}}</ref>
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{{listen
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|title=Remarks on the Signing of NAFTA (December 8, 1993)
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|filename=Remarks on the Signing of NAFTA (December 8, 1993) Bill Clinton.ogv
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|description =Clinton's December 8, 1993 remarks on the signing of the [[North American Free Trade Agreement]]
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That month, Clinton implemented a Department of Defense directive known as "[[Don't Ask, Don't Tell]]", which allowed [[homosexuality|gay men and women]] to serve in the armed services provided they kept their sexuality a secret, and forbade the military from inquiring about an individual's sexual orientation.<ref>{{cite book | last1 = Feder | first1 = Jody | title = "Don't Ask, Don't Tell": A Legal Analysis | publisher = DIANE Publishing | year = 2010 | accessdate = 2012-08-16 | isbn = 978-1-4379-2208-0}}</ref> This move garnered criticism from the left (for being too tentative in promoting [[LGBT rights in the United States|gay rights]]) and from the right (who opposed any effort to allow gays to serve). Some gay-rights advocates criticized Clinton for not going far enough and accused him of making his campaign promise to get votes and contributions.<ref>{{cite news |title=Stranger Among Friends. – book reviews |url=http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1316/is_n11_v28/ai_18855826 |newspaper=[[Washington Monthly]] |author=John Cloud |date=November 1996 |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref> Their position was that Clinton should have integrated the military by executive order, noting that President [[Harry Truman]] used executive order to racially desegregate the armed forces. Clinton's defenders argue that an executive order might have prompted the Senate to write the exclusion of gays into law, potentially making it harder to integrate the military in the future.<ref name="The Natural" /> Later in his presidency, in 1999, Clinton criticized the way the policy was implemented, saying he did not think any serious person could say it was not "out of whack".<ref>{{cite news|url=http://archives.cnn.com/1999/ALLPOLITICS/stories/12/11/clinton.gays.military/index.html|title=President seeks better implementation of 'don't ask, don't tell'|date=December 11, 1999 |publisher=CNN |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref> The policy remained controversial, and was finally [[Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010|repealed in 2011]], removing open sexual preference as a reason for dismissal from the armed forces.<ref>{{cite news|title=Obama certifies end of military's gay ban|agency=[[Reuters]]|publisher=[[NBC News]]|date=July 22, 2011|url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/43859711/ns/us_news-life/|accessdate=September 7, 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110729081153/http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/43859711/ns/us_news-life/| archivedate= July 29, 2011 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
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On January 1, 1994, Clinton signed the [[North American Free Trade Agreement]] into law.<ref name=NAFTA>{{cite journal|author1=Don C. Livingston |author2=Kenneth A. Wink |url="The Passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement in the U.S. House of Representatives: Presidential Leadership or Presidential Luck?" |work=Presidential Studies Quarterly |volume= 27 |year=1997}}</ref> Throughout his first year in office, Clinton consistently supported ratification of the treaty by the U.S. Senate. Clinton and most of his allies in the Democratic Leadership Committee strongly supported free trade measures; there remained, however, strong disagreement within the party. Opposition came chiefly from anti-trade Republicans, protectionist Democrats and supporters of [[Ross Perot]]. The bill passed the house with 234 votes against 200 opposed (132 Republicans and 102 Democrats voting in favor; 156 Democrats, 43 Republicans, and 1 independent against). The treaty was then ratified by the Senate and signed into law by the President.<ref name=NAFTA />
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Clinton's 1994 Omnibus Crime Bill made many changes to U.S. law, including the expansion of the death penalty to include crimes not resulting in death, such as running a large-scale drug enterprise. During Clinton's re-election campaign he said, "My 1994 crime bill expanded the death penalty for drug kingpins, murderers of federal law enforcement officers, and nearly 60 additional categories of violent felons."<ref>{{cite web|title=Bill Clinton|url=http://www.4to40.com/legends/print.asp?p=Bill_Clinton|publisher=4to40.com |accessdate=November 4, 2010}}</ref>
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{{quote box|width=30em|bgcolor=#c6dbf7|align=left|quote="When I took office, only high energy physicists had ever heard of what is called the Worldwide Web&nbsp;... Now even my cat has its own page."|source=Bill Clinton's announcement of Next Generation Internet initiative, 1996.<ref name="NetValley">{{cite article|author=Gregory Gromov|url=http://www.netvalley.com/ |title=History of the Internet and World Wide Web |accessdate= August 30, 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110720213401/http://www.netvalley.com/| archivedate= July 20, 2011 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref>}}
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The Clinton administration also launched the first official [[White House]] website, [[whitehouse.gov]], on October 21, 1994.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://clinton1.nara.gov/White_House/html/White_House_Home.html |title=Welcome to the White House|accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/aa012201b.htm |title=The Clinton White House Web Site|accessdate=August 30, 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110722064216/http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/aa012201b.htm| archivedate= July 22, 2011 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref> It was followed by three more versions, resulting in the final edition launched in 2000.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://clinton5.nara.gov/index.html|title=Welcome to the White House|accessdate=August 30, 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110723135626/http://clinton5.nara.gov/index.html| archivedate= July 23, 2011 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|first=Robert |last=Longley |url=http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/aa012201b.htm|title=The Clinton White House Web Site: Part 2: Preserving the Clinton White House Web Site|accessdate=August 30, 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110722064216/http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/aa012201b.htm| archivedate= July 22, 2011 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref> The White House website was part of a wider movement of the Clinton administration toward web-based communication. According to Robert Longley, "Clinton and Gore were responsible for pressing almost all federal agencies, the U.S. court system and the U.S. military onto the Internet, thus opening up America's government to more of America's citizens than ever before. On July 17, 1996, Clinton issued Executive Order 13011 – Federal Information Technology, ordering the heads of all federal agencies to utilize information technology fully to make the information of the agency easily accessible to the public."<ref>{{cite web|first=Robert |last=Longley |url=http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/aa012201a.htm|title=The Clinton White House Web Site: Part 1: Perhaps the most important Web site in American history|publisher=About.com |accessdate=June 6, 2007}}</ref>
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After two years of Democratic Party control, the Democrats lost control of Congress in the [[U.S. House election, 1994|mid-term elections in 1994]], for the first time in forty years.<ref>{{cite web|last=Hulsey |first=Byron |title=The Altered Terrain of American Politics (Review of Do Elections Matter?) |url=http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=1463 |accessdate=October 29, 2008}}</ref>
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[[File:Clinton Yeltsin 1995.jpg|thumb|left|Clinton and [[Boris Yeltsin]] share a laugh in October 1995.]]
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Law professor Ken Gormley's book ''The Death of American Virtue'' reveals that Clinton escaped a 1996 assassination attempt in [[the Philippines]] by terrorists working for [[Osama bin Laden]].<ref name="Gormley2011">{{cite book|last=Gormley|first=Ken|title=The Death of American Virtue: Clinton Vs. Starr|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=IB-31YANh6EC|accessdate=August 17, 2011|date=February 1, 2011|publisher=Crown Publishing Group|isbn=978-0-307-40945-4}}</ref> During his visit to the [[Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation]] forum in [[Manila]] in 1996, he was saved shortly before his car was due to drive over a bridge where a bomb had been planted. Gormley said he was told the details of the bomb plot by [[Lewis Merletti]], the [[Director of the United States Secret Service]]. Clinton was scheduled to visit a local politician in central Manila, when secret service officers intercepted a message suggesting that an attack was imminent. A transmission used the words "bridge" and "wedding", supposedly a terrorist's code words for assassination. The motorcade was re-routed and the US agents later discovered a bomb planted under the bridge. The report said the subsequent US investigation into the plot "revealed that it was masterminded by a Saudi terrorist living in Afghanistan named Osama bin Laden". Gormley said, "It remained top secret except to select members of the US intelligence community. At the time, there were media reports about the discovery of two bombs, one at Manila airport and another at the venue for the leaders' meeting".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.indianexpress.com/news/Bin-laden-had-almost-killed-Clinton--says-a-new-book/558206/ |title=Bin laden had almost killed Clinton, says a new book |work=The Indian Express |location=India |date=December 23, 2009 |accessdate=June 13, 2010}}</ref>
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The [[White House FBI files controversy]] of June 1996 arose concerning improper access by the White House to [[FBI]] security-clearance documents. Craig Livingstone, head of the White House Office of Personnel Security, improperly requested, and received from the FBI, background report files without asking permission of the subject individuals; many of these were employees of former Republican administrations.<ref>{{cite web|author=Robert Ray |authorlink=Robert Ray (prosecutor) |url=http://www.gpoaccess.gov/icreport/marceca/sec1-2.pdf |title=Final Report of the Independent Counsel&nbsp;... of the Investigation In Re: Anthony Marceca |publisher=[[United States Government Printing Office]] |date=March 16, 2000 |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref> In March 2000, Independent Counsel [[Robert Ray (prosecutor)|Robert Ray]] determined that there was no credible evidence of any crime. Ray's report further stated, "there was no substantial and credible evidence that any senior White House official was involved" in seeking the files.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://archives.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/07/28/clinton.filegate/|title=Independent counsel: No evidence to warrant prosecution against first lady in 'filegate'|publisher=CNN | date = July 28, 2000 | accessdate=April 26, 2010| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20100529015957/http://archives.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/07/28/clinton.filegate/| archivedate= May 29, 2010 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
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On September 21, 1996, barely three years after the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" imbroglio, and further straining relations with the [[LGBT community]], Clinton signed into law the [[Defense of Marriage Act]] (DOMA), which defines marriage as the legal union of one man and one woman.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-104publ199/content-detail.html |publisher=U.S. Government Printing Office |title=PUBLIC LAW 104 – 199 – DEFENSE OF MARRIAGE ACT}}</ref> [[Paul Yandura]], speaking for the White House gay and lesbian liaison office, said that Clinton's signing of DOMA "was a political decision that they made at the time of a re-election." Administration spokesman [[Richard Socarides]] said, "...&nbsp;the alternatives we knew were going to be far worse, and it was time to move on and get the president re-elected."<ref name=metroweekly>{{cite news|url=http://www.metroweekly.com/feature/?ak=6613 |work=MetroWeekly |author=Chris Geidner |title=Becoming Law |date=September 29, 2011}}</ref> Clinton himself stated that DOMA was something "which the Republicans put on the ballot to try to get the base vote for President Bush up, I think it's obvious that something had to be done to try to keep the Republican Congress from presenting that."<ref>{{cite news|url=http://nymag.com/news/frank-rich/bill-clinton-doma-2012-3/ |work=New York |author=Frank Rich |title=Bill Clinton's shifting justifications for signing the Defense of Marriage Act |date=February 26, 2012}}</ref> Others were more critical. Representative [[Barney Frank]] (D-MA) called these claims "historic revisionism".<ref name=metroweekly/> In a July 2, 2011 editorial ''[[The New York Times]]'' opined, "The Defense of Marriage Act was enacted in 1996 as an election-year wedge issue, signed by President Bill Clinton in one of his worst policy moments."<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/03/opinion/sunday/03sun1.html |work=The New York Times |title=Unfinished Business: The Defense of Marriage Act |date=July 2, 2011}}</ref>
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Clinton was later honored by [[GLAAD]] for his pro-gay stance, including being the first American president to appoint openly gay workers at all levels of government.<ref>{{cite news| url= http://www.3news.co.nz/GLAAD-honours-Bill-Clinton/tabid/418/articleID/295095/Default.aspx|work=3 News NZ |title= GLAAD honours Bill Clinton| date=April 22, 2013}}</ref>
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As part of a 1996 initiative to curb [[illegal immigration]], Clinton signed the [[Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996|Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act]] (IIRIRA) on September 30, 1996. Appointed by Clinton,<ref>{{cite news |url=http://articles.sfgate.com/1995-06-02/news/17808549_1_legal-immigrants-immigration-agenda-commission-on-immigration-reform |title=New Limits In Works on Immigration / Powerful commission focusing on families of legal entrants |newspaper=San Francisco Chronicle |date=June 2, 1995 |accessdate=August 30, 2011 |author=Louis Freedberg}}</ref> the [[History of laws concerning immigration and naturalization in the United States#1990s|U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform]] recommended reducing legal immigration from about 800,000 people a year to about 550,000.<ref>{{cite book|author=Plummer Alston Jones |year=2004 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=bmSKvXN2a1IC&pg=PA153&dq&hl=en#v=onepage&q=&f=false |title=Still struggling for equality: American public library services with minorities |publisher=Libraries Unlimited |page=154 |isbn= 1-59158-243-1}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.nytimes.com/1995/06/08/us/clinton-embraces-a-proposal-to-cut-immigration-by-a-third.html |title=Clinton Embraces a Proposal To Cut Immigration by a Third |author=Robert Pear |newspaper=The New York Times |date=June 8, 1995 |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref>
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The [[1996 United States campaign finance controversy]] was an alleged effort by the People's Republic of China (PRC) to influence the domestic policies of the United States, before and during the Clinton administration, and involved the fundraising practices of the administration itself. The Chinese government denied all accusations.<ref name=embassy>{{cite news|author1=Bob Woodward |author2=Brian Duffy |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/special/campfin/stories/china1.htm |title=Chinese Embassy Role In Contributions Probed |work=[[The Washington Post]] |date=February 13, 1997 |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref>
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===Second term, 1997–2001===
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[[File:Hillary Clinton Bill Chelsea on parade.jpg|thumb|President Bill Clinton (center), first lady Hillary Rodham Clinton (right) and their daughter [[Chelsea Clinton|Chelsea]] (left) wave to watchers at a parade down Pennsylvania Avenue on Inauguration Day, January 20, 1997.]]
