|1920 Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets football|
|Conference||Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association|
|1920 record||8–1 (4–0 SIAA)|
|Head coach||William Alexander (1st season)|
|Assistant coach||Fay Wood|
|Assistant coach||Joe Guyon|
|Offensive scheme||Jump shift|
|Home stadium||Grant Field|
|1920 SIAA football standings|
|Georgia Tech §||4||–||0||–||0||8||–||1||–||0|
|§ – Conference co-champions |
The 1920 Georgia Tech Golden Tornado football team[n 1] represented the Georgia Tech Golden Tornado of the Georgia Institute of Technology during the 1920 Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association football season. The Tornado was coached by William Alexander in his first year as head coach. The team compiled a record of 8–1 (4–0 SIAA), outscored opponents 312 to 16, and tied for first place with Georgia and Tulane in the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association (SIAA).
Georgia Tech played its home games at Grant Field. Its only loss was a controversial one to Pop Warner's Pittsburgh Panthers at Forbes Field. Florent Gibson of the Pittsburgh Post rated Tech as the best team in the country. Tech also handed Centre College its first loss to a southern team since 1916.
Several players received postseason honors. Tackle Bill Fincher made Walter Camp's first-team All-American, then just the fourth Southern player to do so. Captain and senior halfback Buck Flowers made some third-team All-America selections, and led the country with an average of 49.4 yards per punt.
Before the seasonEdit
After last season, former coach John Heisman resigned and left Atlanta.[n 2] New head coach William Alexander retained Heisman's scheme, using the pre-snap movement of his "jump shift" offense. One report reads: "Since Coach Alex has taken charge there is a change in the team. The youngest coach in major football, he is probably the most popular, and bids fair to prove himself the peer of them all. Not only is Coach the idol of members of the team, but of the student body as well." Former Tech running back and Chippewa Indian Joe Guyon assisted Alexander.
In 1920, football used a one-platoon system in which players played both offense, defense, and special teams. The team's most prominent players were in the backfield, including senior captain and halfback Buck Flowers, a small back who also handled drop kicks and punting. As a safety on defense, no player ever got past him for a touchdown. Halfback Red Barron running behind fullback Judy Harlan was also renowned for its power.[n 3] Most prominent in the line was tackle Bill Fincher, who also was the team's placekicker. Fincher had a glass eye which he would covertly pull out after feigning an injury, turn to his opponents and say: "So that's how you want to play!"
|September 25||Wake Forest*||W 44–0|
|October 2||Oglethorpe*||W 55–0||6,000|
|October 9||Davidson*||W 66–0|
|October 16||at Vanderbilt||W 44–0|
|October 23||at Pittsburgh*||L 10–3||37,000|
|October 30||Centre*||W 24–0||15,000|
|November 6||Clemson||W 7–0|
|November 13||Georgetown||W 35–6|
|November 25||2:00 p. m.||Auburn||W 34–0||20,000|
Week 1: Wake ForestEdit
The first game of the year saw Georgia Tech pitted against the Wake Forest Demon Deacons. Tech won 44 to 0. Judy Harlan scored the year's first touchdown. Wake Forest failed to net a single first down. Harlan and Red Barron scored two touchdowns each and quarterbacks Jack McDonough and Pinkey Hunt one each. Captain Flowers gained consistently, and also drop-kicked a 26-yard field goal.
Week 2: OglethorpeEdit
In the second week of play, Georgia Tech defeated Jogger Elcock's Oglethorpe Stormy Petrels 55 to 0. Buck Flowers had a 68-yard touchdown run. He got his start on a "criss-cross" play near his own 32-yard line, and ran for the touchdown crossing the field laterally many times showing an assortment of moves.
The starting lineup was: J. Staton (left end), Fincher (left tackle), Lebey (left guard), Amis (center), O. Davis (right guard), A. Staton (right tackle), Ratterman (right end), McDonough (quarterback), Flowers (left halfback), Barron (right halfback), Harlan (fullback)
Week 3: DavidsonEdit
On October 9, Georgia Tech defeated the Davidson Wildcats 66 to 0. Red Barron scored four touchdowns, including an interception return of 76 yards. He also ran in a touchdown from 25 yards out after catching a forward pass from fullback Judy Harlan. Tech attempted six passes the whole game, completing 3 for 114 yards. One of Flowers' punts went 85 yards, the longest in school history.
