Alpha Kappa Alpha (ΑΚΑ) is the first Greek-lettered sorority established and incorporated by African-American college women. Membership is primarily for college women, but not all members have attended college.  The sorority was founded on January 15, 1908, at Howard University in Washington, D.C., by a group of nine students, led by Ethel Hedgeman Lyle. Forming a sorority broke barriers for African-American women in areas where little power or authority existed due to a lack of opportunities for minorities and women in the early 20th century. Alpha Kappa Alpha was incorporated on January 29, 1913.
Consisting of college-educated women of many diverse backgrounds from around the world, including, but not limited to, African, Caucasian, Asian, Native American, Hispanic and Indian descent, the sorority serves through a membership of more than 250,000 women in over 900 chapters in the United States and several other countries. Women may join through undergraduate chapters at a college or university or they may also join through a graduate chapter after acquiring an undergraduate or advanced college degree.
After the organization's establishment over a century ago, Alpha Kappa Alpha has helped to improve social and economic conditions through community service programs. Members have improved education through independent initiatives, contributed to community-building by creating programs and associations, such as the Mississippi Health Clinic, and influenced federal legislation by Congressional lobbying through the National Non-Partisan Lobby on Civil and Democratic Rights. The sorority works with communities through service initiatives and progressive programs relating to education, family, health, and business.
Alpha Kappa Alpha is part of the National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC). The current International President is Carolyn House Stewart, and the sorority's document and pictorial archives are located at Moorland-Spingarn Research Center.
In spring 1907, Ethel Hedgeman led efforts to create a sisterhood at Howard University. Howard faculty member Ethal Robinson encouraged Hedgeman by relating her own recollections of sorority life at the Women's College at Brown University. Hedgeman was also inspired by her mentors at Howard. To implement her idea, Hedgeman began recruiting interested classmates during the summer of 1907.
Eventually, nine women including Hedgeman were instrumental in organizing Alpha Kappa Alpha in the fall of 1907. With Hedgeman serving as the temporary chairperson, the women wrote the sorority's constitution, devised the motto, chose the favorite colors, and named the sorority Alpha Kappa Alpha. Later in 1908, seven sophomore honor students expressed interest in joining and were accepted without initiation. The first initiation was held in a wing of Miner Hall on Howard University on February 11, 1909. On May 25, 1909, Alpha Kappa Alpha held its first "Ivy Week," a celebration that included planting ivy at Miner Hall.
Struggles and Incorporation: 1912–1913Edit
 Alpha Kappa Alpha continued to grow at Howard. By the end of the 1911–1912 school year, there were more than twenty members of the sorority and the organization had become an influential part of student life at Howard. However, following the annual celebration known as "Ivy Day" on the campus of Howard University in the spring of 1912, founder and former Basileus, Nellie Quander came to the realization that several other newly initiated members of the sorority elected to make fundamental changes to the colors, letters, and constitution and to make the sorority more active outside the walls of Howard University. These women, twenty-two in total, claimed that they wanted to make the sorority more and that they wished for the organization to have a greater impact beyond the walls of Howard University. On January 13, 1913, the twenty-two women of the entire undergraduate chapter voted to transform the original Alpha Kappa Alpha into Delta Sigma Theta Nellie Quander was steadfast in her efforts to maintain the integrity and tenets upon which Alpha Kappa Alpha was founded. She, along with the women who had become ΑΚΑ's during the four years of the sorority's existence, and had now graduated, elected to remain Alpha Kappa Alpha. Nellie Quander set up a three person committee that successfully petitioned to incorporate ΑΚΑ as a perpetual entity. Alpha Kappa Alpha was nationally incorporated on January 29, 1913.
|Alpha Kappa Alpha Officer Titles|
|"Pecunious Grammateus"||Financial Secretary|
|"Philacter"||Sergeant at Arms|
Expansion and initial implementation of programs: 1913–1940Edit
Alpha Kappa Alpha continued to grow nationally. A second chapter at the University of Chicago was chartered in fall 1913. The sorority played an active role in voicing concerns of the day. The women participated in the 1913 Women's Suffrage March. In addition, Alpha Kappa Alpha helped to support members by providing scholarship funds for school and foreign studies. Alpha Kappa Alpha began to unite members at the annual Boulé, the sorority's governing body. The sorority's pledge was written by Grace Edwards and was adopted by the 1920 Boulé. In addition, the sorority's crest was designed by Phyllis Wheatley Waters and accepted in the same Boulé. A year later, at the 1921 Boulé, the Ivy Leaf was designated as "the official organ of Alpha Kappa Alpha," and Founders' Week, paying honor to ΆKΆ's founders was established. Pearls were first introduced to the sorority in the same year. The sorority membership pin was accepted in the following Boulé in Kansas City, Missouri. At the 1947 Boulé, pins for honorary members were designed and approved.
On May 10, 1930, Alpha Kappa Alpha, along with the fraternities Kappa Alpha Psi and Omega Psi Phi and sororities Delta Sigma Theta and Zeta Phi Beta, formed the National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) at Howard University. Currently consisting of nine predominately black fraternities and sororities, NPHC promotes interaction through forums, meetings, and other mediums for the exchange of information, and engages in cooperative programming and initiatives through various activities and functions.