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In the [[United States presidential election, 1996|1996 presidential election]], Clinton was re-elected, receiving 49.2&nbsp;percent of the popular vote over Republican [[Bob Dole]] (40.7&nbsp;percent of the popular vote) and [[Reform Party USA|Reform]] candidate [[Ross Perot]] (8.4&nbsp;percent of the popular vote), becoming the first Democratic incumbent since Lyndon Johnson to be elected to a second term and the first Democrat since Franklin Roosevelt to be elected President more than once.<ref name="Clinton@2">{{Cite book|last=Jones |first=Charles O. |title=The Presidency in a Separated System |publisher=[[The Brookings Institution]] |year=2005 |page=318}}</ref> The Republicans lost a few seats in the House and gained a few in the Senate, but retained control of both houses of the [[105th United States Congress]]. Clinton received 379, or over 70&nbsp;percent of the [[United States Electoral College|Electoral College]] votes, with Dole receiving 159 electoral votes.
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[[File:Clinton1997SOTU.jpg|thumb|left|[[Al Gore]] and [[Newt Gingrich]] applaud as US president Clinton waves during the [[State of the Union address]] in 1997.]]
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In the January 1997 State of the Union address, Clinton proposed a new initiative to provide coverage to up to five million children. Senators [[Ted Kennedy]]&nbsp;– a Democrat&nbsp;– and [[Orrin Hatch]]&nbsp;– a Republican&nbsp;– teamed up with Hillary Rodham Clinton and her staff in 1997, and succeeded in passing legislation forming the [[State Children's Health Insurance Program]] (SCHIP), the largest (successful) health care reform in the years of the Clinton Presidency. That year, Hillary Clinton shepherded through Congress the [[Adoption and Safe Families Act]] and two years later she succeeded in helping pass the [[Foster Care Independence Act]]. He negotiated the passage of the [[Balanced Budget Act of 1997]] by the Republican Congress. In October 1997, he announced he was getting hearing aids, due to hearing loss attributed to his age, and his time spent as a musician in his youth.<ref>{{cite news|last=Shogren|first=Elizabeth|title=Clinton to Get Hearing Aids for Both Ears|url=http://articles.latimes.com/1997/oct/04/news/mn-39089|accessdate=November 1, 2012|newspaper=Los Angeles Times|date=October 4, 1997}}</ref>
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====Impeachment====
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In a [[lame duck (politics)|lame-duck]] session of Congress after the 1998 elections, the House [[Impeachment of Bill Clinton|voted to impeach Clinton]], based on the results of the [[Lewinsky scandal]].<ref name="The Survivor" /> This made Clinton only the second U.S. president to be impeached (the first being [[Andrew Johnson]]). Impeachment proceedings were based on allegations that Clinton had lied about his relationship with 22-year-old White House intern [[Monica Lewinsky]] in a sworn [[deposition (law)|deposition]] in the [[Paula Jones]] lawsuit.<ref>{{Cite news|title=Time Line |date=September 13, 1998 |page=A32 |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/special/clinton/timeline.htm |work=The Washington Post | accessdate =January 20, 2007 }}</ref> After the [[Starr Report]] was submitted to the House providing what it termed "substantial and credible information that President Clinton Committed Acts that May Constitute Grounds for an Impeachment",<ref>{{cite book|title=The [[Starr Report]]: The Findings of Independent Counsel [[Kenneth Starr]] on President Clinton and the Lewinsky Affair |year=1998 |isbn= 1-891620-24-X}}</ref> the House began impeachment hearings against Clinton before the [[U.S. midterm election|mid-term elections]]. To hold impeachment proceedings, the Republican leadership called a [[Lame duck session (United States)|lame-duck session]] in December 1998.
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[[File:Senate in session.jpg|thumb|The impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton in 1999, [[William H. Rehnquist|Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist]] presiding]]
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While the [[House Judiciary Committee]] hearings ended in a straight party-line vote, there was lively debate on the House floor. The two charges passed in the House (largely with Republican support, but with a handful of Democratic votes as well) were for [[perjury]] and [[obstruction of justice]]. The perjury charge arose from Clinton's testimony about his relationship to Lewinsky during a sexual harassment lawsuit<ref>{{Cite news |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/special/pjones/pjones.htm |title=Case Closed |author=Dan Froomkin |work=The Washington Post | date=August 26, 1999 | accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref> brought by former Arkansas state employee [[Paula Jones]]. The obstruction charge was based on his actions during the subsequent investigation of that testimony.
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The Senate later voted to acquit Clinton on both charges.<ref name=senvoteai>{{cite web |author=Senate LIS |title = U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 106th Congress – 1st Session: vote number 17 – Guilty or Not Guilty (Art I, Articles of Impeachment v. President W. J. Clinton) | publisher=United States Senate |date = February 12, 1999 |url=http://senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=106&session=1&vote=00017 |accessdate =August 30, 2011}}</ref> The Senate refused to meet to hold an impeachment trial before the end of the old term, so the trial was held over until the next Congress. Clinton was represented by Washington law firm [[Williams & Connolly]].<ref>{{Cite news |title=Clinton impeached |publisher=BBC News Online |date=December 19, 1998 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/events/clinton_under_fire/latest_news/238784.stm |accessdate=October 29, 2008| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20081211142909/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/events/clinton_under_fire/latest_news/238784.stm| archivedate= December 11, 2008 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref> The Senate finished a twenty-one-day trial on February 12, 1999, with the vote of 55 Not Guilty/45 Guilty on the perjury charge<ref name=senvoteai /> and 50 Not Guilty/50 Guilty on the obstruction of justice charge.<ref name="washingtonpostimpeachment">{{cite news |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/special/clinton/stories/impeach021399.htm |title=The Senate Acquits President Clinton |work=The Washington Post |date=February 13, 1999 |accessdate=January 4, 2012}}</ref> Both votes fell short of the Constitutional two-thirds majority requirement to convict and remove an officeholder. The final vote was generally along party lines, with no Democrats voting guilty, and only a handful of Republicans voting not guilty.<ref name=senvoteai />
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Clinton [[Bill Clinton pardons controversy|controversially issued]] 141 pardons and 36 commutations on his last day in office on January 20, 2001.<ref name="The Survivor" /><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/aponline/20010120/aponline135239_000.htm |title=Clinton Pardon's List |agency=[[Associated Press]] work = [[The Washington Post]] |date=January 20, 2001 |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref> Most of the controversy surrounded [[Marc Rich]] and allegations that Hillary Clinton's brother, [[Hugh Rodham]], accepted payments in return for influencing the president's decision-making regarding the pardons.<ref>{{Cite news|title=Clinton pardons: Cast of characters |publisher=BBC News Online |date=February 22, 2001 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1184118.stm |accessdate=September 11, 2011}}</ref> Some of Clinton's pardons remain a point of controversy.<ref>{{cite news|last=Curl |first=Joseph |url=http://washingtontimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070706/NATION/107060099/1001 |title=Clintons hit over Libby criticism |work=[[The Washington Times]] |date=July 6, 2007 |date=August 30, 2011}}</ref>
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===Military and foreign events===
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{{Further|Foreign policy of the Bill Clinton administration}}
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[[File:President Clinton talks with Col. Paul Fletcher, USAF.jpeg|thumb|left|President Clinton speaks with [[Colonel (United States)|Col.]] [[Paul J. Fletcher|Paul Fletcher]], [[United States Air Force|USAF]], before boarding [[Air Force One]], November 4, 1999.]]
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Many military events occurred during Clinton's presidency. The [[Battle of Mogadishu (1993)|Battle of Mogadishu]] occurred in [[Somalia]] in 1993. During the operation, [[MH-60 Black Hawk|two U.S. helicopters]] were shot down by [[rocket-propelled grenade]] attacks to their [[tail rotor]]s, trapping soldiers behind enemy lines. This resulted in an urban battle that killed 18 American soldiers, wounded 73 others, and one was taken prisoner. There were many more Somali casualties. Some of the American bodies were dragged through the streets&nbsp;– a spectacle broadcast on television news programs. In response, U.S. forces were withdrawn from Somalia and later conflicts were approached with fewer soldiers on the ground. In 1995, U.S. and [[NATO]] aircraft [[1995 NATO bombing campaign in Bosnia and Herzegovina|attacked Bosnian Serb targets]] to halt attacks on U.N. safe zones and to pressure them into a peace accord. Clinton deployed U.S. peacekeepers to Bosnia in late 1995, to uphold the subsequent [[Dayton Agreement]].
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[[File:President Clinton by Molly Gilliam, 1999 (DOD 990505-F-7597G-005) (514619639).jpg|thumb|250px|General John P. Jumper, U.S. Air Forces in Europe commander, escorts President William Jefferson Clinton upon his arrival to Ramstein Air Base, Germany, May 5, 1999. The president visited several European air bases to thank the troops (not shown) for their support of NATO Operations Allied Force and Shining Hope, 1999.]]