The starting lineup was: J. Staton (left end), Fincher (left tackle), Lebey (left guard), Amis (center), O. Davis (right guard), A. Staton (right tackle), Ratterman (right end), McDonough (quarterback), Flowers (left halfback), Barron (right halfback), Harlan (fullback)
Week 4: at VanderbiltEdit
Georgia Tech had entered into the main part of its schedule after three dominating wins. Upcoming engagements with Vanderbilt, Pittsburgh, and Centre were said to determine the season's outcome. Pittsburgh and Centre–but Pittsburgh especially, were the biggest opponents. Vanderbilt was seen as the warm up act to these two, for it was far superior to any of Tech's prior games. The first game of the year to have direct implications for the Southern championship, it was cited by some as the most interesting southern contest of the week.
The Golden Tornado was the clear favorite. Georgia Tech outplayed Vanderbilt and had the ball for three-fourths of the game. Several of Vanderbilt's players left with injuries. Its ends were easily skirted by the Tech backs Buck Flowers, Red Barron, and Frank Ferst. Tech's first touchdown came when Barron ripped off a 55-yard run. Captain Flowers once made a drop kick from 44 yards out. Ferst came in for Flowers in the middle of the second quarter when Georgia Tech started to use substitutes.
The third quarter saw Vanderbilt's one exciting offensive drive. "With Godchaux, Kuhn, and Raeburn subbing in the backfield, the Commodores opened a series of forward passes and runs that netted about 50 yards before Flowers intercepted a long pass on his own 10-yard line and raced 50 yards before being pushed out of bounds by a Vandy tackler". Fumbles cost Vanderbilt; one by Grailey Berryhill lead to Tech's third touchdown. In the fourth quarter, a fight broke out involving Gink Hendrick, some Tech players, and spectators.[n 5] Tech lost some 133 yards from penalties during the contest.
The starting lineup was: J. Staton (left end), A. Staton (left tackle), O. Davis (left guard), Amis (center), Lebey (right guard), Fincher (right tackle), Ratterman (right end), McDonough (quarterback), Flowers (left halfback), Barron (right halfback), Harlan (fullback).
Week 5: at PittEdit
The Golden Tornado suffered its only loss at the hands of Pop Warner's Pittsburgh Panthers at Forbes Field by a score of 10 to 3. The game was controversial and Pitt was considered lucky to have won, such that after the game Pitt's own players and coaches led the praise for Tech.[n 6] Tech halfback Red Barron played with a broken jaw suffered during the Vanderbilt game. Coach Warner called Barron the greatest halfback ever to perform on Forbes Field. Pitt fullback Orville "Tiny" Hewitt injured Tech quarterback Jack McDonough's ankle, and Frank Ferst had to take his place for the rest of the season.
In the first quarter, Pitt back Tom Davies was injured. Buck Flowers made the only points of the half with a 20-yard drop-kick. Flowers' performance against Pitt caused Grantland Rice to call him one of the best broken field runners in the country. His tackling on defense also drew praise.
At the beginning of the fourth quarter, Hewitt plunged over for a touchdown. By then Davies had returned and added the extra point. He later also added a 30-yard field goal. Due to concern's over Tech players' eligibility, Pitt refused to schedule another game with Georgia Tech.
The starting lineup was: J. Staton (left end), Fincher (left tackle), Lebey (left guard), Amis (center), O. Davis (right guard), A. Staton (right tackle), Ratterman (right end), McDonough (quarterback), Flowers (left halfback), Barron (right halfback), Harlan (fullback).
Week 6: CentreEdit
Arguably the highlight of the year was the defeat of the Centre Praying Colonels by a score of 24 to 0. It was Centre's first loss to a southern team since 1916.[n 7] A story goes that tackle Bill Fincher sought to knock Centre quarterback "Bo" McMillin out of the game, taking with him brass-knuckles or "something equally diabolical." Before the game, Fincher said "You're a great player Bo...I feel awful sorry about it because you are not going to be in there very long—about three minutes."