Throughout the Great Migration, members assisted the Travelers Aid Society, to help thousands of Southern Blacks adjust to Northern society, find housing and navigate around the city. They also volunteered at the Freedman's Hospital.
In April 1933, during the Great Depression, International President Ida Jackson visited All Saints Industrial School in Lexington, Mississippi. She found difficult conditions in the Mississippi Delta. Some of the teachers themselves did not have an education past the seventh grade. African Americans were trying to make a living sharecropping on plantation land as agricultural prices continued to fall. In summer 1934, Ida Jackson initiated the Summer School for Rural Teachers to train future teachers. She worked with a total of 22 student teachers and 243 school children. In addition, she held night classes for 48 adults. By obtaining 2600 books for the school's library, Jackson made it "the largest library owned by white or colored in all Holmes County."
In summer 1938, Ida Jackson focused on poverty and established a regional health clinic. She had acquired $1,000 from the Boulé to fund the project in December 1935. The clinic evolved into the Mississippi Health Project, with Dr. Dorothy Boulding Ferebee appointed as the director.
The Mississippi Health Project brought primary medical care to the rural Black population across the state for six summers. The program has been recognized as the first mobile health clinic in the United States, assisting approximately 15,000 people in the Mississippi Delta. The project was noted for helping to decrease cases diphtheria and smallpox in the region and to improve nutritional and dental practices throughout rural Mississippi.
Led by incorporator Norma Elizabeth Boyd, the sorority created the National Non-Partisan Lobby on Civil and Democratic Rights (NPC) in 1938, later renamed the National Non-Partisan Council on Public Affairs. It was the first full-time congressional lobby for minority group civil rights. Throughout the organization's life, the Non-Partisan Council worked with the NAACP, National Urban League, The United Office and Professional Workers of America, The National Association of Graduate Nurses, the American Federation of Churches, the Colored Women's Club, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and Auxiliary, and the New York Voter's League. The NPC was dissolved on July 15, 1948, by twelfth Supreme Basileus Edna Over Gray-Campbell. A year later, Alpha Kappa Alpha was the first sorority to apply for life membership in the NAACP.
To replace the NPC, in August 1945, Alpha Kappa Alpha established the American Council on Human Rights (ACHR). The council made recommendations to the government concerning civil rights legislation. The ACHR was proposed at the 1946 Boulé. In October 1946, Alpha Kappa Alpha was the first sorority to obtain observer status at the United Nations. On January 25, 1948, Delta Sigma Theta, Zeta Phi Beta, Sigma Gamma Rho sororities and Alpha Phi Alpha and Phi Beta Sigma fraternities were charter members of the ACHR. Kappa Alpha Psi later was included in March 1949.
On September 1, 1945, Alpha Kappa Alpha established The National Health Office in New York City. The National Health Office coordinated activities with local chapters and worked with the ACHC to promote health initiatives before Congress, increase the number of student nurses, and improve the state of health programs at historically Black Colleges and Universities. The National Health Office was dissolved in 1951, as its goals were incorporated into the sorority's international program.
Civil rights and educational training: 1950–1970Edit
Throughout the fifties, sixties, and seventies, members helped to sponsor job training, reading enrichment, heritage and youth programs. By encouraging youth to improve math, science, and reading skills, the sorority continued a legacy of community service and pledged to enrich the lives of others. Financially, Alpha Kappa Alpha expanded funding for projects in 1953 through the creation and trademark of a fashion show called FashionettaTM. Politically, ACHR continued lobbying for equality concerning civil rights during the 1950s and 1960s. According to Collier-Thomas, the ACHR drew attention to legislation concerning education, transportation, employment, and improving equality in the armed forces and public places. The ACHR participated in filing civil rights cases in amicus curiae with Bolling v. Sharpe and 1954's Brown v. Board of Education. However, as a whole, ACHR voted to dissolve operations in 1963.
Alpha Kappa Alpha contributed programs for inner city youth by capitalizing on political gains in the White House. On August 20, 1964, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Economic Opportunity Act, which allowed the creation of the Job Corps. The sorority wanted to operate a job training center for students. Led by president Julia Purnell, ΆKΆ negotiated with the Office of Economic Opportunity to operate a women's center from October 1964 to January 1965. Alpha Kappa Alpha was awarded a US$4 million grant to operate the Cleveland Job Corps on February 12, 1965, becoming the first sorority to operate a federal job training center. Beginning in 1965, the Cleveland Job Corps trained female high school dropouts, aged 16 to 21, with job and educational skills. In 1976, the Cleveland Job Corps accepted males. The sorority operated the Cleveland Job Corps until 1995.
The sorority educated the community through highlighting the accomplishments of notable individuals by publishing The Heritage Series between 1968 and 1972. These pamphlets were a series of biographies of top African-American women. Altogether, the entire collection contained "Women in the Judiciary," "Women in Politics," "Women in Medicine," "Women in Business," and "Women in Dentistry." Alpha Kappa Alpha also donated $20,000 for preserving Martin Luther King, Jr.'s birthplace in Atlanta, Georgia, in the early 1970s. In 1978, during the sorority's seventieth anniversary, the Memorial Window at Howard University was dedicated to the founders of Alpha Kappa Alpha. Surviving founders Lavinia Norman and Norma Boyd attended the celebration of unveiling the Memorial Window, designed by Lois Mailou Jones.