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Capturing [[Osama bin Laden]] had been an objective of the United States government from the presidency of Bill Clinton until bin Laden's death in 2011.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2006/POLITICS/09/24/clinton.binladen/index.html |title=Bill Clinton: I got closer to killing bin Laden |publisher=CNN |date=September 24, 2006 |accessdate=September 11, 2011}}</ref> It was asserted by [[Mansoor Ijaz]] that in 1996 while the Clinton Administration had begun pursuit of the policy, the Sudanese government allegedly offered to arrest and extradite Bin Laden as well as to provide the United States detailed intelligence information about growing militant organizations in the region, including [[Hezbollah]] and [[Hamas]],<ref name="articles.latimes.com">{{Cite news|url=http://articles.latimes.com/2001/dec/05/opinion/oe-ijaz05 |title=Clinton Let Bin Laden Slip Away and Metastisize |work=Los Angeles Times |date=December 5, 2001 |accessdate=June 13, 2010 | first=Mansoor | last=Ijaz}}</ref> and that U.S. authorities allegedly rejected each offer, despite knowing of bin Laden's involvement in bombings on American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.<ref name="articles.latimes.com"/> However, the [[9/11 Commission]] found that although "former Sudanese officials claim that Sudan offered to expel Bin Laden to the United States", "we have not found any reliable evidence to support the Sudanese claim."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.9-11commission.gov/staff_statements/staff_statement_5.pdf |title=Staff Statement No. 5 |format=PDF|publisher=9/11 Commission |accessdate=August 6, 2009}}</ref> In 1998, two years after the warning, the Clinton administration ordered several military missions to capture or kill bin Laden that failed.<ref>{{cite news|last=Lichtblau|first=Eric|title=State Dept. Says It Warned About bin Laden in 1996|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/17/international/asia/17osama.html |work=The New York Times|accessdate=November 4, 2010|date=August 17, 2005}}</ref>
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In response to the 1998 [[Al-Qaeda]] [[1998 United States embassy bombings|bombings of U.S. embassies in East Africa]] that killed a dozen Americans and hundreds of Africans, Clinton [[Cruise missile strikes on Afghanistan and Sudan (August 1998)|ordered cruise missile strikes on terrorist targets in Afghanistan and Sudan]]. First was a [[Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory|Sudanese Pharmaceutical company]] suspected of assisting Osama Bin Laden in making chemical weapons. The second was Bin Laden's terrorist training camps in Afghanistan.<ref>{{cite web|author=John Pike |url=http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/bgm-109-operation.htm |title=BGM-109 Tomahawk – Smart Weapons |publisher=Globalsecurity.org |accessdate=August 17, 2011}}</ref> Clinton was subsequently criticized when it turned out that a pharmaceutical plant in Sudan (originally alleged to be a chemical warfare plant) had been destroyed.
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[[File:President Clinton greets the crowd at Spangdahlem Air Base.jpg|thumb|left|President Clinton greets Air Force personnel at [[Spangdahlem Air Base]], May 5, 1999.]]
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To stop the [[ethnic cleansing]] and [[genocide]]<ref>{{cite web|last=Cohen |first=William |date=April 7, 1999 |url=http://www.defense.gov/transcripts/transcript.aspx?transcriptid=582 |title=Secretary Cohen's Press Conference at NATO Headquarters |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Clinton |first=Bill |date=June 25, 1999 |url=http://clinton6.nara.gov/1999/06/1999-06-25-press-conference-by-the-president.html |title=Press Conference by the President |date=August 30, 2011}}</ref> of [[Albanians]] by nationalist [[Serbs]] in the former [[Federal Republic of Yugoslavia]]'s province of [[Kosovo]], Clinton authorized the use of U.S. Armed Forces in a [[NATO]] bombing campaign against Yugoslavia in 1999, named [[Operation Allied Force]]. [[General Wesley Clark]] was [[Supreme Allied Commander Europe|Supreme Allied Commander of NATO]] and oversaw the mission. With [[United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244]], the bombing campaign ended on June 10, 1999. The resolution placed Kosovo under UN administration and authorized a [[Kosovo Force|peacekeeping force]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nato.int/kosovo/docu/u990610a.htm |title=Resolution 1244 (1999) |date=June 10, 1999 |publisher=NATO |accessdate=August 17, 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110629135857/http://www.nato.int/kosovo/docu/u990610a.htm| archivedate= June 29, 2011 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref> NATO announced that its forces had suffered zero combat deaths,<ref name="roblect">{{cite web|author=Adam Roberts |url=http://www.princeton.edu/~lisd/events/talks/Roberts_Lecture.pdf |title=The Impact of the Laws of War in Contemporary Conflicts (PDF) |date=April 10, 2003 |publisher=Princeton University |accessdate=January 25, 2007}}</ref> and two deaths from an [[AH-64 Apache|Apache helicopter]] crash.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/335709.stm |title=Two die in Apache crash |publisher=BBC News Online |date=May 5, 1999 |accessdate=August 17, 2011}}</ref> Opinions in the popular press criticized pre-war genocide statements by the Clinton administration as greatly exaggerated.<ref>{{cite web|last=Pilger |first=John |date=September 4, 2000 |url=http://www.newstatesman.com/node/138456 |title=US and British officials told us that at least 100,000 were murdered in Kosovo. A year later, fewer than 3,000 bodies have been found |work=New Statesman}}</ref><ref>{{cite article|author1=Daniel Pearl |author2=Robert Block |date=December 31, 1999 |title=War in Kosovo Was Cruel, Bitter, Savage; Genocide It Wasn't |work=The Wall Street Journal |page= A1}}</ref> A U.N. Court ruled genocide did not take place, but recognized, "a systematic campaign of terror, including murders, rapes, arsons and severe maltreatments".<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1530781.stm |title=Kosovo assault 'was not genocide' |publisher=BBC News Online |date=September 7, 2001 |accessdate=August 17, 2011}}</ref> The term "ethnic cleansing" was used as an alternative to "genocide" to denote not just ethnically motivated murder but also displacement, though critics charge there is no difference.<ref>{{cite web|author=George J. Andreopoulos |url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/194242/ethnic-cleansing |title=Ethnic Cleansing |work=Encyclopædia Britannica |accessdate=September 11, 2011}}</ref> [[Slobodan Milošević]], the President of Yugoslavia at the time, was eventually charged with the "murders of about 600 individually identified ethnic Albanians" and "crimes against humanity."<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1402790.stm#kosovo |title=The charges against Milosevic |publisher=BBC News Online |date=March 11, 2006 |accessdate=August 17, 2011}}</ref>
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In Clinton's [[1998 State of the Union Address]], he warned Congress of Iraqi dictator [[Saddam Hussein]]'s possible pursuit of nuclear weapons:
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{{quote|Together we must also confront the new hazards of [[chemical weapon|chemical]] and [[biological weapon]]s, and the outlaw states, terrorists and organized criminals seeking to acquire them. Saddam Hussein has spent the better part of this decade, and much of his nation's wealth, not on providing for the Iraqi people, but on developing nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and the missiles to deliver them. The United Nations weapons inspectors have done a truly remarkable job, finding and destroying more of Iraq's arsenal than was destroyed during the entire gulf war. Now, Saddam Hussein wants to stop them from completing their mission. I know I speak for everyone in this chamber, Republicans and Democrats, when I say to Saddam Hussein, "You cannot defy the will of the world", and when I say to him, "You have used weapons of mass destruction before; we are determined to deny you the capacity to use them again.<ref>{{cite press release |title=Text of President Clinton's 1998 State of the Union Address |date=January 27, 1998 |author=Bill Clinton |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/special/states/docs/sou98.htm |work=The Washington Post |accessdate=August 30, 2011 }}</ref></blockquote>}}
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[[File:Clinton and jiang.jpg|thumb|Bill Clinton and [[Jiang Zemin]] holding a joint press conference at the White House, October 29, 1997]]
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To weaken Saddam Hussein's grip of power, Clinton signed H.R. 4655 into law on October 31, 1998, which instituted a policy of "regime change" against Iraq, though it explicitly stated it did not provide for direct intervention on the part of American military forces.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20070218092435/http://www.library.cornell.edu/colldev/mideast/libera.htm |title=Iraq Liberation Act of 1998, H.R.4655, One Hundred Fifth Congress of United States of America at Second Session |publisher=Library of Congress |accessdate=February 18, 2007}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c105:H.R.4655.ENR: |title=H.R.4655 – Iraq Liberation Act of 1998}}</ref> The administration then launched a four-day bombing campaign named [[Operation Desert Fox]], lasting from December 16 to 19, 1998. For the last two years of Clinton's presidency, U.S. aircraft routinely attacked hostile Iraqi anti-air installations inside the Iraqi [[no-fly zone]]s.