One writer claimed: "even the great "Bo" McMillin was powerless against the Tech players." The Atlanta Constitution reported: "McMillin's forward passes outdid anything of the kind seen here in many years, but Tech seemed to know where they were going."
The starting lineup was: J. Staton (left end), Fincher (left tackle), Lebey (left guard), Amis (center), O. Davis (right guard), A. Staton (right tackle), Ratterman (right end), Ferst (quarterback), Flowers (left halfback), Barron (right halfback), Harlan (fullback).
Week 7: ClemsonEdit
Coach Alexander rested his starters for the game against the Clemson Tigers and played substitutes throughout: "to teach the gamblers and point-makers a lesson." Sub quarterback Pinkey Hunt scored the lone touchdown in the final quarter.
End Georgie Ratterman was under treatment by a stomach specialist as the result of trouble supposedly caused by over-exertion during his confinement in a German prison during World War I. It was not known if he could still play.
The starting lineup was: Mayer (left end), McCree (left tackle), Webb (left guard), Johnson (center), Berry (right guard), Lyman (right tackle), Gringer (right end), Glaver (quarterback), Brewster (left halfback), Scarboro (right halfback), Rushing (fullback)
Week 8: GeorgetownEdit
In the eighth week of play, the Golden Tornado faced the Georgetown Blue and Gray coached by former Carlisle great Albert Exendine, and won 35 to 6. Exendine countered claims of Tech running up the score, saying his safety men were not playing their best. "The sportsmanship displayed by the Golden Tornado was all that could be desired", said Exendine. The outstanding feature of the game was Flowers' 80-yard, off-tackle touchdown run, still one of the longest in school history. One of Flowers' punts went 82 yards. Ed Hamilton was umpire.
The starting lineup was: J. Staton (left end), Fincher (left tackle), Lebey (left guard), Amis (center), O. Davis (right guard), Johnson (right tackle), A. Staton (right end), Ferst (quarterback), Flowers (left halfback), Barron (right halfback), Harlan (fullback)
Week 9: AuburnEdit
On November 25, Georgia Tech defeated the Auburn Tigers at Grant Field by a score of 34 to 0 for a share of the SIAA title. The Tigers had a powerful eleven, which beat Vanderbilt 56 to 6 to counter Tech's 44 to 0 win, and set a school record with 332 points in nine games. Some Auburn fans before the game predicted a victory over Tech and the conference title.
Flowers scored three touchdowns in the game, including punt returns of 82 and 65 yards and a 33-yard run from scrimmage, and also passed for a fourth touchdown. Flowers also kicked a punt that went 65 yards in the air against Auburn. Sportswriter Morgan Blake said about Flowers' play against Auburn: "The Auburn Tiger came up with claws sharpened. As he writhed in death agony when the battle was over, he made one request, 'Please omit Flowers'."
The Atlanta Journal wrote that Flowers was: "flitting like a phantom, an undulating, rippling, chromatic phantom, over the whitewashed lines." The yearbook remarked Bill Fincher: "began his great work on the sand lots of Tech Hi here in Atlanta years ago and ended it up by smearing "Fatty" Warren of the Auburn Tigers all over the flats of Grant Field on Turkey Day last."
The starting lineup was: J. Staton (left end), Fincher (left tackle), Lebey (left guard), Amis (center), Davis (right guard), A. Staton (right tackle), Ratterman (right end), Ferst (quarterback), Flowers (left halfback), Barron (right halfback), Harlan (fullback).
Awards and honorsEdit
Nine of the eleven starters made some writer's All-Southern team.[n 8] Bill Fincher was selected first-team All-American by Walter Camp. He was just the fourth southern player to receive this honor.[n 9] Fincher made 31 PAT attempts on the year, and closed his career with a record 122 of 136.
Captain Flowers was selected as a third-team All-American by the United Press and the International News Service. Records conflict as to his rushing totals during the 1920 season. According to one account, which acknowledged it was based on incomplete records, Flowers rushed 80 times for 819 yards (10.2 yards per carry), and had 290 punt return yards (16.5 yards per return), in six games. According to another account, published by the United Press in 1958, Flowers rushed for 1,425 yards in 1920. He also led the country with an average of 49.4 yards per punt; and had a school record for number of drop kicked field goals. Coach Alexander said Flowers was the best punter Tech ever had and the best back he ever coached, calling him "pound for pound, my greatest player".