Bridging towards the twenty-first century: 1980–2007Edit
Soon after the sorority's 75th anniversary, Alpha Kappa Alpha contributed funds to decrease Africa's poverty with the establishment of African Village Development Program (AVDP). As a conjoint program with Africare, the sorority sought to decrease poverty in African villages. In collaboration with the International Foundation for Education and Self-Help (IFESH), the sorority built ten schools in South Africa after apartheid ended, and it donated computer technology to the region.
Throughout the 1990s, the sorority continued to provide after-school mentoring programs, such as ON TRACK. ON TRACK, an acronym which stands for "Organizing, Nurturing, Team building, Respecting, Achieving, Counseling and Knowing," was designed to help the progress of 20,000 third graders who were at-risk of failing their education. Sponsored by Daimler Chrysler, ON TRACK was designated to "improve communication, academics, physical and emotional health, peer leadership, etiquette, and interpersonal relationships." In addition, programs such as the Ivy Reading AKAdemy and Young Authors Program improved elementary reading comprehension skills, while P.I.M.S. highlighted programs in math and science.
The sorority responded to the call for help in fall 2005 after Hurricane Katrina, by raising money for a disaster relief fund. In July 2007, through Habitat for Humanity, the sorority helped build a house in New Orleans for a family that survived Hurricane Katrina.
In addition to educational programs, Alpha Kappa Alpha contributed to drawing awareness to health-related issues, such as AIDS, sickle cell anemia, breast cancer, and the importance of staying in shape. Recently, the sorority has supported the efforts of justice for the Jena Six. Also, the sorority connects to the past by partnering with African Ancestry. Sorority members may use African Ancestry's DNA testing to find genealogical data for themselves and their families. The purpose of the partnership is to help members trace family connections through the world as well as in Africa, to embrace African-American culture and the larger community.
Centennial celebration: 2008Edit
Alpha Kappa Alpha celebrated their centenary with a year-long commemoration in 2008. The celebration coincided with the sorority's biennial Boulé. Internationally, some Alpha Kappa Alpha members began marking the festivities by making a pilgrimage to Howard University from January 12 to January 15, 2008. The activities included sorority members financially donating $1 million dollars in scholarship funds to Howard University, contributing libraries for Middle School for Mathematics and Science and Asbury Dwelling for Senior Citizens, and unveiling a digital version of the entire Ivy Leaf publication. In addition, sorority undergraduate and graduate members who were not available to attend ceremonies in Washington, D.C., held celebrations in local cities. On July 11 to July 18, 2008, Alpha Kappa Alpha held their 63rd Boulé. A town hall meeting with the public, a unity march in conjunction with other NPHC members, and a concert featuring R&B Grammy Award winning singer Patti LaBelle were some of the events which occurred at the centennial Boulé. On July 17, 2008, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority set a Guinness World Record when 16,206 members set a record by having the largest-ever silver service sit-down dinner in a convention.
Alpha Kappa Alpha's accomplishments were heralded by the United States Congress, with U.S. Senator Hillary Clinton and sorority member U.S. Representative Sheila Jackson-Lee, who both agreed to pass legislation in both houses of the United States Congress to commemorate the sorority's founding. In addition, the toy company Mattel designed a Barbie collectible doll fashioned with a pink and green evening gown.
Lawsuits, Forensic Audits, and IRS Review of Former PresidentEdit
On June 20, 2009, eight Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority members filed a complaint in D.C. Superior Court demanding that International President Barbara McKinzie be fired for improper use of sorority funds and the money be returned to the sorority. The lawsuit claims that Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated's Executive Board approved the spending of thousands of dollars on McKinzie's costs of living, including commissioning an expensive wax model of McKinzie. In response, McKinzie denied the allegations, referring to them as "without merit."  Also see the Shackleford Letter 
In February 2010, Natalia M. Combs Greene, associate judge of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, dismissed the lawsuit, stating that it contained "hyperbolic allegations riddled with buzz words." She wrote, "This case is largely about several disgruntled ΑΚΑ members disillusioned with what they see as an increasingly opaque, authoritarian and self-serving leadership in their organization....The question remains, however, whether such behavior warrants judicial intervention." The judge also maintained the plaintiffs had "overwhelmed the record with seemingly unnecessary and frivolous exhibits, arguments, counts and facts detailing the sorority's 101-year history," and that many of the plaintiff's arguments "read as political speeches."
On August 18, 2011, the District of Columbia Court of Appeals reversed the previous decision to dismiss the lawsuit citing, "On appeal, appellants argue that the trial court improperly concluded that (1) the court did not have jurisdiction over the individual appellees, (2)appellants, with one exception, lacked standing to bring their suit, and (3) appellants failed to state any cognizable claim against the sorority. We agree that the trial court improperly dismissed on these grounds and that the case must be remanded for further proceedings. In all other respects, the dismissal is reversed and the case remanded for further proceedings."  