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Clinton's November 2000 visit to [[Vietnam]] was the first by a U.S. President since the end of the [[Vietnam War]].<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/1025169.stm |title= Clinton's Vietnam visit |publisher=BBC News Online |date=November 16, 2000 |accessdate=September 11, 2011}}</ref> Clinton remained popular with the public throughout his two terms as President, ending his presidential career with a 65&nbsp;percent approval rating, the highest end-of-term approval rating of any President since [[Dwight D. Eisenhower]].<ref name=langer /> Further, the Clinton administration signed over 270 trade [[Free trade|liberalization]] pacts with other countries during its tenure.<ref>{{cite book|author=Roberto Giorgio Rabel |year=2002 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=HH3y4S1ZHrAC&pg=PA98&dq&hl=en#v=onepage&q=&f=false |title=The American Century?: In Retrospect and Prospect |page=98 |publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group |isbn= 0-275-97672-6}}</ref> On October 10, 2000, Clinton signed into law the [[U.S.–China Relations Act of 2000]], which granted [[permanent normal trade relations]] (PNTR) trade status to People's Republic of China.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/10/10/clinton.pntr/ |title=Clinton signs China trade bill |publisher=CNN |date=October 10, 2000 |accessdate=August 30, 2011 |first=Matt |last=Smit}}</ref> The president asserted that free trade would gradually open China to democratic reform.<ref>{{cite book|author=Peter B. Levy |year=2002 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=vEzWlAvDEf0C&pg=PA57&dq&hl=en#v=onepage&q=&f=false |title=Encyclopedia of the Clinton Presidency |page=57 |publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group |isbn= 0-313-31294-X}}</ref> Clinton also oversaw a boom of the U.S. economy. Under Clinton, the United States had a projected federal [[United States federal budget|budget surplus]] for the first time since 1969.<ref>{{cite web|title=Historical Budget Data |url=http://www.cbo.gov/budget/historical.pdf |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070101033553/http://www.cbo.gov/budget/historical.pdf |archivedate=January 1, 2007 |format=PDF |publisher=Congressional Budget Office |date=January 26, 2006 |accessdate=January 20, 2007 }}</ref>
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After initial successes such as the [[Oslo accords]] of the early 1990s, Clinton attempted to address the [[Arab-Israeli conflict]]. Clinton brought Israeli Prime Minister [[Ehud Barak]] and Palestinian Authority Chairman [[Yasser Arafat]] together at [[Camp David]].<ref name="The Survivor" /> Following the peace talk failures, Clinton stated Arafat "missed the opportunity" to facilitate a "just and lasting peace." In his [[My Life (Bill Clinton autobiography)|autobiography]], Clinton blames Arafat for the collapse of the summit.<ref name="My Life" /><ref>{{cite web|last=Shyovitz |first=David |publisher=Jewish Virtual Library |url=http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/cd2000art.html |title=Camp David 2000 |accessdate=August 30, 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110719031905/http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/cd2000art.html| archivedate= July 19, 2011 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref> The situation broke down completely with the start of the [[Second Intifada]].<ref name="The Survivor" />
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===Judicial appointments===
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{{Main|Bill Clinton Supreme Court candidates|Bill Clinton judicial appointments}}
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Clinton appointed the following justices to the [[Supreme Court of the United States|Supreme Court]]:
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* [[Ruth Bader Ginsburg]] – 1993<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.supremecourt.gov/about/biographies.aspx |title=Biographies of Current Justices of the Supreme Court |publisher=Supremecourt.gov |accessdate=August 30, 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110721063602/http://www.supremecourt.gov/about/biographies.aspx| archivedate= July 21, 2011 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
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* [[Stephen Breyer]] – 1994<ref>{{cite web|url=http://law.onecle.com/ussc/justices/512usxi-appointment-of-justice-breyer.html |title=Appointment and swearing in of Justice Breyer, 1994 |publisher=Law.onecle.com |date=September 30, 1994 |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref>
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Along with his two Supreme Court appointments, Clinton appointed 66 judges to the [[United States Courts of Appeals]], and 305 judges to the [[United States district courts]]. His 373 judicial appointments are the second most in American history behind those of Ronald Reagan. Clinton also experienced a number of [[Bill Clinton judicial appointment controversies|judicial appointment controversies]], as 69 nominees to [[United States federal judge|federal judgeships]] were not processed by the [[United States Republican Party|Republican]]-controlled [[Senate Judiciary Committee]]. In all, 84&nbsp;percent of his nominees were confirmed.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.fjc.gov/public/home.nsf/hisj|title=Biographical Directory of Federal Judges|publisher=[[Federal Judicial Center]]|accessdate=August 29, 2011}}</ref>
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==Public opinion==
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[[File:Clinton approval rating.png|thumb|300px|Clinton's [[United States Presidential approval rating|approval ratings]] throughout his presidential career]]
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Clinton's job approval rating fluctuated in the 40s and 50s throughout his first term. In his second term, his rating consistently ranged from the high-50s to the high-60s.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pollingreport.com/clinton-.htm |title=Bill Clinton: Job Ratings |publisher=Pollingreport.com |accessdate=August 17, 2011}}</ref> After his impeachment proceedings in 1998 and 1999, Clinton's rating reached its highest point.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://edition.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/stories/1998/12/20/impeachment.poll/ |title=Clinton's approval rating up in wake of impeachment |publisher=CNN |date=December 20, 1998 |accessdate=September 11, 2011}}</ref> He finished with an approval rating of 68&nbsp;percent, which matched those of [[Ronald Reagan]] and [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era.<ref>{{Cite news| url=http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/06/07/opinion/polls/main621632.shtml | title=A Look Back at the Polls | publisher=[[CBS News]] |author=Bootie Cosgrove-Mather | date=June 7, 2004 | accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref>
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As he was leaving office, a CNN/USA TODAY/Gallup poll revealed 45&nbsp;percent said they would miss him. While 55&nbsp;percent thought he "would have something worthwhile to contribute and should remain active in public life", 68&nbsp;percent thought he would be remembered for his "involvement in personal scandal", and 58&nbsp;percent answered "No" to the question "Do you generally think Bill Clinton is honest and trustworthy?" Forty-seven percent of the respondents identified themselves as being Clinton supporters. The same percentage said he would be remembered as either "outstanding" or "above average" as a president, while 22&nbsp;percent said he would be remembered as "below average" or "poor".<ref name = "CNN-Clinton-gone">{{cite news|author=Keating Holland |url=http://archives.cnn.com/2001/ALLPOLITICS/stories/01/10/cnn.poll.clinton/ |title=Poll: Majority of Americans glad Clinton is leaving office |publisher=CNN |date=January 10, 2001}}</ref>
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The [[Gallup Organization]] published a poll in February 2007, a correspondents to name the greatest president in U.S. history; Clinton came in fourth place, capturing 13&nbsp;percent of the vote. In a 2006 [[Quinnipiac University Polling Institute]] poll asking respondents to name the best president since World War II, Clinton ranked number two behind [[Ronald Reagan]]. However, in the same poll, when respondents were asked to name the worst president since World War II, Clinton was placed number three behind [[Richard Nixon]] and [[George W. Bush]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pollingreport.com/wh-hstry.htm |title=Presidents and History |publisher=pollingreport.com |accessdate=August 30, 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110717202247/http://www.pollingreport.com/wh-hstry.htm| archivedate= July 17, 2011 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref> In May 2006, a CNN poll comparing Clinton's job performance with that of his successor, George W. Bush, found that a strong majority of respondents said Clinton outperformed Bush in six different areas questioned.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2006/POLITICS/05/12/bush.clinton.poll/index.html |title=Poll: Clinton outperformed Bush |publisher=CNN |date=May 15, 2006 |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref>
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[[ABC News]] characterized public consensus on Clinton as, "You can't trust him, he's got weak morals and ethics{{spaced ndash}} and he's done a heck of a good job."<ref name=langer>{{cite web| url=http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/story?id=120952| title=Poll: Clinton Legacy Mixed| publisher=ABC News| date=January 17, 2001| author=Gary Langer| accessdate=January 19, 2013}}</ref> After leaving office, Clinton's Gallup Poll rating of 66&nbsp;percent was the highest approval rating of any [[Post-war|postwar]], three points ahead of both [[Ronald Reagan|Reagan]] and [[John F. Kennedy]].<ref name="C)(0">{{cite web|url=http://uspolitics.about.com/od/polls/l/bl_historical_approval.htm |title=Historical Presidential Approval Ratings – End Of Term Plus Current Ratings |publisher=Uspolitics.about.com |accessdate=November 9, 2008| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20081216060952/http://uspolitics.about.com/od/polls/l/bl_historical_approval.htm| archivedate= December 16, 2008 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
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In March 2010, a Newsmax/Zogby poll asking Americans which of the current living former presidents they think is best equipped to deal with the problems the country faces today, found that a wide margin of respondents would pick Bill Clinton. Clinton received 41&nbsp;percent of the vote, while George W. Bush received 15&nbsp;percent, George H. W. Bush received 7&nbsp;percent, and Jimmy Carter received 5&nbsp;percent.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.newsmax.com/Headline/poll-clinton-obama-bush/2010/03/07/id/351887 |title=Bill Clinton Bests Former Presidents to Handle Crisis Today, Newsmax/Zogby Poll Finds |author=Jim Meyers |publisher=[[Newsmax]] |date=March 7, 2010 |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref>
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==Public image==
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<!-- "Slick Willie" redirects to this section heading. If the heading changes, please update the redirect too. TIA -->
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{{main|Public image of Bill Clinton}}
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As the first [[baby boomer]] president, Clinton was the first president in a half-century not to have been alive during World War II.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Sandalow |first=Marc |title=Clinton Era Marked by Scandal, Prosperity: 1st Baby Boomer in White House Changed Notions of Presidency |work=San Francisco Chronicle |date=January 14, 2001 |url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2001/01/14/MN71509.DTL |accessdate=October 29, 2008}}</ref> Authors Martin Walker and Bob Woodward state Clinton's innovative use of [[sound bite]]-ready dialogue, personal charisma, and public perception-oriented campaigning was a major factor in his high public approval ratings.<ref>Martin Walker, ''Clinton: the President they deserve'', Fourth Estate 1999</ref><ref>Bob Woodward, ''The choice: how Clinton won'', Touchstone 1996, ISBN 0-684-81308-4</ref> When Clinton played the saxophone on ''[[The Arsenio Hall Show]]'', he was described by some religious conservatives as "the MTV president."<ref>{{Cite news|last=Bresler |first=Robert J. |title=The Muddled Meaning of the 2000 Election |publisher=USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education)|month=January |year=2001 |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1272/is_2668_129/ai_69698398 |accessdate=January 2, 2007 }}</ref> Opponents sometimes referred to him as "Slick Willie",<ref>{{cite book |title="Slick Willie": Why America Cannot Trust Bill Clinton |author=Floyd G. Brown |year=1993 |publisher=Annapolis Publishing |isbn=978-0-9634397-0-3 }}</ref> a nickname first applied while he was governor of Arkansas and lasting throughout his presidency.<ref name=WaPoNickname>{{Cite news| title = It's Come To This: A Nickname That's Proven Hard to Slip | last = Merida| first = Kevin| date = December 20, 1998|work=The Washington Post | url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/special/clinton/stories/slick122098.htm }}</ref> Standing at a height of {{nowrap|6 ft 2 in}} (1.88&nbsp;m), Clinton is tied with five others as the [[Heights of United States Presidents and presidential candidates|fourth-tallest president]] in the nation's history.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Baker |first=Peter |title=Head and Shoulders Above the Rest |url=http://blog.washingtonpost.com/the-trail/2007/10/11/head_and_shoulders_above.html |date=October 11, 2007 |accessdate=August 30, 2011 | work=The Washington Post }}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Carnahan |first=Ira |title=Presidential Timber Tends To Be Tall |url=http://www.forbes.com/2004/05/19/cz_ic_0519beltway.html |date=May 19, 2004 |accessdate=September 11, 2011 |work=Forbes}}</ref> His folksy manner led him to be [[List of nicknames of United States Presidents|nicknamed]] "Bubba", especially in the Southern U.S.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.nypost.com/p/news/national/item_QmEh4WrpgVtGtmVB4prTtI |title=Rudy Bops Bugga |work= New York Post |date=June 27, 2007 |accessdate=August 23, 2012 | first1=Charles | last1=Hurt | first2=Carl | last2=Campanile}}</ref> Since 2000, he has frequently been referred to as "The Big Dog" or "Big Dog."<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2000/10/22/opinion/liberties-dare-speak-his-name.html |title=Liberties; Dare Speak His Name |work= The New York Times |date=October 22, 2000 |accessdate=August 23, 2012 | author=Dowd, Maureen|quote="They're going to have to let the big dog run."}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/21/us/politics/21clinton.html |title=Bill Clinton Stumps for Obama |work= The New York Times |date=September 20, 2010 |accessdate=August 23, 2012 | author=Rutenberg, Jim|author2= Zernike, Kate|quote="The Big Dog, as he is known among those in the tight world of Clinton associates&nbsp;..."}}</ref> His prominent role in campaigning for [[Barack Obama|President Obama]] during the [[United States presidential election, 2012|2012 presidential election]] and his widely-publicised speech at the [[2012 Democratic National Convention]], where he officially nominated Obama and criticized Republican nominee [[Mitt Romney]] and Republican policies in detail, earned him the nickname "Explainer-in-Chief".<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/think-tanked/post/bill-clintons-dnc-speech-as-explainer-in-chief-it-takes-some-brass-and-more-am-briefing/2012/09/06/088a467a-f821-11e1-8b93-c4f4ab1c8d13_blog.html |title=Bill Clinton's DNC speech as 'explainer in chief,' 'it takes some brass,' and more [AM Briefing] |work= The Washington Post | date = September 6, 2012 |accessdate=January 25, 2013 | author=McDuffee, Allen}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://entertainment.time.com/2012/09/06/the-morning-after-obama-turns-to-bill-clinton-explainer-in-chief/ |title=The Morning After: Obama Turns to Bill Clinton, Explainer-in-Chief |work= [[Time (magazine)|Time]] |date=September 6, 2012 |accessdate=January 25, 2013 | author=Poniewozik, James}}</ref>
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[[File:FEMA - 14697 - Photograph by Ed Edahl taken on 09-05-2005 in Texas.jpg|thumb|Clinton greets a [[Hurricane Katrina]] evacuee, who is in a wheelchair, in the Reliant Center at the Houston Astrodome on September 5, 2005. Standing behind Clinton is then-Senator [[Barack Obama]].]]