The following chart provides a visual depiction of Tech's lineup during the 1920 season with games started at the position reflected in parenthesis. The chart mimics the offense after the jump shift has taken place.
|Bill Fincher||Tackle, End||7||Spring Place, Georgia||Tech High School||6'0"||188||20|
|Dummy Lebey||Guard||7||Savannah, Georgia|
|Al Staton||Tackle||7||Atlanta, Georgia||Boys High School||182||20|
|Georgie Ratterman||End||6||Nashville, Tennessee||Spring Hill College||22|
|Jack McDonough||Quarterback||6||Savannah, Georgia|
|Buck Flowers||Halfback||8||Sumter, South Carolina||Sumter High School||5'7"||155||21|
|Red Barron||Halfback||8||Clarkesville, Georgia||5'11"||180||20|
|Judy Harlan||Fullback||8||Ottumwa, Iowa||Tech High School||5'11"||178||23|
|W. G. Berry||Guard||1|
|Claire Frye||Center||Oklahoma City, Oklahoma||160|
|H. W. Granger||End||1|
|Charles Johnson||Center||1||Atlanta, Georgia||6'0"||184||23|
|W. P. Lyman||Tackle||1|
|R. P. Mayer||End||1|
|J. P. McCrea||Tackle||1|
|B. P. Webb||Guard||1|
|Jimmy Brewster||Halfback||1||Newnan, Georgia||5'7"||155||18|
|O. W. Rushing||Fullback||1|
|Dewey Scarboro||Halfback||1||Moultrie, Georgia||Moultrie High School||5'6"||145||21|
The following is an incomplete list of statistics and scores, largely dependent on newspaper summaries.
|Player||Touchdowns||Extra points||Field goals||Points|
|W. P. Lyman||0||3||0||3|
- Head coach: William Alexander
- Backfield coach: Joe Guyon
- Line coach: Fay Wood
- Reserve coach: Kid Clay
- Freshman coach: George C. Griffin
- Manager: F. L. Asbury, Jr.
- 1920 Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association football season
- 1920 College Football All-Southern Team
- 1920 College Football All-America Team
- ↑ Van Brimmer & Rice 2011, p. 147
- ↑ "Golden Tornadoes". Archived from the original on 30 April 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160430210315/http://livinghistory.gatech.edu/new/traditions/tradition/tornado.html. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 "Conference Championships – Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association". Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20070930014352/http://www.cfbdatawarehouse.com/data/conference_champs/champions.php?conid=181. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Edwin Pope. Football's Greatest Coaches. p. 8. https://issuu.com/gtalumni/docs/1971_49_3/30.
- ↑ Chris Yandle. "GT Vault: It's Been Awhile". http://www.ramblinwreck.com/sports/m-footbl/spec-rel/102214aad.html. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 "Renowned Athlete Buck Flowers Dies". Sumter Daily Item: p. 3A. April 11, 1983. https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1979&dat=19830411&id=S6EiAAAAIBAJ&sjid=HKoFAAAAIBAJ&pg=2753,6856766.
- ↑ "Tech Timeline: 1910s". Tech Traditions. Georgia Tech Alumni Association. Archived from the original on 2007-10-16. https://web.archive.org/web/20071016201916/http://gtalumni.org/Publications/timeline/1910s.html. Retrieved 2007-05-21.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 "Letters". Georgia Tech Alumni Magazine (Georgia Institute of Technology) 49 (3): 28. 1971. https://issuu.com/gtalumni/docs/1971_49_3/30. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
- ↑ Jon Nelson. A History of College Football In Georgia. p. 21. https://books.google.com/books?id=t8BABAAAQBAJ&pg=PT21.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 "The Blueprint". Georgia Institute of Technology. 1921. https://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/handle/1853/14415/1921%20Athletics.pdf.txt?sequence=15. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Walter Coxe (1953). "The Tornado of '20". Georgia Tech Alumni Magazine 32 (2): 22. Archived from the original on April 13, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160413133638/https://issuu.com/gtalumni/docs/1953_32_2/22.