On March 22, 2012, a forensic audit of Alpha Kappa Alpha's 2010 financial records revealed troubling concerns with past president, Barbara McKinzie's development and access to a "secret" bank account. A financial audit of the nation's oldest black sorority found significant accounting problems including a secret set of books used by top officials to divert money, findings that bolster the claims in the previous lawsuit. The audit of the Chicago-based Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority, which was completed in December 2011 and provided to The Associated Press, also found two former top officials continued to use sorority credit cards after their service ended, failing to appropriately document tens of thousands of dollars in charges. A pending 2009 lawsuit against the organization and officials including its former president, Illinois resident Barbara McKinzie, contains similar allegations. The audit by the Illinois-based accounting firm Ragland & Associates covers the year 2010 and is an annual audit paid for by the society. It finds that in that year McKinzie and two other top officials secretly created a second set of financial books to get around the sorority's accounting policies. According to the audit, "Nearly $1.7 million in payments were made to the former president, Barbara McKinie, without authorization. Approximately $282,000 in credit card charges on a second set of books appear to be fraudulent, including personal charges the sorority wasn't reimbursed for." 
Alpha Kappa Alpha's tax returns for years 2007 through 2009 are being audited by the Internal Revenue Service. The audit is in process and is expected to be concluded sometime in January 2012. The areas in which they are auditing are in the post Boule expenses, unrelated business income, regional directors office expenses (non-accountable plan expenses), set-aside income that has been authorized by the board, and travel and entertainment not supported with documents, including the American Express credit card expenses." 
Alpha Kappa Alpha reports a membership of over 200,000 college-trained women around the world. The sorority has over 49,000 active members who comprise a diverse constituency, from educators to heads of state, politicians, lawyers, medical professionals, media personalities, and corporate managers. Graduate members constitute the largest percentage of membership. Alpha Kappa Alpha has 950 chapters, located in the United States, the Caribbean, Canada, Germany, Korea and Japan.
The term soror, derived from the Latin for "sister", is used between members of the sorority. Membership of the Directorate includes the Board of Directors. For graduate chapters, "Omega" is added to distinguish those which consist of college graduates from undergraduate chapters. "Supreme," as a term, is amended to an international officeholder, such as Supreme Basileus. Deceased members are referred to as "Ivies Beyond the Wall".
Honorary membership is Alpha Kappa Alpha's highest honor. For example, Jane Addams, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, is among the first honorary members. Eleanor Roosevelt, a former First Lady and wife of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, was made an honorary member. United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, former Senator and First Lady, and wife of President Bill Clinton, initially accepted honorary membership into Alpha Kappa Alpha. In July 2008, Michelle Obama accepted the invitation to become an honorary member of Alpha Kappa Alpha, which had no active undergraduate chapter at Princeton University when she attended. However, Clinton and Obama would later decline initiation into the organization due to the sorority's exclusive requirement preventing acceptance into other NPHC organizations, and both desired their membership in Alpha Kappa Alpha to be "non exclusive."
Membership interest and intakeEdit
The Ivy Leaf Pledge Club was the official pledge club of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated. The club consisted of potential candidates who were interested in joining the sorority. Interested members would join the pledge club before being inducted into the sorority.
In Our Kind of People: Inside America's Upper Class, Lawrence Otis Graham tells of his aunt's experience in joining the Ivy Pledge Club:
|“||We had to learn a lot more about the historic beginnings of the AKAs, and we did it by writing long letters of application to the Ivy Leaf Pledge Club—the senior wing of the sorority that regulated the admissions process—and then attending monthly meetings where the older students tutored us on the history.||”|
In addition, according to Graham, the sorority would have "Pledge Week", a period where a candidate's grades and behavior were reviewed by chapter members. Candidates who withstood this period were initiated into the sorority. Membership interest is processed by an interest meeting, known as a "rush". After the candidate receives an official letter from the sorority, she can participate in the membership intake process. Prospective members must have a C+ average prior to their membership submission as well as have a record in community service. If a prospective member has graduated, that member could be invited to join the sorority at the discretion of the graduate chapter.
Leadership: Founders and Executive DirectorsEdit
The leadership of the sorority in the early years was derived from three separate groups—the original group, the sophomores and the incorporators, who together were known as "The Twenty Pearls." The Executive Director position has been held by eight members since the office's creation on October 9, 1949.
| Original Group|
|Anna Easter Brown||Norma Elizabeth Boyd||Nellie M. Quander|| Carey B. Maddox-Preston|
|Beulah Elizabeth Burke||Ethel Jones Mowbray|| Anne Mitchem-Davis|
|Lillie Burke||Alice P. Murray||Julia Evangeline Brooks|| Earnestine G. McNealey|
|Marjorie Hill||Sarah Meriweather Nutter|| Barbara A. McKinzie|
|Margaret Flagg Holmes||Joanna Berry Shields||Nellie Pratt Russell|| Nan D. Johnson|
|Carrie Snowden||Minnie B. Smith|| Alison Harris |
|Lavinia Norman||Harriet Josephine Terry|| Emma Lilly Henderson|
|Lucy Diggs Slowe|| Carey B. Maddox-Preston|
|Marie Woolfolk Taylor|| Betty N. James|
Listed below are the twenty-seven International Presidents since the 1913 institution of the office.