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Clinton drew strong support from the African American community and made improving race relations a major theme of his presidency.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2004/07/b122950.html |title=A Conversation With President Bill Clinton on Race in America Today |publisher=[[Center for American Progress]] |date=July 16, 2004 |accessdate= August 30, 2011}}</ref> In 1998, [[Nobel Prize|Nobel]] laureate [[Toni Morrison]] called Clinton "the first Black president", saying, "Clinton displays almost every trope of blackness: single-parent household, born poor, working-class, saxophone-playing, [[McDonald's]]-and-junk-food-loving boy from Arkansas".<ref name=MorrisonNewYorker>{{cite web|last=Morrison |first=Toni |authorlink=Toni Morrison|title=Clinton as the first black president |work=The New Yorker|month=October |year=1998|url=http://ontology.buffalo.edu./smith/clinton/morrison.html|accessdate=December 1, 2006| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20061021020246/http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/clinton/morrison.html| archivedate= October 21, 2006 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref> Noting that Clinton's sex life was scrutinized more than his career accomplishments, Morrison compared this to the stereotyping and [[double standards]] that blacks typically endure.<ref name=MorrisonNewYorker />
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===Allegations of sexual misconduct===
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{{main|Sexual misconduct allegations against Bill Clinton}}
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Clinton has been subject to several allegations of sexual misconduct, though he has only admitted extramarital relationships with [[Monica Lewinsky]] and [[Gennifer Flowers]].<ref>{{Cite news| url=http://www.nytimes.com/1998/03/14/us/testing-president-accuser-jones-lawyers-issue-files-alleging-clinton-pattern.html | title=Testing of a President: The Accuser; Jones Lawyers Issue Files Alleging Clinton Pattern of Harassment of Women|work=The New York Times | date=March 14, 1998 |accessdate=August 30, 2011 | first=Francis X. | last=Clines}}</ref>
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In 1994, [[Paula Jones]] brought a sexual harassment lawsuit against Clinton, claiming he made unwanted advances in 1991, which he denied. The case was initially dismissed,<ref name="JO#$">{{Cite news |url=http://edition.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1998/04/02/clinton.jones.reax/ |title=Clinton Welcomes Jones Decision; Appeal Likely |date=April 2, 1998 |publisher=CNN |accessdate=September 11, 2011}}</ref> but Jones appealed.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/special/clinton/stories/jonesappeal073198.htm |title=Text of Jones's Appeal |date = July 31, 1998 |work=The Washington Post |accessdate=August 25, 2010}}</ref> During the deposition for the Jones lawsuit, which was held at the White House,<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://edition.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1998/03/13/jones.v.clinton.docs/clinton/ |title=Deposition of William Jefferson Clinton, January 17, 1998 |publisher=CNN |date=March 13, 1998 |accessdate=September 11, 2011}}</ref> Clinton [[Lewinsky scandal|denied having sexual relations]] with [[Monica Lewinsky]]{{spaced ndash}} a denial that became the basis for the impeachment charge of perjury.<ref>{{cite encyclopedia|chapter=Lewinsky scandal |title=The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition |publisher=Columbia University Press |year=2008 |url=http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Lewinsky_scandal.aspx |accessdate=February 9, 2010}}</ref> He later agreed to an out-of-court settlement and paid $850,000.<ref name="CO{}{">{{Cite news|url=http://edition.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/stories/1998/11/18/jones/ |title=Appeals court ponders Paula Jones settlement |date=November 18, 1998 |publisher=CNN |accessdate=September 11, 2011}}</ref> His attorney Bob Bennett stated that he only made the settlement so he could end the lawsuit for good and move on with his life.<ref name=clqc>{{cite news
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| first=Peter
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| last=Baker
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| title=Clinton Settles Paula Jones Lawsuit for $850,000
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| date=November 14, 1998
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| url =http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/special/clinton/stories/jones111498.htm
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| work =The Washington Post
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| accessdate = 2011-10-27}}</ref>
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In 1992, nude model and actress [[Gennifer Flowers]] stated that she had a relationship with Clinton that began in 1980.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/special/pjones/docs/flowers031398.htm |title=Declaration of Gennifer Flowers |work=[[The Washington Post]] |date=March 13, 1998 |accessdate=2008-03-20}}</ref> Flowers at first denied that she had an affair with Clinton, but later changed her story.<ref name="Flo*^">{{cite news |url=http://www.rcfp.org/news/2002/1119flower.html |title=Gennifer Flowers may proceed with defamation suit |publisher=[[Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press]] | date=November 19, 2002 |accessdate=2008-03-20 |quote=At the press conference, Flowers – who initially denied allegations that she had an affair with then Arkansas governor Bill Clinton but then changed her story – played tapes of conversations she had secretly recorded between herself and Clinton}}</ref><ref>http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/97591856.html</ref> Clinton admitted that he had a sexual encounter with Flowers.<ref name=rp.x>{{cite news| url=http://www.nytimes.com/1998/03/14/us/testing-president-accuser-jones-lawyers-issue-files-alleging-clinton-pattern.html?pagewanted=all | title=Testing Of A President: The Accuser; Jones Lawyers Issue Files Alleging Clinton Pattern Of Harassment Of Women| work=[[The New York Times]]| date=March 14, 1998| quote=In his January deposition, the President, though finally confirming a sexual encounter with Ms. Flowers, was precise in denying Ms. Willey's report that he had sought to kiss her and feel her breasts in an encounter in his private dining room off the Oval Office. | accessdate=2008-03-20 | first=Francis X. | last=Clines}}</ref>
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In 1998, [[Kathleen Willey]] alleged Clinton groped her in a hallway in 1993. An independent counsel determined Willey gave "false information" to the FBI, inconsistent with sworn testimony related to the Jones allegation.<ref name=wilo9r>{{cite news | url=http://edition.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1998/03/23/time/willey.html | title=The Lives Of Kathleen Willey | publisher=CNN |date= March 30, 1998 | accessdate =September 11, 2011}}</ref> Also in 1998, [[Juanita Broaddrick]] alleged Clinton had raped her though she did not remember the exact date, which may have been 1978.<ref name=CapitalHillBlueWebArchive1>{{cite web|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20060216043650/http://www.capitolhillblue.com/Feb1999/022599/datelinetranscript022599.htm |title=Full Transcript of NBC Dateline report on Juanita Broaddrick |date=February 1999 |accessdate=February 2006}}</ref> In another 1998 event, [[Elizabeth Ward Gracen]] recanted a six-year-old denial and stated she had a one night stand with Clinton in 1982.<ref name="comgrawc">{{cite web
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| title = All the President's Women – Elizabeth Ward Gracen
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| url = http://www.comedyontap.com/presgirls/ward.html
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| work = Comedy on Tap
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}}
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</ref> Gracen later apologized to Hillary Clinton.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1998/04/25/clinton.gracen/ |title=Former Miss America Apologizes To First Lady | date = April 25, 1998 |publisher=CNN |accessdate=November 9, 2008| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080614143559/http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1998/04/25/clinton.gracen/| archivedate = June 14, 2008}}</ref> Throughout the year, however, Gracen eluded a [[subpoena]] from Kenneth Starr to testify her claim in court.<ref name="Gracen0s">{{cite news| url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/special/clinton/stories/subpoena122498.htm | work=The Washington Post | date=December 24, 1998|title=Big Year for the Bad News Bearers}}</ref>
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==Post-presidential career==
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{{Main|Post-presidency of Bill Clinton}}
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[[File:Photograph of President William Jefferson Clinton Greeting People in a Large Crowd at a "Get Out the Vote" Rally in Los Angeles, California, 11 02 2000.jpg|thumb|Clinton at a Democratic "[[Get out the vote]]" rally in Los Angeles, California on November 2, 2000]]
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Bill Clinton continues to be active in public life, giving speeches, fundraising, and founding charitable organizations.<ref>{{cite news|author=Josh Gerstein |title=Clinton Eligible, Once Again, To Practice Law |work=[[New York Sun]] |date=January 17, 2006 |url=http://www.nysun.com/article/25965?page_no=2 |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref> Altogether, Clinton has spoken at the last six [[Democratic National Conventions]], dating to 1988.{{update after|2013|2|6}}
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===Activities up until 2008 campaign===
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In 2002, Clinton warned that pre-emptive military action against Iraq would have unwelcome consequences.<ref>{{Cite news |url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0210/02/ip.00.html |title=House Passes Resolution Authorizing Use of Force in Iraq; New Jerssy Supreme Court Hears Argument For, Against New Democrat on Ballot |publisher=CNN |date=October 2, 2002 |accessdate=August 30, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/clinton-urges-caution-over-iraq-as-bush-is-granted-war-powers-607775.html |work=The Independent |location=London |author=Andrew Grice |date=October 3, 2002 |accessdate=August 30, 2011 |title=Clinton urges caution over Iraq as Bush is granted war powers |quote=As a preemptive action today, however well-justified, may come back with unwelcome consequences in the future. And because I don't care&nbsp;– and I've done this. I've ordered these kinds of actions. I don't care how precise your bombs and your weapons are, when you set them off, innocent people will die. }}</ref> In 2005, Clinton criticized the Bush administration for its handling of emissions control, while speaking at the [[United Nations Climate Change Conference]] in [[Montreal]].<ref>{{cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4515898.stm |title=Last-minute climate deals reached |publisher=BBC News Online |date=December 10, 2005 |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref>
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The [[William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park]] in [[Little Rock, Arkansas]] was dedicated in 2004.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4021201.stm |title=Clinton Library open for business |publisher=BBC News Online | date=November 18, 2004 | accessdate=September 11, 2011}}</ref> Clinton released a best-selling autobiography, ''[[My Life (Bill Clinton autobiography)|My Life]]'' in 2004.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Glaister |first=Dan |title=Oprah Winfrey book deal tops Clinton's $12&nbsp;m |date=May 22, 2006 |work=The Guardian |location=London |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2006/may/22/books.media |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref> In 2007, he released ''[[Giving: How Each of Us Can Change the World]]'', which also became a [[The New York Times Best Seller list|''The New York Times'' Best Seller]] and garnered positive reviews.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/23/books/bestseller/0923besthardnonfiction.html |title=Best Sellers | date = September 23, 2007|accessdate=September 18, 2007|work=The New York Times | archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070915235442/http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/23/books/bestseller/0923besthardnonfiction.html| archivedate= September 15, 2007 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
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[[File:Bush and Clinton.jpg|thumb|left|Clinton with former President George H. W. Bush in January 2005]]
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In the aftermath of the 2005 [[Indian Ocean tsunami|Asian tsunami]], [[U.N. Secretary-General]] [[Kofi Annan]] appointed Clinton to head a relief effort.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6894871/ns/world_news-tsunami_a_year_later/t/clinton-be-uns-envoy-tsunami-relief/ |title=Clinton to be U.N.'s envoy on tsunami relief |date=February 1, 2005 |agency=Associated Press | publisher = msnbc.com |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref> After [[Hurricane Katrina]], Clinton joined with fellow former President George H. W. Bush to establish the Bush-Clinton Tsunami Fund in January 2005, and the Bush-Clinton Katrina Fund in October of that year.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.constitutioncenter.org/libertymedal/recipient_2006.html |title=2006 Philadelphia Liberty Medal Award |publisher=Constitutioncenter.org |accessdate=August 26, 2011}}</ref> As part of the tsunami effort, these two ex-presidents appeared in a [[Super Bowl XXXIX]] pre-game show,<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39788-2005Jan26.html|title=Senior Bush, Clinton to Appear at Super Bowl |work=The Washington Post | first=Mark | last=Maske | date=January 27, 2005 | accessdate=April 26, 2010}}</ref> and traveled to the affected areas.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4281627.stm|title=Bush, Clinton end tsunami visit |publisher=BBC News Online | date=February 21, 2005 | accessdate=September 11, 2011}}</ref> They also spoke together at the funeral of [[Boris Yeltsin]] in 2007.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,268092,00.html|title=Former Presidents Bush, Clinton Represent U.S. at Boris Yeltsin's Funeral|publisher=Fox News | date=April 24, 2007}}</ref>