- ↑ "The Cast of Characters". Georgia Tech Alumni Magazine 51 (4): 18. 1973. Archived from the original on March 19, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160319100221/https://issuu.com/gtalumni/docs/1973_51_4/20.
- ↑ Richard Scott (2008-09-15). SEC Football: 75 Years of Pride and Passion. p. 28. ISBN 9781616731335. https://books.google.com/books?id=cm1TZA6jCSgC&pg=PA28&lpg=PA28&dq=bill+fincher+glass+eye#v=onepage&q&f=false.
- ↑ Paul Warwick (September 26, 1920). "It Wasn't a Great Exhibition But Everybody Had Fine Time Looking at Tornado, Says Paul". Atlanta Constitution: p. 2. https://www.newspapers.com/clip/2547848/the_atlanta_constitution/.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 "Golden Tornado Won With Ease". The Charlotte News: p. 16. September 26, 1920. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160306160912/https://www.newspapers.com/clip/2547869/the_charlotte_news/. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- ↑ "Georgia Tech Wins Victory". Winston-Salem Journal: p. 1. September 26, 1920. Archived from the original on June 6, 2015. https://web.archive.org/web/20150606160132/http://www.newspapers.com/clip/2547876/winstonsalem_journal/. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 Paul Warwick (October 3, 1920). "Petrels Are Crushed by Tech, But the Defeat Was Honorable; Harlan, Flowers, Barron, Star". Atlanta Constitution: p. 2. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160304141112/https://www.newspapers.com/clip/2547776/the_atlanta_constitution/. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 18.2 "Tech's Golden Tornado Destroys Defense of Valiant Davidsonians And Administers Terrible Defeat". The Atlanta Constitution: p. 3. October 10, 1920. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160304092430/https://www.newspapers.com/clip/2547540/the_atlanta_constitution//the_atlanta_constitution/. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 "Davidson Helpless Before Georgia Tech". The Washington Post: p. 17. October 10, 1920. https://www.newspapers.com/clip/2547495/the_washington_post/.
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 Lynn Hogan (1973). "They Walked Away Into Legend...". Georgia Tech Alumni Magazine 51 (4): 15–19. Archived from the original on March 19, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160319100221/https://issuu.com/gtalumni/docs/1973_51_4/20.
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 "Records". Georgia Institute of Technology. pp. 122, 139. http://grfx.cstv.com/photos/schools/geot/sports/m-footbl/auto_pdf/08-media-guide-119-208.pdf. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 Joe Hatcher (October 17, 1920). "Georgia Tech Tears Down Defense of Vanderbilt And Rambles To Victory". The Atlanta Constitution: p. 3. https://www.newspapers.com/clip/2044419/the_atlanta_constitution/. Retrieved April 30, 2016.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 Russell, Fred, and Maxwell Edward Benson. Fifty Years of Vanderbilt Football. Nashville, Tennessee, 1938, p. 38
- ↑ 24.0 24.1 Template:Closed access "Jackets Prepare For Vanderbilt". The Columbus Ledger. October 13, 1920. http://infoweb.newsbank.com/iw-search/we/HistArchive/?p_product=EANX&p_theme=ahnp&p_nbid=G6EI5FUXMTQwNjAwOTI0MC4yMTU0ODM6MToxMzoxMzIuMTk4LjUwLjEz&p_action=doc&s_lastnonissuequeryname=9&d_viewref=search&p_queryname=9&p_docnum=1&p_docref=v2:1126154AC3F56D80@EANX-1195D0B29D6ABF18@2422611-1195D0B2F079C658@9-1195D0B525F7ECC8@Jackets%20Prepare%20for%20Vanderbilt. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