- Nellie Quander (1913)
- Loraine R. Green (1919)
- L. Pearl Mitchell (1923)
- Pauline S. Puryear (1925)
- B. Beatrix Scott (1927)
- Maudelle B. Bousfield (1929)
- Maude B. Porter (1931)
- Ida L. Jackson (1933)
- Margaret D. Bowen (1936)
- Dorothy B. Ferebee (1939)
- Beulah T. Whitby (1941)
- Edna O. Campbell (1946)
- Laura Lovelace (1949)
- Arnetta G. Wallace (1953)
- Marjorie H. Parker (1958)
- Julia B. Purnell (1962)
- Larzette Hale (1966)
- Mattelia B. Grays (1970)
- Bernice I. Sumlin (1974)
- Barbara K. Phillips (1978)
- Faye B. Bryant (1982)
- Janet Jones Ballard (1986)
- Mary Shy Scott (1990)
- Eva L. Evans (1994)
- Norma S. White (1998)
- Linda White (2002)
- Barbara A. McKinzie (2006)
- Carolyn House Stewart (2010)
The Boulé is the regulating institution of the sorority and currently meets every two years. Throughout the years, notable individuals such as civil rights activists Martin Luther King, Jr. and Roy Wilkins were speakers at past Boulé conferences.
After the establishment of 32 graduate and undergraduate chapters in 1924, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority organized chapters according to their regions in the United States and abroad. The Boulé determines the boundaries of the regions. The ten regions are each led by a regional director, where she serves a member of the sorority's Board of Directors. In addition to serving on the sorority's Board of Directors, the regional director also follows guidelines, program targets set by the International President, as well as procedures. Almost two-thirds of the sorority's regional directors have been elected international presidents. A comprehensive list of regions is shown below:
Current Program Edit
Under the administration of Carolyn House Stewart, 2010–2014 International President; Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated will focus on Global Leadership through Timeless Service.
Educational Advancement FoundationEdit
Alpha Kappa Alpha's Educational Advancement Foundation (EAF) is a separate and tax-exempt branch of the sorority, which "provide[s] financial support to individuals and organizations engaged in lifelong learning." The foundation awards academic scholarships (for undergraduate members of the sorority, as well as non-members), fellowships, and grants for community service.
History and donationsEdit
The foundation was the brainchild of Constance Holland, the sister of former Alpha Kappa Alpha International President Dr. Barbara Phillips, in 1978. The foundation had official beginnings in 1980 and the sorority donated US$10,000 for the project. Eight years later, the organization first awarded $10,000 to fourteen students. In 1991, EAF first awarded mini-grants to community organizations. In 1998, EAF provided the first Youth Partners Accessing Capital (P.A.C.) award to an undergraduate member.
At the organization's twentieth anniversary in 2000, EAF published Perpetuating Our Posterity: A Blueprint for Excellence. The book served as a comprehensive history of the organization and as a source of advice for other beginning philanthropies. EAF went online with a website in 2003.
The organization celebrated a silver anniversary in Nassau, Bahamas, in 2005. EAF is incorporated into International President Barbara A. McKinzie's centennial program for funding under Excellent Scholarly Performance. Overall, EAF has donated more than $200,000 in grants and awarded 1,400 students with scholarships. Other major donors to EAF include Continental Airlines and Northern Trust.
- Advocates for Black Colleges – The purpose of the Advocates for Black Colleges is to raise $100,000 for a selected historically black college and university, to support the institution's scholarships and program grants. Corporations as well as minority graduates of historically black colleges are encouraged to donate funds as well. The first college receiving aid is Stillman College in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
- Howard University Fund – Alpha Kappa Alpha is celebrating the centennial of the sorority's founding by donating $2 million to Howard University though two facets. First, the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center houses the historical artifacts, photographs, documents, and recordings of Alpha Kappa Alpha's contributions to community service. One million dollars will be used to improve Alpha Kappa Alpha's archives. In addition, one million dollars will be donated to the Nellie M. Quander Scholarship Fund. The fund will be used to finance partial or full scholarships for Howard University women in their junior and senior years.
- Chapter Scholarships – Undergraduate and graduate members of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority's chapters send separate dues to the Educational Advancement Foundation to fund local scholarships. Depending on the size of the contributions by the chapter, the scholarships generally range from $100 to $500. For a chapter to donate under the EAF's Endowment Fund, a chapter needs to raise $20,000.
- The Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority Traveling Exhibit chronicles achievements of Alpha Kappa Alpha members through the organization's one-hundred years. The exhibit appears in several cities across the nation from 2006 to 2008.