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[[File:Clinton pres library.jpg|thumb|[[William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park]], dedicated in 2004]]
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Based on his philanthropic worldview,<ref>{{cite web|author=Jon Meacham |url=http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2009/12/20/planetary-problem-solver.html |title=Planetary Problem Solver |work=Newsweek |date=December 20, 2009 |accessdate=September 11, 2011}}</ref> Clinton created the [[William J. Clinton Foundation]] to address issues of global importance. This foundation includes the Clinton Foundation HIV and AIDS Initiative (CHAI), which strives to combat that disease, and has worked with the Australian government toward that end. The Clinton Global Initiative (CGI), begun by the Clinton Foundation in 2005, attempts to address world problems such as global [[public health]], poverty alleviation and religious and [[ethnic conflict]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.clintonglobalinitiative.org/ |title=Clinton Global Initiative |publisher=Clinton Global Initiative |date=June 19, 2011 |accessdate=August 17, 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110725183207/http://www.clintonglobalinitiative.org/| archivedate= July 25, 2011 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref> In 2005, Clinton announced through his foundation an agreement with manufacturers to stop selling sugared drinks in schools.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.comcast.net/news/index.jsp?cat=GENERAL&fn=/2006/05/03/383279.html |title=William J. Clinton Foundation announces agreement to reduce junk food in schools |publisher=Comcast.net |accessdate=August 25, 2010}}</ref> Clinton's foundation joined with the [[Large Cities Climate Leadership Group]] in 2006 to improve cooperation among those cities, and he met with foreign leaders to promote this initiative.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.clintonfoundation.org/080106-nr-cf-cci-pr-president-clinton-launches-clinton-climate-initiative.htm |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070927022059/http://www.clintonfoundation.org/080106-nr-cf-cci-pr-president-clinton-launches-clinton-climate-initiative.htm |archivedate=September 27, 2007 |title=Clinton Foundation and Climate Partnership, Press Release |date=August 1, 2006}}</ref> The foundation has received donations from a number of governments all over the world, including Asia and the Middle East.<ref name="theage.com.au">{{Cite news|url=http://www.theage.com.au/world/obama-team-turns-scrutiny-on-bill-clinton-20081117-692j.html|title=Obama team turns scrutiny on Bill Clinton |work=The Age | location=Melbourne |accessdate=August 31, 2011 | first1=Peter | last1=Baker | first2=Anne | last2=Davies | date=November 18, 2008}}</ref> In 2008, Foundation director [[Inder Singh (philanthropist)|Inder Singh]] announced that deals to reduce the price of anti-malaria drugs by 30&nbsp;percent in developing nations.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/08233/905462-114.stm |title=Young man combines expertise in economics and social issues at Clinton Foundation |author=Pohla Smith |date=August 20, 2008 |newspaper=Pittsburg Post-Gazette |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref> Clinton also spoke in favor of [[California Proposition 87 (2006)|California Proposition 87]] on [[energy development|alternative energy]], which was voted down.<ref>{{Cite news|first=Peach |last=Indravudh |title=Clinton backs Prop. 87 |date=October 15, 2006 |publisher=[[UCLA]] |url=http://www.dailybruin.com/index.php/article/2006/10/clinton-backs-prop-87 |work=Daily Bruin |accessdate=August 31, 2011 }}</ref>
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===2008 presidential election===
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During the [[Democratic Party (United States) presidential primaries, 2008|2008 Democratic presidential primary campaign]], Clinton vigorously advocated on behalf of his wife, [[Hillary Clinton]]. Through speaking engagements and fundraisers, he was able to raise $10&nbsp;million toward her campaign.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com/2008/07/30/bill-clinton-2007-speech-haul-tops-10-million/ |title=Bill Clinton 2007 speech haul tops $10&nbsp;million |author=Robert Yoon |date=July 30, 2008 |publisher=CNN |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref> Some worried that as an ex-president, he was too active on the trail, too negative to Clinton rival Barack Obama, and alienating his supporters at home and abroad.<ref name = "CBS-Tarnish">{{Cite news |url=http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/01/26/politics/main3755521.shtml |title=Analysis: Bill Clinton's Lost Legacy |publisher=CBS News |date= January 26, 2008 |accessdate=August 30, 2011 |author=Vaughn Ververs}}</ref> Many were especially critical of him following his remarks in the South Carolina primary, which Obama won. Later in the 2008 primaries, there was some infighting between Bill and Hillary's staffs, especially in Pennsylvania.<ref name=autogenerated3>{{Cite news |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/08/us/politics/08recon.html |title=The Long Road to a Clinton Exit |work=The New York Times |author=Peter Baker And Jim Rutenberg |date=June 8, 2008 |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref> Considering Bill's remarks, many thought that he could not rally Hillary supporters behind Obama after Obama won the primary.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2008/08/06/a-catharsis-in-denver.html |date=August 6, 2008 |work=Newsweek |author=Jonathan Alter |accessdate=September 11, 2011 |title=A Catharsis in Denver?}}</ref> Such remarks lead to apprehension that the party would be split to the detriment of Obama's election. Fears were allayed August 27, 2008, when Clinton enthusiastically endorsed Obama at the 2008 [[Democratic National Convention]], saying that all his experience as president assures him that Obama is "ready to lead".<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://blogs.suntimes.com/sweet/2008/08/bill_clinton_vouches_for_obama.html |title=Bill Clinton vouches for Obama: now "ready to lead." |date=August 28, 2008 |work=[[Chicago Sun-Times]] |author=Lynn Sweet |accessdate=August 30, 2011}}</ref> After Hillary Clinton's presidential campaign was over, Bill Clinton continued to raise funds to help pay off her campaign debt.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2008/12/24/clinton-turns-husbands-charity-retire-campaign-debt/ |title=Clinton Turns to Husband's Charity to Retire Campaign Debt |publisher=Fox News |date=December 24, 2008 |accessdate=August 31, 2011 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503544_162-20004883-503544.html |title=Bill Clinton Raffles Himself to Pay Hillary's Campaign Debt |publisher=CBS News |date=May 13, 2010 |author=Stephanie Condon |accessdate=August 31, 2011 }}</ref>
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===After the 2008 election===
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[[File:Obama and Bill Clinton.jpg|thumb|Clinton with President Barack Obama and Senior Advisor [[Valerie Jarrett]] in July 2010]]
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In 2009, Clinton travelled to [[North Korea]] on behalf of [[2009 imprisonment of American journalists by North Korea|two American journalists imprisoned in North Korea]]. [[Euna Lee]] and [[Laura Ling]] had been imprisoned for illegally entering the country from China.<ref name=BBCDPRK>{{Cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8182716.stm |title=Bill Clinton meets N Korea leader |publisher=BBC News Online |date=August 4, 2009 |accessdate=August 31, 2011}}</ref> [[Jimmy Carter]] had made a similar visit in 1994.<ref name=BBCDPRK/> After Clinton met with North Korean leader [[Kim Jong-il]], Kim issued a pardon.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8184583.stm|title=North Korea pardons US reporters |publisher=BBC News Online |date=August 4, 2009 |accessdate=August 31, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/06/world/asia/06korea.html|title=Bill Clinton and Journalists in Emotional Return to U.S. |work=The New York Times |date=August 5, 2009 |accessdate=August 30, 2011 | first1=Mark | last1=Landler | first2=Peter | last2=Baker}}</ref>
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Since then, Clinton has been assigned a number of other diplomatic missions. He was named United Nations [[Special Envoy of the Secretary-General|Special Envoy]] to [[Haiti]] in 2009.<ref name="haiti">{{Cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8056762.stm |title=Bill Clinton to be UN Haiti envoy |publisher=BBC News Online |date=May 19, 2009 |accessdate=September 11, 2011 }}</ref> In response to the [[2010 Haiti earthquake]], U.S. President Barack Obama announced that Clinton and [[George W. Bush]] would coordinate efforts to raise funds for Haiti's recovery.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com/2010/01/16/presidents-clinton-bush-lead-effort-to-raise-funds-for-haiti/ |title=Presidents Clinton, Bush lead effort to raise funds for Haiti |publisher=CNN |date=January 16, 2010 |accessdate=August 31, 2011}}</ref> Clinton continues to visit Haiti to witness the inauguration of refugee villages, and to raise funds for victims of the earthquake.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://abcnews.go.com/Business/wireStory?id=14318999 |title=Clinton launches business loan program in Haiti |agency=Associated Press | publisher = ABC News |author=Jacob Kushner |date=August 17, 2011 |accessdate=December 10, 2011}}</ref> In 2010, Clinton announced support of, and delivered the keynote address for, the inauguration of [[NTR Foundation|NTR]], Ireland's first environmental foundation.<ref>{{cite news |title=Clinton backs NTR's environment foundation |work=The Irish Independent |url=http://www.independent.ie/business/irish/clinton-backs-ntrs-environment-foundation-2089592.html |author=Emmet Oliver |date=March 5, 2010 |accessdate=August 31, 2011 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=President Bill Clinton Delivers Keynote Address|publisher=NTR Foundation|date=March 4, 2010|url=http://www.ntr-foundation.org/news/article/president-bill-clinton-delivers-keynote-address1/ |accessdate=August 31, 2011}}</ref> In July 2012, Clinton gave the keynote address at the Re|Source Conference, a collaboration between Oxford University, the [[The Stordalen Foundation|Stordalen Foundation]] and the [[Rothschild family|Rothschild Foundation]].<ref>{{cite news |title=Stordalen caught Clinton |publisher=Aftenposten |url=http://www.aftenposten.no/okonomi/Gunhild-Stordalen-kuppet-Clinton-6812563.html |author=Hilde Lewis |date=March 5, 2010 |accessdate=May 10, 2012 }}</ref> At the [[2012 Democratic National Convention]], Clinton gave a widely praised speech nominating Barack Obama.<ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.cnn.com/2012/09/06/opinion/opinion-roundup-clinton/index.html | title =Bill Clinton brings it for Obama | publisher =CNN | date =September 6, 2012}}</ref>
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===Post-presidential health concerns===
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In September 2004, Clinton received a quadruple bypass surgery.<ref name="news.bbc.co.uk">{{Cite news| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8511817.stm |publisher=BBC News Online | title=Bill Clinton 'in good spirits' after heart procedure | date=February 12, 2010 | accessdate=August 31, 2011}}</ref> In March 2005, he underwent surgery for a partially collapsed lung.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7127096/ |title=Clinton surgery called successful |agency=Associated Press |publisher=msnbc.com |date=March 10, 2005 |accessdate=August 31, 2011}}</ref> On February 11, 2010, he was rushed to [[Columbia Presbyterian Hospital]] in New York City after complaining of chest pains, and had two [[coronary stent]]s implanted in his heart.<ref name="news.bbc.co.uk"/><ref>{{Cite news|author=Mark Egan |url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/02/11/us-clinton-idUSTRE61A5L020100211 |title=Bill Clinton in good spirits after heart procedure |agency=Reuters |date= February 11, 2010|accessdate=September 11, 2011}}</ref> After this experience, Clinton adopted the plant-based whole foods ([[veganism|vegan]]) diet recommended by doctors [[Dean Ornish]] and [[Caldwell Esselstyn]].<ref name="cnn2011">{{cite news |url=http://www.cnn.com/2011/HEALTH/08/18/bill.clinton.diet.vegan/index.html |title=From omnivore to vegan: The dietary education of Bill Clinton |author=David S. Martin|date=August 18, 2011 |publisher=CNN |accessdate=September 17, 2012}}</ref> Clinton has begun practicing [[Buddhism]] in order to help him relax and complete a healthier lifestyle.<ref name="http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2183101/Bill-Clinton-turns-art-Buddhist-meditation-relax.html">{{cite web | url=http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2183101/Bill-Clinton-turns-art-Buddhist-meditation-relax.html | title=Chill Bill: Clinton turns to the art of Buddhist meditation to relax | accessdate=March 6, 2013}}</ref>
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==Honors and accolades==
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{{main|List of honors and awards earned by Bill Clinton}}
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[[File:William S. Cohen presents President Clinton the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service.jpg|thumb|left|[[United States Secretary of Defense|Secretary of Defense]] [[William S. Cohen|Cohen]] presents President Clinton the DoD Medal for Distinguished Public Service.]] [[File:Statut-Clinton-Pristina.JPG|thumb|right|200px|Monumental Clinton statue in the capital of the [[Republic of Kosovo]].]]