- ↑ Template:Closed access "Southern Football Games Today To Have Bearing On Grid Title For 1920; Tech Plays Vanderbilt". The Macon Daily Telegraph. October 16, 1920. http://infoweb.newsbank.com/iw-search/we/HistArchive/?p_product=EANX&p_theme=ahnp&p_nbid=G6EI5FUXMTQwNjAwOTI0MC4yMTU0ODM6MToxMzoxMzIuMTk4LjUwLjEz&p_action=doc&s_lastnonissuequeryname=9&d_viewref=search&p_queryname=9&p_docnum=10&p_docref=v2:11210D409F608820@EANX-117BC5EB26E4DD08@2422614-117BC5EBA00A87A8@7-117BC5ED2BA5ACF0@Southen%20Football%20Games%20Today%20to%20Have%20Bearing%20on%20Grid%20Title%20for%201920%3B%20Tech%20Plays%20. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
- ↑ Template:Closed access Jack Veiock (October 15, 1920). "Big Teams To Be Active Saturday". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. http://infoweb.newsbank.com/iw-search/we/HistArchive/?p_product=EANX&p_theme=ahnp&p_nbid=G6EI5FUXMTQwNjAwOTI0MC4yMTU0ODM6MToxMzoxMzIuMTk4LjUwLjEz&p_action=doc&s_lastnonissuequeryname=9&d_viewref=search&p_queryname=9&p_docnum=6&p_docref=v2:10EEA3CFD727D370@EANX-118206542569B688@2422613-11820655DC425060@18-1182066E38C49BA8@Big%20Teams%20to%20be%20Active%20Saturday%20by%20Jack%20Veiock%20International%20News%20Service%20Sports%20Editor. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
- ↑ Template:Closed access "Vandy Grapples With Georgians". Miami Herald. October 16, 1920. http://infoweb.newsbank.com/iw-search/we/HistArchive/?p_product=EANX&p_theme=ahnp&p_nbid=P60B4ATCMTQwNjYwMjQ0Mi43MTQ0MTE6MToxMzoxMzIuMTk4LjUwLjEz&p_action=doc&s_lastnonissuequeryname=22&d_viewref=search&p_queryname=22&p_docnum=16&p_docref=v2:114CF48AE24B9638@EANX-11A35D1F4A1D0CE0@2422614-11A35D1F83357CC8@3-11A35D20B1523880@Vandy%20Grapples%20with%20Georgians%20First%20Game%20Having%20Direct%20Bearing%20on%20Championship%20to%20be%20Played%20at%20Nashville. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
- ↑ Camp, Walter (1921). Spalding's Official Football Guide. American Sports Publishing Company. https://books.google.com/books?id=kA_iAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=inauthor:%22Walter+Camp%22#v=onepage&q&f=false.
- ↑ Template:Closed access "Tech Wallops Vanderbilt; Georgia Barely Wins; Yale Beaten; Princeton A Victor". Augusta Chronicle. October 17, 1920. http://infoweb.newsbank.com/iw-search/we/HistArchive/?p_product=EANX&p_theme=ahnp&p_nbid=P60B4ATCMTQwNjYwMjQ0Mi43MTQ0MTE6MToxMzoxMzIuMTk4LjUwLjEz&p_action=doc&s_lastnonissuequeryname=22&d_viewref=search&p_queryname=22&p_docnum=22&p_docref=v2:1252FEAF2D2D3A44@EANX-127EF3007AC5C788@2422615-127EF30082A0D411@2-137E6B03B80EB10C@Tech%20Wallops%20Vanderbilt%3B%20Georgia%20Barely%20Wins%3B%20Yale%20Beaten%3B%20Princeton%20A%20Victor. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
- ↑ "Golden Tornado To Meet Commodores". The Charlotte News: p. 3. October 16, 1920. https://www.newspapers.com/clip/5111174/the_charlotte_news/. Retrieved April 30, 2016.
- ↑ 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.5 "A Close Call". The Gazette Times (Pittsburgh): sec. 3, p. 2. October 24, 1920. https://www.newspapers.com/clip/5106056/pittsburgh_postgazette/. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
- ↑ "Southern In Line For Mythical Team". The Washington Herald: p. 8. November 8, 1920. https://www.newspapers.com/clip/5103208/the_washington_herald/. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
- ↑ "Early Georgia Tech Football". November 2000. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160304070241/http://library.la84.org/SportsLibrary/CFHSN/CFHSNv14/CFHSNv14n1f.pdf.