Ivy Acres will be a retirement center located in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. The retirement center is sponsored by Senior Residences, Incorporated, a subsidiary of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority. Ivy Acres will be one of the first retirement centers founded by African-Americans and minorities in the United States. It will offer assisted or individual living for individuals who are over fifty-five, regardless of background, ethnicity or religion. Barbara K. Phillips, former Vice-President and Project Coordinator for Senior Residences, Incorporated, explains the purpose of Ivy Acres, "We determined that there is a need out there, but this will be open to all. We want to be diverse, we want to be multicultural. Anyone who wants to come will be welcome."The gated community will be located on a 48-acre (190,000 m2) site. The planning for Ivy Acres cost approximately $32 million USD. In addition, according to Business Wire, Ivy Acres will comprise "188 independent residential units, which will be both apartments and cottages, forty assisted-living apartments and twenty private accommodations for skilled nursing care." Residents are expected to pay $1,890 to $2,890 per month for services.
Ivy Reading AKAdemyEdit
The Ivy Reading AKAdemy provides programs that encourage the entire community to become involved. The concept serves as an educational and human resource center for programs provided by Alpha Kappa Alpha. Working with No Child Left Behind in mind, "The Ivy Reading AKAdemy," a reading initiative, focuses on early learning and mastery of basic reading skills by the end of third grade. The Ivy Reading AKAdemy has a $1.5 million dollar proposal pending with the United States Department of Education to fund a three-year nationwide after-school demonstration project in low-performing, economically deprived inner city schools in 16 sites within the continental United States.
Leadership Fellows ProgramEdit
The Leadership Fellows Program is a fully funded event in which thirty Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority sophomore and junior undergraduate members worldwide are individually trained for professional leadership roles. In addition, the fellows contribute to community service for one week. One of the selection criteria is that members must have at least a 3.0 GPA. The program initially was planned in 1978. In the following year, the first program was held in Indiana with twenty-nine students. Various cities around the United States have held the Leadership Fellows Program. In the past, Alpha Kappa Alpha has sponsored the event through the Educational Advancement Foundation. Also, the program has been financed by Pillsbury, Tyson Foods, Johnson & Johnson, and most recently General Electric.
P.I.M.S. (Partnerships in Mathematics and Science)Edit
Partnerships in Mathematics and Science (P.I.M.S.) began in Eva Evans's administration in 1994, and was a part of the S.P.I.R.I.T. program during the Linda White administration. Eva Evans mentioned the need for a math and science program, "As a college sorority, we've always advanced an educational agenda. We always had high GPA requirements. And more than ever, we're pushing the importance of math and science for our girls. We need more black women in those fields." The program's purpose is to increase the successes of youth in mathematics and science, as well as technology. Campaigns to highlight the program's importance were sponsored by the National Science Foundation and historically black colleges from across the country. Several chapters provided two-week math and science summer camps on college and day school campuses, which consisted of hands-on-learning through laboratory interactions, field trips to important sites, youth camps, and speeches from influential experts in specific areas of studies. For example, a P.I.M.S. program at Park Street Elementary School in Marietta, Georgia, consisted of third through fifth grade girls and provided educational field trips in order to stimulate involvement in math and science. Also, a national P.I.M.S. Olympiad, deriving from knowledge of math and science, in conjunction with the P.I.M.S. Community Parade was held at the 58th Boulé in Dallas, Texas.
Young Authors ProgramEdit
In Linda White's administrations, the Young Authors Program was born. The purpose of the program is to encourage and raise involvement in reading and writing in kindergarten through third grade school children. Each of the ten regions in the sorority had the opportunity to choose a child's story to be published in a two volume anthology entitled, The Spirit Within: Voices of Young Authors. In 2004, twenty children were honored in the first anthology. The authors were recognized and performed book signings in the 2004 and 2006 Boulés. At the 2004 Boulé in Nashville, Tennessee, former Department of Education Secretary Rod Paige attended. On July 15, 2004, First Lady Laura Bush spoke on the Ivy AKAdemy's dedication to reading initiatives, "Teaching our children to read is the most critical educational priority facing our country. Children who do not learn to read by third grade continue to find reading a challenge throughout their lives. These expectations increase in amount and complexity each year."
- ↑ Tamara L. Brown, Gregory Parks, Clarenda M. Phillips, African American Fraternities and Sororities: The Legacy and the Vision. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2005. p. 342
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 "AKA Membership Profile". aka1908.org. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. http://web.archive.org/web/20070928000231/http://aka1908.org/present/membership/. Retrieved 2006-10-02.
- ↑ "Historical Overview". Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated. – International Region. 2006. http://www.akainternational.org/main/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=26&Itemid=34. Retrieved 2007-05-09.
- ↑ "History". Moreland-Spingarn Research Center at Howard University. August 1999. http://www.huarchivesnet.howard.edu/9908huarnet/power/progress/progress/sld010.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-12.
- ↑ "Alpha Kappa Alpha Important Facts". Lambda Eta Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated. 2005-04-21. Archived from the original on 2005-05-25. http://web.archive.org/web/20050525035516/http://www.msstate.edu/org/aka/newfacts.html. Retrieved 2007-05-30.
- ↑ Matthew Gilmore (May 2003). "Capitol Losses, Second Edition". H-Net, Humanities & Social Sciences OnLine. http://www.h-net.org/~dclist/goode2.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-13.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Ross, Jr., The Divine Nine, p. 166.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Giddings, Paula (1988). In Search of Sisterhood: Delta Sigma Theta and the Challenge of the Black Sorority Movement. New York, New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 44. ISBN 0-688-13509-9.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 McNealey, E., Pearls of Service, p. 19.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Parker, M., Past is Prologue, p. 12.