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[[File:Bill Clinton statue.jpg|thumb|Bill Clinton statue in [[Prishtina]].]]
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Various colleges and universities have awarded Clinton [[honorary degrees]], including [[Legum Doctor|Doctorate of Law]] degrees<ref>{{cite web |url=http://faccoun.unc.edu/awards/honorary-degrees/ |title=Honorary Degrees |year=1993 |accessdate=August 31, 2011 |publisher=UNC-Chapel Hill Office of Faculty Governance}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.tulane.edu/newwave/cornerpics/051906_grads.html |title=President Bill Clinton with an honorary doctorate of law |publisher=Tulane University |date=May 19, 2006 |accessdate=August 31, 2011}}</ref> and [[Doctor of Humane Letters]] degrees.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.rit.edu/news/story.php?id=45649 |title=Clinton to address graduates, Honorary doctorate will be bestowed |publisher=RIT News, Rochester Institute of Technology |date=May 18, 2007 |accessdate=August 31, 2011}}</ref> Schools have been named for Clinton,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.compton.k12.ca.us/www/schoolsites/showschool.aspx?id=13900 |title=Clinton Elementary |publisher=Compton Unified School District |accessdate=August 31, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.lausd.net/Clinton_MS/ |title=William Jefferson Clinton Middle School |publisher=Los Angeles Unified School District |accessdate=August 31, 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110719002854/http://www.lausd.net/Clinton_MS/| archivedate= July 19, 2011 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.clintonschool.uasys.edu/ |title=Clinton School of Public service |publisher=University of Arkansas |accessdate=August 31, 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110720063224/http://clintonschool.uasys.edu/| archivedate= July 20, 2011 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref> and statues do homage him.<ref name=WJCstatue>{{Cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8336789.stm |title=Kosovo unveils Clinton's statue |publisher=BBC News Online |accessdate=November 2, 2009 | date=November 1, 2009| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20091102101327/http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8336789.stm| archivedate= November 2, 2009 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/05/23/us-serbia-kosovo-clinton-idUSL2316200920070523 |title=Kosovo to honor Bill Clinton with statue|agency=Reuters |date= May 23, 2007|accessdate=September 11, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.russiatoday.com/Politics/2009-11-02/clinton-unveils-statue-kosovo.html |title=Clinton unveils statue to (guess who?) in Kosovo |publisher=Russiatoday.com |author=Robert Bridge |date=November 2, 2009 |accessdate=August 31, 2011}}</ref> U.S. states where he has been honored include Missouri,<ref name=DeMolay-1>{{cite web|author=DeMolay International |url=http://www.demolay.org/aboutdemolay/halloffame.php |title=DeMolay Hall of Fame |publisher=Demolay.org |accessdate=August 25, 2010| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20100905133239/http://www.demolay.org/aboutdemolay/halloffame.php| archivedate= September 5, 2010 <!-- DASHBot -->| deadurl= no}}</ref> Arkansas,<ref>{{Cite news|last=Purdum |first=Todd S. |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/17/us/campaign-season-another-first-for-clinton.html |title=Campaign Season; Another First for Clinton |work=The New York Times |date=October 17, 2002 |accessdate=August 6, 2009}}</ref> Kentucky,<ref name="HOOKC">{{cite web|url=http://kycolonels.org/index.cgi?id=54|title=Colonels website|accessdate=December 21, 2009|publisher=Honorable Order of Kentucky Colonels|last=Kentucky Colonels|first=Honorable Order of}}</ref> and New York.<ref>{{cite news|last=Dunlap |first=David |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/23/nyregion/23rebuild.html |title=Pataki Offers Peek at 9/11 Memorial Progress |work=[[The New York Times]] |date=November 23, 2004 |accessdate=August 31, 2011}}</ref> He was presented with the [[Medal for Distinguished Public Service]] by [[United States Secretary of Defense|Secretary of Defense]] [[William S. Cohen]] in 2001.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.defense.gov/photos/newsphoto.aspx?newsphotoid=3174 | title=Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen presents the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service to President Bill Clinton in a ceremonial farewell at Fort Myer, Va., on Jan. 5, 2001. |publisher=U.S. Department of Defense |accessdate=September 1, 2011}}</ref> The [[Clinton Presidential Center]] was opened in [[Little Rock, Arkansas]] in his honor on December 5, 2001.<ref name="NYT">{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/1999/06/28/us/dinner-for-a-presidential-library-contributions-welcome.html?pagewanted=all|title=Dinner for a Presidential Library, Contributions Welcome|date=June 28, 1999|last=Van Natta|first=Don, Jr.|work=The New York Times|accessdate=December 17, 2009}}</ref>
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He has been honored in various other ways, in countries that include the Czech Republic,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://old.hrad.cz/kpr/rady/rbl_lide_uk.html |title=List of Individuals Awarded the Order of the White Lion |publisher=Old.hrad.cz |date=October 13, 2005 |accessdate=August 6, 2009}}</ref> Papua New Guinea,<ref>{{Cite news |title=It's now 'Chief'' Bill Clinton |publisher=UPI |date=December 3, 2006 |url=http://www.upi.com/Top_News/2006/12/03/Its-now-Chief-Bill-Clinton/UPI-99431165188768/ |accessdate=August 31, 2011}}</ref> Germany,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.karlspreis.de/index.php?id=12&doc=42|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20080206203817/http://www.karlspreis.de/index.php?id=12&doc=42|archivedate=February 6, 2008|title=International Prize of the city of Aachen (German)}}</ref> and Kosovo.<ref name=WJCstatue /> The [[Republic of Kosovo]], in gratitude for his help during the [[Kosovo War]], renamed a major street in the capital city of [[Pristina]] as [[Bill Clinton Boulevard]] and added a monumental Clinton statue.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/05/23/statue-watch-bill-clinton-edition/|title=Statue Watch: Bill Clinton Edition|author=Mike Nizza|date=May 23, 2007|accessdate=October 8, 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://travel.nytimes.com/2007/12/17/world/europe/17kosovo.html |title=Kosovo Struggles to Forge an Identity|author=Dan Bilefsky|date=December 17, 2007|accessdate=October 8, 2012 | work = [[The New York Times]] }}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/09/world/europe/09iht-kosovo.1.8653760.html|title=Kosovo: Forging an identity on eve of new era|author=Dan Bilefsky|date=December 9, 2007|accessdate=October 8, 2012 | work = [[The New York Times]] }}</ref>
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In 1993, Clinton was selected as ''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]''{{'s}} "[[Time Person of the Year|Man of the Year]]",<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.time.com/time/covers/0,16641,19930104,00.html |title=Bill Clinton, Man of the Year |newspaper=[[Time (magazine)|Time]] |author=Elizabeth P. Valk |date=January 4, 1993 |accessdate=August 31, 2011 }}</ref> and again in 1998, along with [[Ken Starr]].<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.time.com/time/covers/0,16641,19981228,00.html |title=Kenneth Starr & Bill Clinton, Men of the Year |newspaper=[[Time (magazine)|Time]] |author=Nancy Gibbs |date=December 28, 1998 |accessdate=August 31, 2011}}</ref> From a poll conducted of the American people in December 1999, Clinton was among eighteen included in [[Gallup's List of Widely Admired People]] of the 20th century.<ref>{{cite book | title = The Gallup Poll 1999 | publisher=Scholarly Resources Inc | year = 1999 | location = Wilmington, DE | pages = 248–249}}</ref> He was honored with a [[Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children]], a [[J. William Fulbright]] Prize for International Understanding,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.fulbright.org/saluting-leadership/fulbright-prize/previous-laureates/william-jefferson-clinton |title=William Jefferson Clinton |publisher=Fulbright Association |accessdate=August 31, 2011}}</ref> a [[TED (conference)|TED]] Prize (named for the confluence of technology, entertainment and design),<ref>{{cite web |url=http://tedblog.typepad.com/tedblog/2007/04/2007_ted_prize__2.html |title=2007 TED Prize winner Bill Clinton on TEDTalks |publisher=TED Blog |date=April 4, 2007 |accessdate=August 31, 2011}}</ref> and was named as an Honorary [[GLAAD Media Award]] recipient for his work as an advocate for the [[LGBT]] community.<ref name="24-GLAAD-LA">{{cite web|url=http://www.glaad.org/mediaawards/losangeles|title=24th Annual GLAAD Media Awards – Los Angeles|author=|accessdate=7 April 2013|publisher=[[GLAAD|GLAAD.org]]}}</ref>
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==Authored books==
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*{{cite book|title=[[Between Hope and History]] |year=1996|publisher=Times Books|location=New York|isbn=978-0-8129-2913-3}}
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*{{cite book|title=[[My Life (Bill Clinton autobiography)|My Life]]|year=2004|publisher=Vintage Books|location=New York|isbn=978-1-4000-3003-3|edition=1st}}
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*{{cite book|title=[[Giving: How Each of Us Can Change the World]]|year=2007|publisher=Knopf|location=New York|isbn=0-307-26674-5|edition=1st}}
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*{{cite book|title = Back to Work: Why We Need Smart Government for a Strong Economy|url = http://books.google.com/?id=-S2JCDOpgXYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=inauthor:%22Bill+Clinton%22|year =2011|publisher = Knopf|isbn = 978-0-307-95975-1}}
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==See also==
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{{Portal|Arkansas|Biography|Government of the United States}}
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* [[Historical rankings of Presidents of the United States]]
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{{-}}
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==References==
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{{Reflist|30em}}
  +
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==Further reading==
  +
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===Primary sources===
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{{refbegin|30em}}
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* Clinton, Bill. (with [[Al Gore]]). ''[http://web.archive.org/web/20070621005829/http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2/content_storage_01/0000000b/80/22/4f/40.pdf Science in the National Interest].'' Washington, D.C.: The White House, August 1994.