- ↑ "Pitt Breaks Relations With Georgia Tech". The Gazette Times (Pittsburgh): sec. 3, p. 2. October 24, 1920. https://www.newspapers.com/clip/5103194/pittsburgh_postgazette/. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
- ↑ 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 35.4 "Georgia Tech Beats Strong Centre Team By Score of 24 To 0". News and Observer: p. 13. October 31, 1920. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160304071136/https://www.newspapers.com/clip/2547655/news_and_observer/. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- ↑ "Fincher, Guyon, Strupper-and Shaw Hardy". The Miami News. November 3, 1943.
- ↑ Grantland Rice (July 19, 1940). "Sportlight". The Nebraska State Journal: p. 12. https://www.newspapers.com/clip/6327532/the_nebraska_state_journal/. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
- ↑ Arthur Duffy (November 1, 1920). "Sport Comment". Boston Post: p. 12. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160304094929/https://www.newspapers.com/clip/2547665/boston_post/. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- ↑ 39.0 39.1 39.2 39.3 Wallace George (November 7, 1920). "In Featureless Game Tornado Second String Bests Clemson Tigers". Atlanta Constitution: p. 3. https://www.newspapers.com/clip/2547701/the_atlanta_constitution/. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- ↑ 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 Cliff Wheatley (November 14, 1920). "Hilltoppers Stage Noble Defense During First Half, but Crumble Finally; Reserved Used by Tech". Atlanta Constitution: p. 2. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160304094944/https://www.newspapers.com/clip/2547599/the_atlanta_constitution/. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- ↑ 41.0 41.1 41.2 41.3 "Golden Tornado Sweeps Through Auburn Team 34–0: "Buck" Flowers in Final Game of Career Plays Spectacular Football, Makes Two Eighty-Yard Runs". The Spartanburg Herald: p. 14. November 26, 1920. https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1876&dat=19201124&id=6F4sAAAAIBAJ&sjid=88kEAAAAIBAJ&pg=6456,4049227.
- ↑ "Dixie Football is Given Praise". The Charlotte News: p. 2. October 26, 1920. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160306201706/https://www.newspapers.com/clip/2082716/the_charlotte_news/. Retrieved March 27, 2015.
- ↑ 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 "Buck Flowers Member Biography". College Football Hall of Fame. https://footballfoundation.org/hof_search.aspx?hof=1279. Retrieved September 5, 2014.
- ↑ "Golden Tornado Wins: Georgia Tech Crushes Alabama Poly by Score of 34 to 0". The New York Times: p. 19. November 26, 1920. https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1920/11/26/109801885.pdf.
- ↑ "All-Southern Grid Eleven Is Named". The Washington Post: p. 12. December 6, 1920. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160307143420/https://www.newspapers.com/clip/1908684/the_washington_post/. Retrieved March 2, 2015.
- ↑ "Flowers and Fincher Put on All-America Team by Walter Camp". The Atlanta Constitution: p. 3. December 5, 1920. https://www.newspapers.com/clip/5302511/the_atlanta_constitution/. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
- ↑ Fuzzy Woodruff (December 4, 1921). "Barron, A. Staton, Harlan Are Tornado Celebrities Getting on Big Outfit". Atlanta Constitution. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. https://web.archive.org/web/20150402193816/http://www.newspapers.com/clip/1908975/the_atlanta_constitution/. Retrieved March 2, 2015.
- ↑ "Buck Flowers: He Could Do It All — Well". Daily Item (Sumter, South Carolina): p. B2. October 15, 1969. https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1979&dat=19691015&id=fXMiAAAAIBAJ&sjid=8qkFAAAAIBAJ&pg=1126,1790436. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
- ↑ Henry L. Farrell (December 10, 1920). "Brilliant Backs Are Features of 1920 Eleven: United Press Scribe Picks An All-American Eleven Himself". Middletown Daily Herald.
- ↑ "Tech's "Old Time" Football Records". Georgia Institute of Technology. http://grfx.cstv.com/photos/schools/geot/sports/m-footbl/auto_pdf/71stats.pdf. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
- Van Brimmer, Adam; Rice, Homer (2011). 100 Things Yellow Jackets Fans Should Know and Do Before They Die. Chicago: Triumph Books. ISBN 978-1-61749-703-2. https://books.google.com/books?id=tfMjFXHLfZwC&pg=PT147#v=onepage&q&f=false.
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