- ↑ "History of AKA". Lambda Eta Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated. 2005-04-21. Archived from the original on 2006-11-29. http://web.archive.org/web/20061129143342/http://www.msstate.edu/org/aka/n08.html. Retrieved 2007-05-30.
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- ↑ "Ethel Jones Mowbray". Theta Rho Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated. Archived from the original on 2006-08-29. http://web.archive.org/web/20060829161442/http://www.studentorg.vcu.edu/thetarho/mowbray.html. Retrieved 2007-10-27.
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- ↑ McNealey, E., Pearls of Service.
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- ↑ Parker, M., Alpha Kappa Alpha Through the Years, p. 140.
- ↑ Beta Chapter History. Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated. Retrieved January 21, 2008.
- ↑ Alpha Kappa Alpha Ushers Centennial Year. Alpha Kappa Alpha Far Western Region. Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated. January 8, 2008. Retrieved January 30, 2008.
- ↑ Jones-Wilson, Faustine Childress. Encyclopedia of African-American Education. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996. p. 196. ISBN 0-313-28931-X.
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 McNealey, E., Pearls of Service, p. 329.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 Ross, Jr., The Divine Nine, p. 167.
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- ↑ 24.0 24.1 McNealey, E., Pearls of Service, p. 327.
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 "National Pan-Hellenic Council: About". NPHC. http://www.nphchq.org/mission.htm. Retrieved 2011-01-10.
- ↑ Smith, Susan, L. (June 2003). "Arenia Mallory". The University of Mississippi. http://www.olemiss.edu/depts/south/ms_encyclopedia/areniamallorysample.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- ↑ McNealey E., Pearls of Service, p. 150.
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- ↑ 31.00 31.01 31.02 31.03 31.04 31.05 31.06 31.07 31.08 31.09 31.10 31.11 31.12 31.13 "Alpha Kappa Alpha National Programs" (PDF). Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated. http://aka1908.com/centennial/pdf/programs_pdf.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-11.
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 Parker, M., In the Eye of the Beholder, p. 87.
- ↑ 33.0 33.1 More, Ellen S. (2001). Restoring the Balance: Women Physicians and the Profession of Medicine, 1850–1995. Harvard University Press. p. 167. ISBN 0-674-00567-8.
- ↑ Dixon, Kenneth (December 3, 1999). "AKA seeking charter for new millennium". Albion College's The Pleiad. Archived from the original on 2006-09-14. http://web.archive.org/web/20060914185241/http://www.albion.edu/pleiad/New+Archives+2003/Dec31999/news.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
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- ↑ McNealey, E., Pearls of Service, p. 125.
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- ↑ McNealey, E., Pearls of Service, p. 126.
- ↑ McNealey, E., Pearls of Service, p. 159.
- ↑ McNealey, E., Pearls of Service, p. 160.
- ↑ Parker, M., In the Eye of the Beholder, p. 101.
- ↑ Parker, M., In the Eye of the Beholder, p. 88.
- ↑ Parker, M., In the Eye of the Beholder, p. 89.
- ↑ "Delta Beta Omega Chapter's Programs". Alpha Kappa Alpha's Delta Beta Omega Chapter. Archived from the original on October 10, 2003. http://web.archive.org/web/20031010020338/http://aka-dbo.org/programs.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-24.
- ↑ Collier-Thomas, Bettye; Vincent P. Franklin (2001). Sisters in the Struggle: African-American Women in the Civil Rights-Black Power Movement. New York City: NYU Press. p. 32.
- ↑ 47.0 47.1 Ivy Leaf: 1921–1998 Microfiche Guide p. 15 (xv) Published by the United Publications of America, 2000.
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- ↑ "Encyclopedia of Cleveland History: Cleveland Job Corps". Case Western Reserve University. http://ech.case.edu/ech-cgi/article.pl?id=CJC. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- ↑ "Chapter History". Epsilon Mu Omega Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated. http://gozips.uakron.edu/~rmberry/History.html#1_9_6_0__-__1_9_8_0. Retrieved 2007-10-18.[dead link]
- ↑ Parker, M., In the Eye of the Beholder, p. 107.
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- ↑ "History". Alpha Kappa Alpha — Iota Gamma Chapter. 2000-11-22. Archived from the original on 2008-04-02. http://web.archive.org/web/20080402011824/http://www.dac.neu.edu/aka/igwebsite/History.html. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
- ↑ "New Orleanian Credits Alpha Kappa Alpha's Kindness for New Hope and New Home" (PDF). Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated. 2007-07-18. Archived from the original on 2008-05-29. http://web.archive.org/web/20080529192442/http://www.aka1908.com/pdf/new_orleans_habitat_dedication_7_16_07.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-18.
- ↑ "International President Supports Weight-Loss Initiative". aka1908.com. Archived from the original on 2008-06-13. http://web.archive.org/web/20080613230855/http://www.aka1908.com/news/millionpoundchallenge/. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- ↑ "AKA Centennial Welcome". aka1908.com. http://www.aka1908.com/centennial/centennial-welcome-norma-white.html. Retrieved 2007-10-24.