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*--- (with Al Gore). ''[http://www.gcrio.org/USCCAP/toc.html The Climate Change Action Plan].'' Washington, D.C.: The White House, October 1993.
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* [[Taylor Branch]] ''The Clinton Tapes: Wrestling History with the President.'' (2009) Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-4333-6
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* ''Official Congressional Record Impeachment Set:&nbsp;... Containing the Procedures for Implementing the Articles of Impeachment and the Proceedings of the Impeachment Trial of President William Jefferson Clinton.'' Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O., 1999.
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* ''Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, William J. Clinton.'' Washington, D.C.: Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., 1994–2002.
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* [[S. Daniel Abraham]] ''[[Peace is Possible]]'', foreword by Bill Clinton
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{{refend}}
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===Popular books===
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{{refbegin|30em}}
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* Peter Baker ''The Breach: Inside the Impeachment and Trial of William Jefferson Clinton'' (2000) ISBN 0-684-86813-X
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* [[James Bovard]] ''Feeling Your Pain: The Explosion and Abuse of Government Power in the Clinton-Gore Years'' (2000) ISBN 0-312-23082-6
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* [[Joe Conason]] and [[Gene Lyons]] ''The Hunting of the President: The Ten-Year Campaign to Destroy Bill and Hillary Clinton'' (2003) ISBN 0-312-27319-3
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* [[Elizabeth Drew]] ''On the Edge: The Clinton Presidency'' (1994) ISBN 0-671-87147-1
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* [[David Gergen]] ''Eyewitness to Power: The Essence of Leadership.'' (2000) ISBN 0-684-82663-1
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* [[Nigel Hamilton (author)|Nigel Hamilton]] ''Bill Clinton: An American Journey'' (2003) ISBN 0-375-50610-1
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* [[Christopher Hitchens]] ''No One Left to Lie to: The Triangulations of William Jefferson Clinton'' (1999) ISBN 1-85984-736-6
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* [[Michael Isikoff]] ''Uncovering Clinton: A Reporter's Story'' (1999) ISBN 0-609-60393-0
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* [[Mark Katz]] ''Clinton and Me: A Real-Life Political Comedy'' (2004) ISBN 978-0-7868-6949-7
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* David Maraniss ''The Clinton Enigma: A Four and a Half Minute Speech Reveals This President's Entire Life'' (1998) ISBN 0-684-86296-4
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* [[Dick Morris]] with Eileen McGann ''Because He Could'' (2004) ISBN 0-06-078415-6
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* [[Richard Posner|Richard A. Posner]] ''An Affair of State: The Investigation, Impeachment, and Trial of President Clinton'' (1999) ISBN 0-674-00080-3
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* Mark J. Rozell ''The Clinton Scandal and the Future of American Government'' (2000) ISBN 0-87840-777-4
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* Michael Waldman ''POTUS Speaks: Finding the Words That Defined the Clinton Presidency'' (2000) ISBN 0-7432-0020-9
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* Ivory Tower Publishing Company. Achievements of the Clinton Administration: the Complete Legislative and Executive. (1995) ISBN 0-88032-748-0
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{{refend}}
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===Academic studies===
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{{refbegin|30em}}
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* Cohen; Jeffrey E. "The Polls: Change and Stability in Public Assessments of Personal Traits, Bill Clinton, 1993–99" ''Presidential Studies Quarterly'', Vol. 31, 2001
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* Cronin, Thomas E. and Michael A. Genovese; "President Clinton and Character Questions" ''Presidential Studies Quarterly'' Vol. 28, 1998
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* Davis; John. "The Evolution of American Grand Strategy and the War on Terrorism: Clinton and Bush Perspectives" ''White House Studies'', Vol. 3, 2003
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* Edwards; George C. "Bill Clinton and His Crisis of Governance" ''Presidential Studies Quarterly,'' Vol. 28, 1998
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* Fisher; Patrick. "Clinton's Greatest Legislative Achievement? the Success of the 1993 Budget Reconciliation Bill" ''White House Studies'', Vol. 1, 2001
  +
* Glad; Betty. "Evaluating Presidential Character" ''Presidential Studies Quarterly'', Vol. 28, 1998
  +
* William G. Hyland. ''Clinton's World: Remaking American Foreign Policy'' (1999) ISBN 0-275-96396-9
  +
* Jewett, Aubrey W. and Marc D. Turetzky; "Stability and Change in President Clinton's Foreign Policy Beliefs, 1993–96" ''Presidential Studies Quarterly'', Vol. 28, 1998
  +
* Johnson, Fard. "Politics, Propaganda and Public Opinion: The Influence of Race and Class on the 1993–1994 Health Care Reform Debate", 2004. ISBN 1-4116-6345-4
  +
* Laham, Nicholas, ''A Lost Cause: Bill Clinton's Campaign for National Health Insurance'' (1996)
  +
* Lanoue, David J. and Craig F. Emmert; "Voting in the Glare of the Spotlight: Representatives' Votes on the Impeachment of President Clinton" ''Polity'', Vol. 32, 1999
  +
* Maurer; Paul J. "Media Feeding Frenzies: Press Behavior during Two Clinton Scandals" ''Presidential Studies Quarterly,'' Vol. 29, 1999
  +
* Nie; Martin A. {{" '}}It's the Environment, Stupid!': Clinton and the Environment" ''Presidential Studies Quarterly'', Vol. 27, 1997
  +
* O'Connor; Brendon. "Policies, Principles, and Polls: Bill Clinton's Third Way Welfare Politics 1992–1996" ''The Australian Journal of Politics and History'', Vol. 48, 2002
  +
* Poveda; Tony G. "Clinton, Crime, and the Justice Department" ''Social Justice'', Vol. 21, 1994
  +
* Renshon; Stanley A. ''The Clinton Presidency: Campaigning, Governing, and the Psychology of Leadership'' Westview Press, 1995
  +
* Renshon; Stanley A. "The Polls: The Public's Response to the Clinton Scandals, Part 1: Inconsistent Theories, Contradictory Evidence" ''Presidential Studies Quarterly'', Vol. 32, 2002
  +
* Rushefsky, Mark E. and Kant Patel. ''Politics, Power & Policy Making: The Case of Health Care Reform in the 1990s'' (1998) ISBN 1-56324-956-1
  +
* Schantz, Harvey L. ''Politics in an Era of Divided Government: Elections and Governance in the Second Clinton Administration'' (2001) ISBN 0-8153-3583-0
  +
* Wattenberg; Martin P. "The Democrats' Decline in the House during the Clinton Presidency: An Analysis of Partisan Swings" ''Presidential Studies Quarterly'', Vol. 29, 1999
  +
* Wattier; Mark J. "The Clinton Factor: The Effects of Clinton's Personal Image in 2000 Presidential Primaries and in the General Election" ''White House Studies'', Vol. 4, 2004
  +
* Smithers, Luken J. "The Miracle Whip"
  +
{{refend}}
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  +
==External links==
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{{Spoken Wikipedia|Bill Clinton.ogg|2012-06-04}}
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{{Sister project links|Bill Clinton}}
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;Official
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* [http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamjclinton/ White House biography]
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* [http://clinton6.nara.gov/ Clinton Presidential Materials Project] Press releases and speech transcripts from the administration.
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* [http://www.clintonschool.uasys.edu/ Clinton School of Public Service]
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;Organizations
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* [http://www.clintonfoundation.org/ William J. Clinton Foundation] official website
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;Books and movies
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* {{IMDb name|0001051|name=Bill Clinton}}
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* {{OL author|id=OL24421A}}
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* {{gutenberg author|id=Bill+Clinton | name=Bill Clinton}}
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;Interviews, speeches and statements
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* {{CongLinks
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| c-span = billclinton
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| rose = 329
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| imdb =
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| ontheissuespath = Bill_Clinton.htm
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| nyt = c/bill_clinton
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| wsj =
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| guardian = world/bill-clinton
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| findagrave =
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| retrieved =
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}}
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*{{TED|speakers/bill_clinton.html}}
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* [http://docsouth.unc.edu/sohp/A-0027/menu.html Oral History Interview with Bill Clinton] from [http://docsouth.unc.edu/sohp/ Oral Histories of the American South]
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* [http://youtube-global.blogspot.com/2010/09/president-clinton-youtube-interview.html President Clinton: The Youtube Interview]
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* [http://web.archive.org/web/20080209014908/http://millercenter.virginia.edu/scripps/digitalarchive/speechDetail/34 Full audio] of a number of Clinton speeches via the Miller Center of Public Affairs (UVa)
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* [http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2006/09/18/060918fa_fact1 ''The Wanderer''] Profile in ''[[The New Yorker]]'', September 2006, the most extensive interview post-presidency
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;Media coverage
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*{{Aljazeeratopic|person/bill-clinton}}
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*{{Guardiantopic|world/clinton}}
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*{{NYTtopic|people/c/bill_clinton}}
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*{{WSJtopic|person/C/bill-clinton/6326}}
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*{{WhoRunsGov|Profiles/William_J._Clinton}}
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;Other
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* [http://www.millercenter.virginia.edu/index.php/academic/americanpresident/clinton Extensive essays on Bill Clinton] and shorter essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the [[Miller Center of Public Affairs]]
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* [http://americanheraldry.org/pages/index.php?n=President.Clinton Armigerous American Presidents Series] article from the [[American Heraldry Society]].
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* [http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=41 Bill Clinton] at [[C-SPAN]]'s ''[[American Presidents: Life Portraits]]''
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* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/clinton/player/ Clinton] — An [[American Experience]] Documentary
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{{Navboxes
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{{Bill Clinton}}
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{{US Presidents}}
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{{National Governors Association chairs}}
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{{Hillary Rodham Clinton}}
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{{United States presidential election, 1996}}
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{{Charlemagne Prize recipients}}
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{{Persondata
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|NAME=Clinton, Bill
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|ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Clinton, William Jefferson (full name)
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|SHORT DESCRIPTION=42nd President of the United States (1993–2001)
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|DATE OF BIRTH=August 19, 1946
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|PLACE OF BIRTH=Hope, Arkansas, United States
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|DATE OF DEATH=
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|PLACE OF DEATH=
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}}
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{{DEFAULTSORT:Clinton, Bill}}
 
[[Category:Bill Clinton| ]]
 
[[Category:Bill Clinton| ]]
 
[[Category:1946 births]]
 
[[Category:1946 births]]