- ↑ "Sorority Demands Justice for Jena 6". Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated. 2007-09-19. Archived from the original on 2008-06-13. http://web.archive.org/web/20080613223548/http://www.aka1908.com/news/jena6/. Retrieved 2007-09-20.
- ↑ African Ancestry Retrieved on August 24, 2007.
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- ↑ "AKA Returns to Its Roots". aka1908.com. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070930013028/http://www.aka1908.com/news/alphachapter/. Retrieved 2007-08-31.
- ↑ Alpha Kappa Alpha Donates $1 Million to Howard University: Contribution Caps Emotional Day of Tributes During ΑΚΑ's Centennial Celebration[dead link]. Black News Press Release. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
- ↑ "Alpha Kappa Alpha Ushers in Centennial Year"[dead link]. BlackNews.com. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
- ↑ Hanna, Wende (2008-01-15). "Sorority celebrates centennial anniversary". Nassau Guardian (The Freeport News). http://freeport.nassauguardian.net/national_local/339512624927718.php. Retrieved 2008-01-18.
- ↑ Robinson, Wesley (2008-01-16). "Sorority honors members' work over 100 years". The Kentucky Kernal (University of Kentucky). Archived from the original on 18 January 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080118040710/http://media.www.kykernel.com/media/storage/paper305/news/2008/01/16/CampusNews/Sorority.Honors.Members.Work.Over.100.Years-3153677.shtml. Retrieved 2008-01-18.
- ↑ Centennial Boulé 2008: A Once-in-a-Century Celebration[dead link]. Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated. Retrieved on 2008-01-18.
- ↑ Alpha Kappa Alpha's Dinner Sets Guinness World Record. Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated. Retrieved on 2009-04-22.
- ↑ "Centennial Anniversary of Alpha Kappa Alpha". The Hudson Valley Press Online (The Hudson Valley Press). 2008-01-15. http://www.hvpress.net/news/138/ARTICLE/3244/2008-01-15.html. Retrieved 2008-01-17.
- ↑ Bennett, Brad. "AKA's black Barbie may inspire young girls". Broward Times, 2008-01-18. Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
- ↑ "Barbie Doll Unveiled at International Convention". Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated. July 14, 2008.
- ↑ Wright, James (2009-08-13). "AKA Battles Internal Discord". The New Journal & Guide Online (New Journal and Guide). http://www.njournalg.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=149:aka-battles-internal-discord&catid=41:national-news&Itemid=74. Retrieved 2009-08-19.
- ↑ "Members sue AKA president, cite $900K wax statue", Chicago Sun Times, July 29, 2009.
- ↑ Judge dismisses suit against oldest black sorority[dead link]
- ↑ Alpha Kappa Alpha lawsuit dismissed
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- ↑ Bogues, Austin (July 14, 2008). "Sorority Celebrates Michelle Obama's Acceptance". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. http://thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/07/14/sorority-celebrates-michelle-obamas-acceptance/. Retrieved April 21, 2009.
- ↑ Parker, M., In the Eye of the Beholder, p. 2.
- ↑ "Prospective Members". Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated — Lambda Zeta. 2007-02-19. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20080509023246/http://www.aka1908.com/present/membership/prospectivemembers/. Retrieved 2007-05-27.
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- ↑ "International Presidents". Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated. Retrieved on December 31, 2007.
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- ↑ "About Educational Advancement Foundation". Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated — Educational Advancement Foundation. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070613225635/http://www.akaeaf.org/about/. Retrieved 2007-05-16.
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- ↑ "Making a Difference — Educational Advancement Foundation". Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated. Archived from the original on 2008-06-21. http://web.archive.org/web/20080621150132/http://www.aka1908.com/eaf/. Retrieved 2007-05-16.
- ↑ "Donors — Educational Advancement Foundation". Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated — Educational Advancement Foundation. Archived from the original on 21 June 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070621154831/http://www.akaeaf.org/donors/. Retrieved 2007-05-16.
- ↑ 100.0 100.1 100.2 100.3 "New Initiatives". Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated — Educational Advancement Foundation. Archived from the original on 16 May 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070516062151/http://www.akaeaf.org/programsandinitiatives/initiatives/. Retrieved 2007-05-17.
- ↑ "Chapter Remittance Guidelines — Steps To "ESP...Excellent Scholarly Performance"" (PDF). Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated — Educational Advancement Foundation. Archived from the original on 30 June 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070630203448/http://www.akaeaf.org/pdf/chapter_remittance_guidelines_3_07.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-17.
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- ↑ "Travelling Exhibit". Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated — Educational Advancement Foundation. Archived from the original on 4 June 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070604111147/http://www.akaeaf.org/travelingexhibit/. Retrieved 2007-05-16.
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- ↑ "AKA Centennial Regions: Mid-Atlantic". Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated. 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070930013007/http://aka1908.com/centennial/region-mid-atlantic.html. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
- ↑ "Leadership Fellows Program". Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated. Archived from the original on June 25, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070625052137/http://www.aka1908.com/future/leadership/. Retrieved 2007-05-11.
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